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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 134, July 21, 1394. 


V - 

* y 


of Intercommunication 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 134, July 21, 1894. 





go- S. V. JAN. 6, '94.] 



CONTENT 8. N 106. 

NOTES : Old London Street Tablets, 1 Sacheverell Con- 
troversy, 3 Primate McGauran, 4 Goth : Gothic Castle 
Baynard Ward School' Vanity Fair 'Vinegar Bible, 6 
44 Depone," 7. 

QUERIES : Wragg Family Sir Joseph Yates, 7 White 
Jet Henry Hussey Food Laws Sheriff of Forres Baker 
Vicar of Newcastle" Good intentions" Author Wanted 
yuppefied" Hardman, 8 Bangor Guelph Genea- 
logyDaughters of John of Gaunt M.P., Long Parlia- 
mentBerthaAuthors Wanted, 9. 

REPLIES : Member of Parliament, 9 Pike of Meldreth, 
10 Earliest Weekly Journal of Science Olney Curse of 
Scotland Jackson Juvenile Authors, 11 Bonner 
Thamasp Leap-frog Bible" New Church," Westminster, 
12 English Translation Date of First Steel Engraving- 
Wren's Epitaph "Chimney-stack" Dick England 
County Magistrates Title of Book Strachey, 13 Charge 
of Cuirassiers Waterloo in 1893 Prince Charles Edward 
"Beaks," 14 Trophy Tax Holt Hill University 
Graces ' ' Kitchel " Cake Commander - in - Chief, 15 
Verses William H. Oxberry 'The Golden Asse' Duke 
of Normandy Apostolical Succession Potiphar, 16 
"Nonefinch" Kean's Residence, 17 Vache Lamb's 
Residence Maids of Honour to Queen Henrietta Maria 
Sandgate Castle: Hervey: Devereux Kissing, 18 Old- 
field Mrs. Markham's 'History' Dr. Gabell, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :- Green's The Story of Egil Skalla- 
grimsson' 'Windsor Peerage ' ' Journal of Ex-Libris 
Society 'The Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
when a London street was newly formed, its name 
and the date were frequently recorded on a tablet 
built into the wall of a corner house. The houses 
themselves were also sometimes distinguished by 
initials, names, or dates, either placed like the 
street tablets, or on a rainpipe, or inside the build- 
ing. Now and then our ancestors preserved by 
an inscription the memory of some quaint fact 
which might otherwise have been forgotten. Some 
of these relics still survive, but there is constant 
danger of their destruction, for every year many 
old houses are levelled with the ground, and streets, 
once important, cease to exist, are merged in other 
streets, or lose their importance by being renamed. 
I have therefore thought it a useful thing to note 
them down whenever an opportunity occurred, and 
the following list of street tablets is the result. It 
includes a few which have been already referred to 
in the pages of ' N. & Q.' by your valued corre- 
spondents COL. PRIDKAUX, ESSINGTON, and others, 
and one or two which disappeared before my time ; 
but I hardly like to leave them out, as the value of 
such a list for reference is largely increased by its 
being made as complete as possible. No doubt 
other observers will add to it materially, for many 
examples must have escaped me. The accom- 

panying notes will, it is hoped, be found useful. A 
list of inscriptions relating especially to houses will 
follow that of the street tablets. On some future 
occasion a few others might be added, for instance 
descriptions of property, dates, and inscriptions in 
the Inns of Court and Chancery, and records of 
charitable bequests. Perhaps I should say, in con- 
clusion, that several of the tablets to which I shall 
here refer have been already figured or described 
in my little book on London signs and inscriptions, 
but they form an insignificant proportion of the 
whole. Sculptured signs are excluded, as I have 
endeavoured to treat them exhaustively in that 

On a modern public-house, called the " Gold- 
smiths' Arms/' No. 13, Bartholomew Close, there 
is a stone inscribed " Albion Buildings, 1776." It 
was rebuilt in 1887. 

At the corner of Archer Street and Great Wind- 
mill Street is a tablet with the inscription 
"Archer Street, 1764." The street, however, is 
much older than this, for in Walpole's 'Anec- 
dotes ' we are told that " King Charles I. invited 
Poelemberg to London, where he lived in Archer 
Street, next door to Geldorp, and generally painted 
the figures in Steenwyck's perspectives." 

The large new offices, No. 21, Austin Friars, 
built on the site of what were once the house and 
garden of Herman Olmius, also caused the destruc- 
tion of Nos. 15 to 18 (called within my memory 
Winckworth Buildings). They had on their rain- 
pipes the initials TW, and the date 1726. I 
include this inscription, though not on a tablet, 
as it refers to a street name which has now dis- 
appeared. In No. 18, James Smith, one of the 
authors of ' Rejected Addresses/ resided for some 

In the Museum at the Guildhall is a stone 
taken from Bartlett's Buildings, Holborn Circus, 
which has on it " Bartlet Buildings 1685." Peter 
Cunningham says, " The place is mentioned in the 
burial register of St. Andrew's, Holborn, the parish 
in which it lies, as early as November, 1615, and 
is there called Bartlett's-court." Most of the 
houses built after the Great Fire, about the time 
the tablet was erected, still remain. 

A stone tablet on the wall of a house at the 
corner of Barton Street and Great College Street, 
Westminster, has on it the inscription " Barton 
Street 1722." This street was named after Barton 
Booth, the actor, who was the original Cato in 
Addison's play. A monument to his memory was 
erected in Westminster Abbey forty-five years 
after his death, by his widow (Hester Santlow, the 
dancer), who before marriage had been, it was said 
the mistress of the great Duke of Marlborongh 
and subsequently of Secretary Craggs. 

Over the entrance to Bedford Court, on the 
west side of New North Street, Theobald's Road, 
is the inscription "Bedford Court, 1717." 


V. JAN. 6, 

On each aide of the entrance to Bentinck Street, above appears the inscription " H H, 1752," the 
from Berwick Street, Soho, is a tablet inscribed F being, no doubt, the initial of the surname of the 
" Bentinck Street 1736." It has a monogram, of first owner or occupant, and the letters below the 
which the letter B forms part, and is surmounted initial of his Christian name and of that of his wife, 
by a crown or coronet. Bartolozzi, the engraver, On a house at the corner of Cutler Street and 
was living in this street in 1781. Hounded itch, facing Cutler Street, is a stone in- 
According to Kelly's * Directory/ Broad Street scribed " Guttlers Street 1734." On the same 
Buildings now form part of Liverpool Street ; but bouse, facing Houndsditcb, are the arms of the 
from a careful comparison of old maps I find that Cutlers' Company. 

the site is covered by the Liverpool Street rail- At the south-east corner of Danvers Street and 

way station. They formerly had on them the Cheyne Walk there is a stone panel with brackets 

inscription " Broad Street Buildings 1737." The and pediment, which has the following inscription^ 

1 ' This is Danvers Street begun in y year 1696 

stone is now in the Guildhall Museum. 

In Carter Street, a cul-de-sac running out of 

by Benjamin Stallwood"; and below are the 

CutTer'Street, Houndsditch, there is a tablet with | words, "This house rebuilt by J. Cooper 1858. " 

u r*.fA* QtvaAf. 1734 " All t.h 

the inscription "Carter Street 1734." All the 
houses here bear the arms of the Cutlers' Com- 


Catherine Court, opening into Seething Lane 

The street was named after Sir John Danvers, who 
lived hard by ; his mansion was not pulled down 
till 1716. 

Let into the wall at the south-west corner of 

and Trinity Square, has the date " 1725." There I Denzell Street and Stanhope Street, Clare Market, 
is some good iron-work at each end, now much on a public-house called the " Royal Yacht," there 
corroded. is a stone tablet with the following curious inscrip- 

High up on a modern house at the north-west tion : " Denzell Street, 1682, so called by Gilbert 
corner of Cecil Street, Strand, of which but little Earle of Clare in Memory of his Uncle Denzeli 
remains, there is a prettily carved tablet bearing a Lord Holies, who dyed February y e 17 th 1679, 
coronet and the inscription " Cecil Street 1696." Aged 81 years 3 months, a great honour to hi 
It is surmounted by a heavy pediment, placed to name and the exact paterne of his Fathers great 
protect it when the house was rebuilt in 1881. Meritt, John Earle of Clare." frus - *" ul ^ 
Cecil Street occupied part of the grounds attached erected by Gilbert, third earl 

This tablet was 
The house was 

to Salisbury House. 

Imbedded in the wall of a red-brick house on 

the east side of Cheyne Row, Chelsea, is a stone 

tablet inscribed " Cheyne Row 1708." 

On Craven Buildings, Drury Lane, was formerly 

the date *' 1723," which has now disappeared. 

The site of Craven Buildings had belonged to 

Craven House. This latter was not pulled down 

till 1809. The cellars are said to be still in 

existence, though now blocked up. 

In Crown Street, Soho, at the corner of Rose 
Street, as Cunningham tells us, there used to be a 
tablet with the inscription '* This is Crown Street 
1762." The street was originally called Hog 
Lane, and was built about 1675. Mr. H. B. 
Wheatley says it was still called Hog Lane in 
Dodsley's ' London/ 1761, but that from the vestry 
minutes it would seem to have received its new 
name at the beginning of the eighteenth century 
The scene of Hogarth's picture * Noon ' is laid in 
Hog Lane ; St. Giles's Church appears in the dis- 
tance. Crown Street is now partly destroyed, and 
partly thrown into the Charing Cross Road. 

In Curlew Street, late Thomas Street, Horsely- 
down, on the "Grapes" public-house, is a stone 
inscribed " Thomas Street, 1749." At No. 16 in 
this street there is a quaint carved porch, which 
looks as if it might have been made by some ship's 
carver. The pediment i supported by little figures 

rebuilt in 1796. 

At the north-east corner of Dering Street (late 
Union Street), Oxford Street, there is a stone in- 
scribed "Sheffield Street 1721." In Horwood's 
map of 1799, and in another issued in 1800- the 
name is given as Shepherd Street. 

In front of No. 20, Devereux Court on a 
building said to have been formerly the Grecian, 
though it has at the south-east corner the inscrip- 
tion " Eldon Chambers, 1844," there is a bust of 
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and on the 
destal, " Deveraux Courte 1676." 
On a level with the first-floor windows, between 
Nos. 14 and 15, on the west side of Drury Court, 
is the inscription " Stones Buildings 1747." 

A house at the corner of Edward Street and 
Wardour Street has on one side the inscription 
" Edward Street 1686" and on the other " War- 
dour Street 1686." 

Between Nos. 32 and 34, Exmouth Street, 
Clerken well, there is a tablet inscribed " Braynea 
Buildings 1765." The row of houses of which 
these form part were named after Mr. Thomas 
Braynes, who had been lessee of the ground, and 
who died in 1759, and was buried in St. James's 
Church, Clerkenwell. In their early days there 
was a fine view from these houses extending to 
Higbgate and Hampstead, for the northern side of 
the road was not completely built over till about 

having in their hands tablets with the letter H (a the year 1818, when the name Exmouth Street 
scarce one in these parts I should imagine), and I first appears. 

8">S. V. JiN.6, '94.] 


The entrance to Falcon Court, Fleet Street, 
used to have a Btone with the inscription " Faul- 
con Courte Anno D ni 1667." It has lately been 
rebuilt, and the stone has, I believe, disappeared. 
Wynkyn de Worde, the famous printer, lived at 
the sign of the "Falcon," in Fleet Street, and at 
the " Falcon " William Griffith had his press from 
1561 to 1570. At the house over the entrance to 
the court the first John Murray established him- 
self, and he and his son carried on business there 
for many years. 

On the east side of Furnival Street (late Castle 
Street), Hoi born, is a stone marked " Castle 
Street 1785." Mr. H. B. Wheatley says, "The 
proper name is Castle Yard, perhaps from the 
yard of the Castle Inn, on which it was built. In 
4 Castle Yard in Holborn ' Lord Arundel, the great 
collector of art and antiquities, was living in 
1619-20." PHILIP NORMAN. 

(To I e continued.) 


Since the issue of my catalogue of certain books 
and tracts in the library of St. Paul's Cathedral in 
April last, I have added to the collection a large 
and curious series of pamphlets, 159 in number, 
upon the Sacheverell controversy ; which, as may 
"be remembered, may be said to have taken its 
rise from a sermon preached in the Cathedral on 
Nov. 5, 1709. I cannot affect a very deep interest 
in the controversy, but I have so long accustomed 
myself to regard the history of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral as a subject to which I ought, as librarian of 
the Cathedral, to devote my all too scanty leisure, 
that I have wandered off into this bypath, scarcely 
realizing at first how long the excursion would prove. 

This particular collection of pamphlets has 
grown so large, and (if I may say so in the case of a 
controversy as dead as Queen Anne herself), so 
important, that it seemed to me worth while to 
offer to N. & Q.' a transcript of my list. The 
Editor has generously undertaken to find space 
for it. 

I have numbered each separate pamphlet con- 
secutively, not because they stand in exact his- 
torical order, but because in the six volumes in 
which the 159 tracts above mentioned are bound 
they are arranged according to this list, and were 
BO arranged when I purchased the collection. The 
other pamphlets here enumerated I have also 
numbered, so that if any learned reader of 'N. & Q.' 
should be able to supply the author's name, he 
need only refer to the number, without having to 
transcribe the title of the tract. 

One of the volumes bears within it a pencil note 
to the effect that the collection comprised two 
folio volumes also. Where are these? The book- 
sellers who had recently purchased the six volumes 
knew nothing of the folios. 

In order to avoid frequent repetition, I may say 
that all tracts not otherwise marked were published 
in London, and that they are, in size, octavo aut 

Perhaps a short sketch of the controversy ought 
to be prefixed to the catalogue. What follows is 
taken entirely from Earl Stanhope's * History of 
England, comprising the Reign of Queen Anne 1 
(the second edition, pp. 404-417), often in the 
author's own words. 

Henry Sacheverell was grandson of a Presby- 
terian minister at Wincaunton, and son of a clergy- 
man of Low Church principles, the incumbent of a 
church at Marlborough. In his case, as in that of 
many others in later times, the pendulum swung 
over, and he attached himself to the school of 
Archbishop Laud. He became Fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, and was elected by the popular 
voice to the benefice of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
where he preached to large congregations bis 
favourite doctrines of non-resistance and of passive 
obedience. Hotly opposed to him was Mr. Ben- 
jamin Hoadley, then Rector of St. Peter-le-Poer, 
in the City of London (Tracts Nos. 4, 6, 9, 13-16, 
&c.), and afterwards, in reward for his political 
opinions, successively Bishop of B*ngor, Salisbury, 
and Winchester. (The dates of these preferments 
are 1716, 1723, and 1734.) 

Sacheverell preached before the judges at the 
summer assizes at Derby (Tract No. 18), and 
before the Lord Mayor at St. Paul's Cathedral 
(Tract No. 19), in August and November, 1709, 
two vigorous discourses. In the latter " be gave 
the rein to his hostility against the principles of 
the Revolution, by denying that resistance was 
lawful to any form of tyranny." He bitterly in- 
veighed against the Dissenters, attacked " the 
toleration of the Genevan discipline " and the Cal- 
vinistic system, and even assailed the Lord Trea- 
surer Godolphin, under his well-known nickname 
of Old Fox, or Volpone. Forty thousand copies 
of the sermon at St. Paul's were sold or dis- 

The Lord Mayor, an ardent High Tory, was 
delighted with the sermon, carried the doctor home 
to dinner in his coach, and commended the dis- 
course, enjoining the preacher to print it. The 
Whigs, however, were furious, and determined on 
the impeachment of Sacheverell. Mr. John Dol- 
ben made complaint of the sermon in the House 
of Commons on Dec. 13, and on the following day 
Sacheverell stood before the bar of the House. 
He expressed no contrition for his opinions, nor did 
he offer to withdraw from his position ; and he was 
committed to the custody of the Serjeant at Arms. 
Later on, the articles of impeachment were sent 
up to the Lords, and Sacheverell was transferred 
to the safe keeping of the Deputy Usher of the 
Black Rod ; shortly, however, to be released on 
bail, himself in 6,000 J. and each of his two sureties 


[8 th 9. V. JAN. 6, '94. 

(one of whom was Dr. Lancaster, Vice-Chancellor there he could save them." Abbey and Overton, <Eng 

V I KnK S^Vi1~**1l ; 4-VtA Vi/vVt^AAVtfVl fflAM^MWHI ' VX QQA 

of the University of Oxford) in 3,OOOZ. 

On Jan. 25, 1710, Sacheverell delivered in his 
answer to the articles (Tract No. 29), and his 
trial (Tract No. 174) commenced on February 27. 
The member* of the committee which had framed 
the articles were " managers " of the impeachment 
(TracU Nos. 74, 77, 185, &c.). They were twenty 

lish Church in the Eighteenth Century,' p. 

It was a strange popular frenzy. 

Lord Stanhope says that Sacheverell was " far 
more distinguished by zeal and noise than by either 
ability or learning." 

In compiling this exceedingly condensed notice 
my principal object has been to indicate some 

in number ; only eighteen appeared in Westminster of the most prominent features in the story, which 

Hall. Dr. Atterbury placed his pen at the 
doctor's disposal. Sir Simon Harcourt, the ablest 

the pamphlets (now to be enumerated) serve to 
illustrate. Large as the collection is, it assuredly 

of the Tory lawyers, was one of the five counsel is not complete ; but I think I may claim that it 

is tolerably comprehensive. 

I may add that the Cathedral Library possesses 
a copy of * Eutropius' (12mo., Salmurii, 1672), on 
the title-page of which is written, I suppose in the 

assigned to him. 

The popular favour was entirely on Sacheverell's 
side. As he passed daily from the Temple to 
Westminster Hal), crowds gathered round his 

coach, striving to kiss his hand, and shouting doctor's handwriting, " Ex libris H. Sacheverell e 

"Sacheverell and the Church for ever." Even 
when the Queen went in her sedan chair to hear 
the trial, the people pressed round and cried 
" God bless your Majesty and the Church. We 
hope your Majesty is for Dr. Sacheverell." The 
Queen, however, said to Bishop Burnet, " It is a 
bad sermon, and he well deserves to be punished 
for it." She seems to have changed her mind 
when she saw that the clergy, almost as a whole, 
excepting the Whig bishops, espoused his cause. 
Five speeches have been preserved : Lord 

Coll. Mag. Oxon, 1683.' 

(To le continued.) 

(Continued from 8 th S. iv. 504.) 

It is quite clear from these 'State Papers ' that 
his Grace became inspired with the desire to 
__ obtain freedom of faith and fatherland for his 

Haversha~rn's~for~the defence" (TractTNo' 34); and I suffering flock by casting off the Saxon yoke ; and 
the speeches of the Bishops of Salisbury, Lincoln, I the earliest notice we find of him therein is in the 
Oxford, and Norwich (Burnet, Wake, Talbot, and 
Trimnell) for the impeachment (see Tracts Nos. 
35-46. 176). Of the peers, sixty-nine voted 
" Guilty," fifty-two " Not Guilty (Tract No. 164). 
The sentence was that Sacheverell should be pro- 
hibited from preaching for three years next 
ensuing; it was carried only by six votes. His 

two sermons were ordered to be publicly burnt by 
the common hangman : 

"The fable of the bear that hurled a heavy stone at 
the head of its sleeping master on purpose to crush a 
fly upon his cheek, is a type of the service which on this 
occasion Godolphin rendered to his party." 

1885 tome, A.D. 1588, p. 135, in a despatch from 

the Lord Deputy Fytzwylliam to Burghley. Reports 
touching the King of Spain's new preparations for in- 
vasion. The arrival of one Ferres O'Hooin of Fermanagh. 
He is the secret messenger of Bishop Magawran and 
Cahill O'Conor, whom he left in Flanders with the 
prince, labouring for forces to come into Ireland. He is 
in Maguire'a country, and intends to return to Spain." 

And again, in the same work, pp. 452, 453, A.D. 
1591, Sir Henry Wallop writes to Burghley, and 
encloses a report of an examination of the Rev. T. 
O'Keynai, who gave additional information against 
his countrymen and supplied "a list of such aa 

The trial did much to bring about the downfall of have dealings with Spain 

the Whig ministry. 

When the sentence became known there were 
bonfires and illuminations ; the ladies flocked in 

" Edmund Magawran, Primate of Armagh ; Connog- 
hour O'Mulrian, Bishop of Killaloe; Teig O'Ferral, 
Bishop of Clonfert, &c. The Spaniards have great hope 
, to get the town of Galway through the means of the said 
rowds to tne churches where he read prayers (it James Blake. They intend not to take land in any 
was only from preaching that he was debarred), place in Ireland before they shall have the possession of 
His journey to a considerable living in Wales 80me stron K citv - Cathall O'Conor and Maurice Fitz- 
which had been bestowed upon him, became a K. bn ' f De ; mond ' T ar f f <* cr . e t u there - All euch 
ffl nww>ae Af T) nn k n . r, /TW * XT i oo\ ships as went from Ireland to Spanish ports were seized. 
estal progress. At Banbury (Tract No. 193) The king purposed to send some ships with a sum of 
and again at Warwick he was met by the mayor money to bring as many Scots as possible for the in- 
and aldermen in their robes of office ; at Shrews- | vasion of Ireland. The Spanish army was to take land 

first in Connaugbt under the leading of Cathal O'Conor, 
James Blake, and John Burke, M'William Burke's son, 
who make the Spaniards believe that they shall have 
great help of men, strength [i. e., strongholds], and 
victuals. The Spaniards were very much set against 

bury a crowd of 5,000 people poured forth to 
meet him (Tracts Nos. 83, 107, &c.): 

"At Sherborne, they drank Sacheverell's health on their 
knees and made a bonfire on the top of the church tower. 
At Pontefract, people thought it an honour to have their 
children christened Sacheverell. Some on their death- 
beds told their own ministers, if Dr. Sacheverell was 

O'Donnell and O'Dogherty in the North of Ireland, for 
that many Spaniards were killed there by them. Two 
things ought to be looked to for the prevention of the 

&tb s. V. JAN. 6, '84.] ; 


Spaniards, viz. : the conjunction of the Scots and 
Spaniards, and the good keeping of the town of Galway." 

A despatch, dated Jan. 23, 1592, from the Lord 
Deputy and Council to the Privy Council, encloses 
the following letter from G. Byngham to K. 
Byngham, vide vol. 1890, pp. 71, 72. It is of great 
historical value, the arch informer James O'Crean, 
referred to therein as betraying the confidence of 
the Primate, well merits to be classed with Francis 
Higgins, the betrayer of the gallant Lord Ed. Fitz- 

nld, whose identity that eminent author of 
i works, Mr. W. J. Fitzpatrick, F.S.A., 
successfully followed up (which Mr. Froude failed 
to do) ; see his most excellent work on ' Secret Ser- 
vice under Pitt, 1 1892, which should be a com- 
panion volume to Gilbert's 'Documents relating 
to Ireland, 1795-1804,' referred to in my note on 
' The Rebellion of '98 ' in ' N. & Q. ,' 8> S. iv. 149 : 

" Jamea O'Crean came lately out of the north from 
Hugh Roe O'Donnell, where, as he eaith, he saw seven 
biahopg. Some of them he named unto me. But the 
chiefest among them was the Bishop M'Qawran, whom 
the Pope hath made Lord Primate of all Ireland. They 
were in great Council for two or three days together, 
and have some great despatch of certain letters, which 
shall be sent out of hand (as James O'Crean saith) by 
Bishop O'Hely to the Pope and the King of Spain. He 
further learned by the Primate M'Gawran that the King 
of Spain, came into France by Waggon and brought his 
daughter with him to be married to the Duke of Guise. 
The Primate himself came in his company, and that the 
King determined to send two armies this next summer, 
the one for England, the other for Ireland, and the army 
that should come for Ireland should come by Scotland 
and land in the north, but their only want was to have 
some great man here to be (as it were) their leader or 
general, and have now thought Hugh Roe O'Donnell to 
be ' the most fittest : for the same. The Primate himself 
landed at Drogheda, and staid there two or three days 
after his landing. All which I have thought good to 
signify unto you, that you may advertise the Lord Deputy 
thereof. And if it be his pleasure to lay privy at Drog- 
heda, no doubt the Bishop O'Hely maybe apprehended, 
and with him all their practises will be found out. This 
Bishop M'Gawran is now in Maguire's country and is 
most relieved there. Jan. 3, Ballymote." 

(Evidently O'Crean was hoping to obtain the high 
reward offered by the Lord Deputy for his appre- 
hension.) But it would appear that his Grace the 
Primate also resided at times with his kinsman 
the M'Gauran, royal chieftain of Tullyhaw (see foot- 
note, 8"> S. iv. 504), and with O'Donnell, Prince 
of Tirconnell, as this excerpt denotes. The Lord 
Deputy and Council to the Privy Council, " Ma- 
gawran and the titular bishops have their most fre- 
quent abode under O'Donnell," vide vol. 1890, 
Pv 8 *> A -D. 1592. And at pp. 94, 95, ibid., A.D. 
15M, ; the Lord Deputy and Council write to 
Burghley, dated April 29, 1593, " The intelligence 
of a combination in Ulster. Have written to the 
Earl of Tirone to make his personal repair to Dub- 
lin, enclosing the declaration by Patrick M'Art 
Moyle (M'Mahon), sheriff of the county of Mon- 
aghan, - 

" by virtue of his oath taken before us h th deposed, 
that one M'Gauran, nominated the Primate of Ireland by 
Bulls* from the Pope, repaired to Maguire and after to 
O'Donnell, and used persuasive speeches unto them to for- 
bear all obedience to the State, and that before mid- 
May next the forces of the Pope and the King of Spain 
would arrive here to aid them against the Queen, and 
that presently hereupon the Primate and O' Donnell sent 
their letters to the Earl of Tyrone [Margin, " Cormock 
M'Baron, brother to the Earl "], Cormock .M ' Baron and to 
Bryan M'Hugh Oge (Brian M'Hugh O?e, of Monaghan, 
proclaimed to be M'Mahon), affirming the snme, where- 
upon a day of meeting was appointed, at which day in 
the presence of the Earl of Tyrone at Dungannon, 
Maguire took an oathf to join with the Spanish forces, 
and after at another day of meeting at Bally nascanlan 
before the Earl of Tyrone, these persons combined 
together and by their corporal oaths taken did conclude 
to join in arms for the aiding of the Spanish navy, which 
the Primate affirmed to be more in number of ship 
masts than there were trees in a great wood in Maguire'a 
country. The names of the conspirators that were 
sworn were Cormock M'Baron, Bryan M'Hugh Oge, 
Rossebane M'Brene, Rory M'Hugh Oge (Rory M'Hugh 
Oge, brother of Brian M'Hugh Oge, of Monaxhan), Art 
Oge M'Art Moyle M'Mahon (Art Oge M'Art Moyle 
M'Mahowne, brother to Patrick M'Art Moyle M'Mahon, 
sheriff of Monaghan), Art M'Rory M'Brene, Hugh 
M'Rory M'Brene, Brene Ne Sawagh, and Henry Oge 
O'Neill, none of Tyrone being then present, but the Earl 

* The action of Hia Holiness Clement VIII. in 
this great struggle between the sons of Erin and 
Queen Elizabeth was such that it can be taken that 
the celebrated Bull of Adrian IV. (temp. Hen. II.), 
annexing Ireland to England, was revoked and cancelled. 
The effect on the religion of the country in subsequent 
years was not what the latter Pope anticipated. So 
under this and other circumstances the previously men- 
tioned pontiff felt justified in the course he pursued. 
If the bold O'Neill had only proceeded to Dublin after 
his memorable victory at the Blackwater, the country 
would have been entirely under the control of his forces. 
See MitchePs Hugh O'Neill '; also ' The Life and 
Letters of Reagh Florence MacCarthy,' by D. Mac- 
Carthy, 1867, pp. 170-172. 

f The examination of Moris O'Skanlon (in margin, 
" One that came in upon protection at the suit of the sheriff 
of co. Monaghan"), taken be fore the Lord Deputy, June 9, 
1593 ; vide ' C. S. P. I., vol. 1890, pp. 112, 113. " He further 
declareth by virtue of his oath that about Thursday was 
seven night, Sir Hugh Maguire, Cormock M'Barron 
Henry Oge, Alexander M'Donnell Oge, Shane Evarry, 
brother to Maguire, and the supposed Primate called 
Edmond M'Gawran, met upon a hill in Slight Art's 
country [in margin, " Part of Sir Turlough O'Neill's 
country bounding upon Fermanagh "J, where the said 
Edmond held a book, whereupon the said parties took 
their oath ; but what it was this examinate knoweth not, 
but by hearsay, for that he stood sixty yards off, and as 
he heard it was that they should faithfully join together 
in all their doings and actions. The cause of his know- 
ledge is that he was then present and saw every of them 
take the book from the pretended Primate and put it 
towards their heads, and heard the report as before ; 
and for a further testimony he saith, that he sent the 
Seneschal of Monaghan word by hia own messenger the 
same evening that he should be well upon his keeping, 
for that he feared they would come to prey his country." 
Vide 'The Lord Deputy and Council to the Privy 
Council,' vol 1890 aforesaid, pp. 112-113. 


C8 th S. V. JAN. 0, '94. 

and Art O'Haean. The rauee of his knowledge is that lie 
went into Tyrone to see his uncle Henry Oge O'Neill." 


(To be continued.) 

GOTH : GOTHIC. It is not uninteresting to 
note how words once on the lips of all men become 
obsolete, not from the natural changes brought 
About by the growth of language, but from their 
becoming connected with ideas of an elevated or 
debased kind, which render the terms no longer fit 
for use. 

The words Goth and Gothic are an example of 
this. Why the Goths, who were among the least 
barbarous of the tribes which overran the decaying 
empire, should have been chosen as the types of 
things coarse, debased, bad-mannered, and ugly, I 
do not know. Probably the * N. E. D.' will some 
day inform us when, and perhaps by whom, the 
beautiful styles of architecture of the Middle Ages 
were first called Gothic. It was meant as a term 
of contempt, for it surely does not require proving 
that the Goths had no more to do with pointed 
architecture than the Seven Wise Masters had 
with the Peace of Amiens. It is one of those 
terms which possess inherent vitality. Those 
who use it to indicate the character of the old 
village churches which stud our land, and their 
unhappy imitations so familiar to all, rarely pause 
to consider how very far the word has become 
deflected from its proper meaning. We are quite 
willing to retain Gothic as an architectural term. 
If we were not it would make not an atom of 
difference. The Goths were a noble people, and 
there is no reason why the most soul-inspiring of 
all architectural styles should not be named after 
them, if we bear in mind that it is a sign-word 
only, not a term of affinity. 

Our predecessors, however, were not content 
with this use of the word. With them a bad- 
mannered, ill-dressed, or slovenly person was a 
Goth, and anything ugly, course, or in bad taste 
was Gothic. The whole of the Middle Ages were, 
of coarse, Gothic, so were the classic dresses of the 
women of the Court of Napoleon I., and the 
carved paddles and other objects which early 
navigators brought home from New Zealand. 
Those who read the literature of the last century 
and the first thirty years of this will encounter 
the word used in many incongruous senses. Here 
are a few samples. They might be increased 
almost without limit : 

" The unmeaning strokes of Gothicism." Archceoloqia. 
vol. i. p. 295. 

"A time when we are shaking off the shackles of 
ignorance, and emerging from the Gothic darkness which 
surrounded us." Sporting Magazine, 1814, vol. xliv 
p. 59. 

" After a long night of tasteless Qothicism," Best, 
Italy as It Is/ 1828, p. 144. 

From what I have heard from the elders, it 
seems that Goth, Gothic, and Gothicism were on 
every one's lips when this old century was young. 
Now we never hear them. The architectural term 
has lived, in other senses the words are dead. 
How is this ? Words do not die, any more than 
come into being, without a reason. In this case 
I imagine the cause to be the increased interest 
in and admiration for mediaeval architecture. 
When it was the custom to despise our old build- 
ings it was natural to use these terms of contempt; 
when they became, instead of barbarisms to be got 
rid of, objects of reverent study, it seemed incon- 
gruous to apply to ugly and debased persons and 
things words which connoted some of the most 
lovely material creations that the hand of man has 
wrought. ASTARTE. 

demolitions have occurred in the City of London 
in recent years, whereby such a large number of 
curious old memorials of the past have vanished 
from the public gaze, that it is really refreshing to 
a stroller of an antiquarian turn of mind to dis- 
cover that one such is still standing in Sermon 
Lane, near St, Paul's Cathedral, where the above- 
named building bears the familiar figures of a boy 
and girl, together with the annexed inscriptions : 

Castle Baynard Ward School 
supported by voluntary contributions. 

" This House was repaired nnd 
beautified by the Liberal Benefaction 

of John Cossins Esq. 

late of Redland Court near Bristol, 

Many Years a worthy inhabitant of this Parish 

and a generous Contributor 

to the Support of the 

Ward School. 

*To the Glory of God 

and for the Benefit of 50 Poor 

Children of this Pa- ish of Caatle 

Baynard this House was 

Purchased at the Sole Cost of 

John Barber Esq Alderman of this 

Ward in the year of Our Lord, 1722. 


expect too much from cheap reprints ; but why do 
Messrs. Ward, Lock & Bowden announce, in their 
" Minerva Library," an edition of * Vanity Fair : a 
Novel without a Plot '? The substitution of "Plot" 
for " Hero " seems uncalled for, especially as no 
copyright remains to be respected. 



THE VINEGAR BIBLE. An inquiry is some- 
times made about the edition of the Bible which 
is thus named. I find two copies described in the 
current catalogue of a firm of well-known book- 
sellers, and to the description is appended a note 
in which it is stated that this edition obtained its 

. V. Jin. 6, '64.] 


peculiar designation because at St. Luke xxii. th 
headline contains the word "vinegar" instead o 
" vineyard." The note further states that, 
" Of this most sumptuous of all the Oxford Bibles, thre 
copies at least were printed on vellum, but it was soon 
after its appearance styled ' A basket full of printers 
ermrs.' Its beautiful typography could not save it 
Indeed, it is now mainly sought by collectors for its 
celebrated faults." 

Information of this kind, from such a source, on 
is inclined to accept. The date of the copies namec 
is given as 1717. F. JAKE ATT. 

For this word Johnson has one example : 

on this I would depone 
As much as any cause I 've known. 

4 Hudibras/ 

I have gone rapidly through ' Hudibras/ running 
my eye down the ends of lines, and have failed oi 
finding the passage. But I have found the fol- 
lowing : 

And if I durst, I would advance 

As much in ready maintenance 

As upon any case I 've known. 

(The rhyme is " own "), III. iii. 690. 

Has not Johnson here, as not unfrequently, trusted 
his memory and misquoted ? If so, he is doubly 
wrong, for he has fathered on Butler a piece of bad 
grammar. C. B. MOUNT. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

WRAGG FAMILY. In *N. & Q.,' 4 th S. ix. 
216, is an interesting account of the distri- 
bution of Mary Wragg's charity at Beckenham. 
One Mary Wragg died in 1737 (vide LysonsVEn- 
yirons of London,' 1796, vol. iv. p. 299). She was 
the wife of Samuel Wragg, merchant, of London, 
whose will is dated 1749, and proved by his son 
William Wragg, January 26, 1760. The said 
William Wragg was an owner of extensive pro- 
perty in South Carolina, as was his father. In 
the south aisle of Westminster Abbey is a fine ceno- 
taph to his memory, placed there by his sister Mary 
Wragg ; it adjoins that of Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 
and is in close proximity to that of the Wesley s. Wm. 
Wragge was shipwrecked on his way home from 
South Carolina in 1777, on the coast of Holland, 
and drowned, while "his son, who accompanied him, 
was miraculously saved on a package, supported by 
a black slave, till he was cast on shore, on the coast 
of Holland " (so says the Guide' to the Abbey). 
In Beckenham Church is a fine large copper plate 
re Wragg's charity, but owing to the enlargement 
of the church a short time ago, the vault of the 
Wraggs in the churchyard was covered by the 

church, and the Charity Commissioners ordered 
the quaint annual ceremony of inspecting the vault 
and coffins to be abandoned. Mary Wragg, the 
daughter, made her will in 1778, with four codicils 
and long statement, extending to 1794. She was 
of St. John, Westminster, and she appointed the 
famous Rev. William Romaine, Rector of Black- 
friars, her executor. Her will was proved in 1794. 
She gives full directions about the Wragg charity, 
brass plate, &c. What I want to discover is the 
relationship between Samuel Wragg and William 
Wragg, a Quaker merchant of London (son of 
William Wragg, of Derby), who died near Croydon 
in 1737, aged seventy-nine. That there was a 
relationship is evident, as not only does one 
Samuel Wragg not of William Wragg's imme- 
diate family apparently sign several Quaker 
marriage certi6cates of William's family, but his 
will is witnessed by David Barclay, grandson of 
the Quaker apologist. An infant son of William 
Wragg's was also named Samuel ; and in the will 
of his son-in-law Benjamin Bell, of Leadenhall 
Street, property in South Carolina is alluded to. 
I should be particularly glad of a copy of the M.I. 
in Beckenham to the Wraggs, if such exists, or 
any other notices of the family. 

Frieston Lodge, Stonebridge Park, N.W. 

SIR JOSEPH YATES, JUDGE (1722-1770). In 
the ' Manchester School Register ' (vol. i. pp. 7 and 
221) is a memoir of this eminent judge, who was 
admitted into the school Aug. 8, 1737, the entry 
Deing "Joseph, son of Joseph Yates, of Man- 
chester, esquire." It is also stated in * Carlisle's 

rammar Schools ' (vol. ii. p. 698) that he was at 

Appleby School, in Westmoreland, probably before 

iis admission to Manchester. The memoir is 

tigned C., indicating it to be by the pen of my old 

riend the late Mr. James Crossley, of Manchester, 

a man of great information and an eminent 

ntiquary. No mention, however, occurs of the 

cholar proceeding to either university, but on a 

eference to Foss's ' Dictionary of English Judges * 

1066-1870) I find it distinctly stated that he was 

a member of Queen's College, Oxford, though 

nothing is said of his graduation. He was 

appointed one of the judges of the King's Bench 

n 1763, and transferred to the Common Pleas in 

770, but held the latter appointment little more 

ban a month, when he died. He was buried at 

^heam, in Surrey, where there is a monument to 

is memory. 

Sir Joseph Yates is thus alluded to shortly after 
is death by Junius in his first letter to Lord 
Mansfield, under date Nov. 14, 1770: 

The name of Mr. Justice Yates will naturally revive 
a your mind some of those emotions of fear and detesta- 
ion with which you always beheld him. That great 
iwyer, that honest man, saw your whole conduct in the 
ght that I do. After years of ineffectual resistance to 



[8* S. V. JAN, 6, '94. 

the pernicious principles introduced by your lordship, 
and uniformly supported by your humble friends upon the 
bench, he determined to quit a court whose proceedings 
and decisions he could neither assent to with honour, nor 
oppose with success." 

In 1775 his widow, Elizabeth, daughter and co- 
heir of Charles Baldwyn, of Munslo w, Shropshire, 
was married to Dr. John Thomas, Bishop of 
Rochester, a great benefactor to Queen's College, 
where he had been educated, and which was pre- 
sumably the college of Sir Joseph Yates. Is there 
any portrait in oils or any engraved portrait 
existing? This question is asked as my friend 
the Provost of Queen's College is making a col- 
lection of engraved portraits of eminent alumni, 
amongst whom this upright judge is not the least. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

WHITE JET. In Jean Valjean's pathetic dying 
scene in the last chapter but one of ' Les Miser- 
ables,' Valjean says, "Le jais noir vient d'Angle- 
terre, le jais blanc vient de Norve"ge." As "jet- 
black" is a most common simile, does not " white 
jet" seem something like a contradiction? We 
should say, " Her hair is as black as jet "; but if 
there is also white jet, we might say, " Her hands 
are as white as jet," which would sound like a 
more than doubtful compliment. Victor Hugo 
must certainly know better than I do; but may I 
ask if what the great novelist calls "jais blanc " is 
really jet at all ; and, if not, what is it ? M. Gasc 
gives no other meaning of "jais " than "jet," but 
Spiers defines it also as " black amber." Annan- 
dale defines "jet" as "a highly compact species 
of coal, susceptible of a good polish, deep black 
and glossy." May the "jais blanc " be a species 

HENRY HUSSEY, OP KENT. Who are the pre- 
sent representatives of Henry Hussey, a man of 
great power in the reign of Edward III., who 
owned Dene, in Wingeham, and estates at Len- 
iiam, Boughton, and Stourmouth ? In what year 
did he buy the Dene estate in this parish from 
the Dene family ? This and Stourmouth they 
sold in the reign of Henry VI. 

Wingeham, near Dover. 

be grateful for the favour of full references as to 
the best accounts of the food laws of the Koran 
and Eastern religions generally, as well as the 
slaughtering of their food animals. 


SHERIFF OF FORRES. -In the Tower Miscel- 
laneous Rolls (No. 459/77) and in the Chancery 
Miscellaneous Rolls (No. 474) mention is made of 
Sir William de Dolays, Sheriff of Forres in 1291-92 
Can any one tell me what seal was used by this 

individual? As Sheriff of Forres in somewhat 
stirring times, it seems probable that many docu- 
ments must have borne his seal, and I should be 
glad to learn what was its description. 


BAKER FAMILY. Charles Baker, of West Ham, 
Essex, grandson of Sir Richard Baker, the 
chronicler, by his will (1675) mentions his testa- 
tor's brother Richard. I should be much obliged 
for any information respecting this Richard Baker, 
his locality, family, or otherwise. LINCOLN. 

VICAR OF NEWCASTLE. In Foote's play 'The 
Devil upon Two Sticks' (1768, Act I.), Margaret, 
an early advocate of women's rights, scores off Sir 
Thomas Maxwell in a burst of scornful eloquence : 

" Had you analiz'd the Pragmatic Sanction, and the 
family compact ; had you toil'd thro' the laborious pages 
of the Vinerian professor, or estimated the prevailing 
manners with the Vicar of Newcastle ; in a word, had 
you read Amicus upon Taxation, and Inimicus upon 
Representation, you would have known that, in spite of 
the frippery French Salick laws, woman is a free agent, 
a noun substantive entity," &c. 
Who is the Vicar of Newcastle here alluded to ? 



" GOOD INTENTIONS." " Hell (a wise man has 
aid) is paved with good intentions. Pluck up 
the stones, then, ye sluggards, and break the devil's 
head with them." So writes Augustus Hare in 
1 Guesses at Truth* ("Golden Treasury" Series, 
p. 180). Surely he misquotes ! Ought not the 
proverb to read, " The way to hell is paved with 
good intentions"? Who was the "wise man" who 
said it ? I have always understood it to be a pro- 
verb of unknown authorship. C. C. B. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Some fifty-five years ago, 
when I was a boy, I learnt at school a sort of poem 
or recitation on war, in which occurred : 

One murder makes a villain, 

Millions a hero, 

And numbers sanctify the crime. 

The same ideas appear in Blair's poem 'The 
Grave/ and more closely in Cowper's ' Task '; but 
the words are not there. I wish to trace them and 
their author. F. R. S. 

[They are in Porteous, ' On Death.'] 

" YUPPEFIED." In the course of conversation I 
heard a cultured Jew use this word in the sense 
of being deceived or overreached. What is its 
derivation 1 J. 

HARDMAN FAMILY. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
give me any information regarding the Rev. Samuel 
Hardman, Presbyterian minister ? He lived early 
in the last century, and was buried at Stockport. 
He died 1761, and in the register is entered as old 
Master Hardman ; also his wife Lettuce. What 

8"S.V.Ji.6, r 94.] 


was her maiden name ; and where were they 
married? H. C. H. 

BANGOR. Some years since I remember seeing 
it stated in Church Bells that Bangor is not a 
city. Is this correct ? 

8, Morrison Street, S.W. 

GUBLPH GENEALOGY. What book of reference 
will best show the successive generations, without 
break, up to the earliest ancestor of Pharamond, 
King of the West Franks ? 


Corrard, Lisbellaw. 

of Honiton, Devon, widow, by her will, dated 
1529, gave, amongst other bequests, " To the 
daughters of John of Gaunt, 40s." For whom 
was this legacy intended 1 Were they a religious 
body ? K. A. F. 

M.P., LONG PARLIAMENT. Sir Richard Wynn, 
Bart., M.P. for Liverpool in the Long Parliament, 
died in 1649 (Oarlyle's list). Was he "Treasurer 
and Receiver-General to the Queen's Majesty" 
in April, 1631 ? Sir George Wentworth Stafford's 
brother was M.P. for Pontefract in 1640. Was he 
the same person who signed a warrant " by the 
Lords Justices and Council " of Ireland in Novem- 
ber, 1642, at Dublin ? This document is signed 
by others of the Irish Council. I know that 
Stratford's brother Sir George was a Privy Coun- 
cillor of Ireland ; but could any other " G. Went- 
worth" have signed this document ? Among other 
signatures on the warrant are those of Jo. Borlase 
and J. Temple. Was either of these a member of 
the Long Parliament ? In Carlyle's list there are 
two John Borlases, members for Corfe Castle and 
Marlow respectively, and two J. Temples, mem- 
bers for Bramber and Chichester respectively. 

R. W. 

BERTHA. The mother of Charlemagne is said 
to have been the granddaughter of " an Eastern 
Emperor." What was his name, and also that of 
his son, the father of Bertha ? X. 

One time the harp of Inniafail 

Was tuned to notes of gladnesa, 
But yet did oftener tell a tale 
Of more prevailing sadness. F. H. 

On the spare diet of a smile. 


Let wicked hands iniquitously just 
Rake up the ashes of the sinful dust. G. A. 
Qui peut sans s'Smouvoir supporter une offense 
Pout mieux prendre a son point 1'heure de sa vengeance. 

Stretching out to be kiased by the sunlight. 

C. M. P. 

(8 th S. iii. 88, 173, 496 ; iv. 136, 269, 409.) 

I willingly transcribe the note in Hallam for 
which MR. C. A. WARD asks. It occurs in hi? 
' Middle Ages/ eighth ed., 1841, vol. ii. p. 237, 
and is as follows : 

" A notion is entertained by many people, and not 
without the authority of some very respectable names, 
that the king is one of the three estates of the realm, 
the lords spiritual and temporal forming together the 
second, as the commons in Parliament do the third. 
This is contradicted by the general tenor of our ancient 
records and law-books ; and indeed the analogy of other 
governments ought to have the greatest weight, even if 
more reason for doubt appeared upon the face of our own 
authorities. But the instances where the three estates 
ure declared of implied to be the nobility, clergy, and 
commons, or at least their representatives in Parliament, 
are too numerous for insertion. This land standeth, 
says the Chancellor Stillington, in 7th Edward IV., by 
three states, and above that one principal, that is to 
wit, lords spiritual, lords temporal, and commons, and 
over that, state-royal, as our sovereign lord the King. 
' Rot. Parl.,' vol. v. p. 622. Thus, too, it is declared that 
the treaty of Staples in 1492 was to be confirmed ' per 
tres status regni Anglia rite'et debite convocatos, videlicet 
per prelatos et clerum, nobiles et communitates ejusdem 
regni.' Rymer, t. xii. p. 508. I will not however sup- 
press one passage, and the only instance that has 
occurred in my reading, where the king does appear to 
have been reckoned among the three estates. The com- 
mons say, in the 2nd of Henry IV., that the states of the 
realm may be compared to a trinity, that is, the king, 
the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons. 
' Rot. Parl.,' vol. iii. p. 459. In this expression, however, 
the sense shows, that by estates of the realm they meant 
members or necessary parts of the Parliament. White- 
locke, On the Parliamentary Writ,' vol. ii. p. 43, arguea 
at length, that the three estates are king, lords, and com- 
mons, which seems to have been a current doctrine 
among the popular lawyers of the seventeenth century. 
His reasoning is chiefly grounded on the baronial tenure 
of bishops, the validity of acts passed against their con- 
sent, and other arguments of the game kind ; which might 
go to prove that there are only at present two estates, 
but can never turn the king into one. The source of 
this error is an inattention to the primary sense of the 
word estate (status), which means an order or condition 
into which men are classed by the institutions of society. 
It is only in a secondary, or rather an elliptical applica- 
tion, that it can be referred to their representatives in 
Parliament, or national councils. The lords temporal, 
indeed, are identical with the estate of the nobility ; but 
the House of Commons is not, strictly speaking, the 
estate of commonalty, to which its members belong, and 
from which they are deputed. So the whole body of the 
clergy are, properly speaking, one of the estates, and are 
described as such in the older authorities, 21 Ric. II. 
('Rot. Parl.,' vol. iii. p. 348) ; though latterly the lords 
spiritual in Parliament acquired, with less correctness, 
that appellation. Hody on Convocations,' p. 426. The 
bishops, indeed, may be said, constructively, to represent 
the whole of the clergy, with whose grievances they are 
supposed to be best acquainted, and whose rights it is 
their peculiar duty to defend. And I do not find that 
the inferior clergy had any other representation in the 



. V. JAN. 6, '94. 

cortes of Castile and Aragon, where the ecclesiastical 
order was always counted among the estates of the 

0. R. M. 

It is evident that in James I.'s time the Parlia- 
ment did consider the three estates to consist of 
the Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal, the 
Commons, as we may see from the Fifth of Novem- 
ber Service in our old Prayer Books ; the heading 
is " for the happy Deliverance of King James I. 
and the three Estates of England"; where the 
King is distinguished from the three estates. If 
my memory does not deceive me, Hooker makes 
the same distinction. MR. G. A. WARD is cer- 
tainly wrong when he writes : " The king is the 
head of the Protestant Church, so if the three 
estates consist of clergy, lords, and commons, the 
Church is not represented without the presence of 
the king." If so, then it must be equally true 
that the State cannot be represented unless the 
king be present, for certainly the king is head of 
the State ; but neither is true, for the estates are 
complete without the presence of the king. The 
title of Head of the Church was given by Act of 
Parliament to Henry VIII.; but the Act which 
gave it was repealed by Mary, and was not re- 
enacted ; the king holds the position of supreme 
governor in all causes ecclesiastical and civil ; the 
law knows not the title of Head of the Church, 
neither does the Church know itself by the term 
Protestant, which nowhere appears in the Prayer 

PIKB OF MELDRETH, GAME. (8 th S. iv. 288). 
I do not think any pedigree of this family has ever 
been printed, but I am able to furnish the follow- 
ing particulars. 

George Pike, ob. 1658, was a widower. In 1643 
he had lands in Bird wood, co. Essex, and on 
July 20, 1648, purchased the manor of Bathorne, 
alia* Bapthorne, in Birdwood aforesaid ; had issue 
George, Anne, Cecilia, Mary, and Elizabeth, with 
regard to whose order of primogeniture all I can 
affirm is, that Anne was the eldest daughter, and 
Elizabeth the youngest child. George Pike, junior, 
married at Aspeden Church, co. Hert., July 2, 
1660, Anne, daughter of Ralph Freeman, of 
Aspeden Hall, Esq., by Mary, his wife, daughter 
of Sir William Hewyt, Knt He would appear 
to have died s.p. t as his sisters became his coheirs. 
Anne, born dr. 1625, married (li. Bp. Lon 
Nov. 14, 1643, for St. Bride or St. Mary Magdalen, 
Old Fish Street) William Violet, of Pinkney, co! 
Norfolk, Esq., and dying v.p. left a son George 
Violet. Cecilia married one Thomas James 
Mary Le Neve calls her Mercy "was wife of 
Sir James Whitlock, of Trumpington, co. Camb., 
Knt., by whom she had issue. Elizabeth born 
dr. 1638, married (li. Bp. Lon., Nov. 18, 1661, 
for SS. Bartholomew Great or Peter's, Paul's 

Wharf) Gregory Baker, of Bishop's Stortford, 
bachelor ; in Foster's edition of Col. Chester's 
licences her father is wrongly styled, correctly in 
the Harl. Soc. copy. Mr. Baker died shortly 
after, and his widow married (li. V. G, Oct. 18, 1662, 
for Great or Little Bartholomew) John Crowche, 
of Alcewick Hall, in Layston, co. Hert., E<q. Her 
son John Pike Crowche inherited the Birdwood 
property, and either his son or grandson assumed 
the name of Pike in lieu of Crowche. 

George Pike's will, dated Aug. 10, 1658, proved 
(P.C.G. 585, Wootton) Oct. 17, 1658, by George 
Pike, Esq., the son, the sole executor. Testator 
styles himself "George Pike of Mildreth in the 
County of Cambridge esquire "; funeral charge not 
to exceed 250Z. and 1201. of that to be expended 
on monument ; daughter Whitlock and her hus- 
band to give a release of lands in Blackwall and 
Poplar (which testator purchased of John Procod) 
to the use of son-in-law James, as part of his wife's 
portion ; 10Z. to poor of Mildreth " to be delivered 
to the collectors for the said poor, to remaine for 
ever for a stock for poor of the said Town to set 
them on work "; 51. to poor of Milborne adjacent, 
in like manner ; 30?. to 30 poorest with prefer- 
ence for widows of Mildreth for "black garments 
gownes and coats to be worne at my funeral "; 20?. 
to 20 poorest of Milborne in same way. Testator 
recites that on May 31, 1647, he redeemed mort- 
gage on lands of son-in-law Violet, viz., Pinkney, 
alias Tatterset, Boyvils alias Bigvils, Lacies, Moor 
Hall, and Wickens, all in Manor of Tatterset, co. 
Norfolk, from one Mr. Edward Brograve, to whom 
they had fallen in marriage, from Mr. Robert Burges 
of Norwich, the mortgagee ; devises all said lands 
to grandson, George Violet, and recites that they 
were his father and grandfather's respectively, 
William and Thomas Violet, both deceased. 
Guardianship of said grandson till of age to son, 
and daughter James. To daughter, Elizabeth Pike,. 
3,000 marks at twenty-one or marriage, provided she 
do not bestow herself without consent of sons-in-law 
James and Whitlock. Recites that " my kinsman 
Edward Heighes of Binsted in Hants, Esq.," was- 
on Sept. 10, 1655, indebted to testator for rent 
charge of lands at Binstead, he to be excused 260&. 
thereof. Sons-in-law James and Whitlock and "my 
cozen Mr. William Gore fellow of Queen's College 
in Cambridge " to be overseers. Gives to grand- 
child Mary Pitchard 501. at twenty-one or marriage. 

Arms used by Pike of Meldreth : Az., three 
pikes naiant or. I see, on further reference to Le 
Neve, that he styles " Mercy," Lady Whitlock, the 
" third daughter and coheir," and states she had 
been previously married to one Pychard. This 
explains the last bequest. She is distinctly called 
" Mary " in the will. From part xvii. of Close 
Roll 18 Car. II., No. 13, 1 have jusb learned that 
by indentures trip., Oct. 20, 1666, between George 
Violett, of Meldreth, Gent., and George Pike, of 

8"> 8. V.JAN. 6, '94.] 



the same, Eq., of the first part ; Benjamin Vesey, 
of Staple Ion, London, Gent, of second; John 
Crouch and Francis Oldfield, both of Staple Inn 
aforesaid, gentlemen, of the third. Said first 
parties disentail the manor of Tattersett, co. Nor- 
8, Morrison Street, S.W. 

(S" S. iv. 444). It is perhaps worth recording that 
the interesting scientific review Weekly Me- 
morials for the Ingenious, had an earlier birth 
than that assigned by your correspondent, and, 
moreover, a rival publication, closely resembling 
it in form and matter, was being issued during the 
same year. This was the outcome of a quarrel 
between author and publisher, upon which the 
annexed particulars may throw some light. 

No. 1 was issued "Munday, January 16, 
1681/2," and in the Preface we read : 

" If the E. S. [Royal Society] lhall think my en- 
deavours in this kind any way subservient to their designes, 
it may animate my industry to perform things in the 
best manner I may, none being more devotedly their 
servant than myself." 

The printers were Henry Faithorne and John 
Kersey, and the weekly issue by them appears to 
have proceeded smoothly until the publication of 
No. 9, " Munday, March 13, 1681/2." This was 
printed by J. 0. and Freeman Collins, Old Bayley. 
With No. 11 the printing reverted to Faithorne 
and Kersey, but No. 10 is wanting, and the record 
for the week which would have been embraced by 
it is omitted. Notwithstanding this the pagina- 
tion is continuous over the gap. At the end of 
No. 12 we read : 

" Advertisement. Whereas a certain Huffish Gentle- 
man, stiling himself an Author, pretends a Concern 
in thee Papers, and in order to promote the Sale of his 
own Ware, by Advert-sements disturbs the Publick with 
Complaints of unknown Injuries done to his Worth and 
Dignity ; the Booksellers think fit to repeat this Notice, 
That they being encourag'd by the Justice of their 
Cause, which They are ready to make appear to all In- 
genious Gentlemen, do resolve to proceed in the Weekly 
Publication of these Memorials." 

This marks the dispute with the original and 
anonymous author, who, as will be seen later, con- 
tinued to publish on his own account. The 
Memorials were issued week by week until 
January 15, 1683, when the numbers were pub- 
lished in collected form with an index and de- 
dication to the Hon. Robert Boyle. There are 
several illustrations scattered throughout its pages. 
As the result of the dispute mentioned, the original 
promoter began again with a No. 1, dated "Mun- 
day, March 20, 1681/2," at the end of which he 
informs the reader that he has printed No. 8 and 
No. 9, and intends that the public shall receive 
them in their due course of numbers ; and this 
undertaking was duly carried out. His opinion 
upon his treatment is thus set forth in No. 2 : 

" An Advertisement. Whereas Henry Faithorn Book- 
seller, at the Rose in S. Pauls Churchyard, has sur- 
reptitiously reprinted two of these Memorials, viz., No. ^ 
and No. 1 (alias No. 10 as he calls it) and has publickly 
in Thompson's Intelligence, March the 21, set his ^wn 
and his Partner's Names to this creditable Act, and invites 
Gentlemen to his Shop for a Cheap Penny-worth as such 
Stoln Goods are wont to be afforded at: It is conceived 
that those Gentlemen to whom these Memorials may be 
grateful, being probably most of them Authors them- 
selves, or may be so, will have a greater regard to the 
Laborious Industry of an Author, than to encourage a 
Person, who without the least colour of Right to his 
Copies, shall publickly invade him with Scurrilous Lan- 
guage, and Print upon him, meerly because he will not 
give him his Copies, or, to bis own loss, continue him 
interested in the Sale of them, after his refusal to pro- 
ceed, as he began, with the impression of them, by 
Agreement with the Author. In the mean time the 
Agressor may find there will be Justice enough in the 
Nation to check his Insolence, more than his Unthinking 
Brain is aware on." 

No. 29, " Munday, Sept. 25, 1682," was the last 
published, and the whole series, like the other 
numbers, were issued in a collected form with an 
index and a preface. Perhaps some of your readers- 
can suggest the original author of the ' Memorials.' 

Royal Society, Burlington House. 

OLNBT (8 th S. iv. 508). There are three places 
of the name of Olney in England : (1) Olney, near 
Newport Pagnell, N.E. Bucks, the home of Cowper 
and Newton ; (2) Olney, or Ouley, a hamlet near 
Rugby ; (3) Olney, or Alney Island, in the river 
Severn, at Gloucester, where Irounde and Canute 
agreed to divide the kingdom, 1016. 


CURSE OF SCOTLAND (8 tb S. iii. 367, 398, 416, 
453; iv. 319, 537). FATHER OSWALD, O.S.B., 
writes, 8 tb S. iii. 416 : *'I am told on good authority 
that the identical card," on which Cumberland 
wrote the order for the massacre, " is preserved at 
Slains Castle, Aberdeenshire, the seat of Lord 
Enrol." My friend Capt. Webbe, who married a 
sister of the present Lord Errol, has most kindly 
made a search for this card, and he writes to me : 

" The only card I can find among the Kilmarnock 
papers is the eight of diamonds; it has a short letter 
written on the back of it from the Duke of Hamilton to 
the Countess of Yarmouth, expressing regret at his not 
havintt been able to call upon her. There is no other 
card, nor has my wife ever heard of there ever having 
been another in existence here." 


JACKSON FAMILY (8> S. iv. 428). There is no 
such coat in Papworth as Per pale indented or 
and argent. The nearest to it is Per pale in- 
dented or and azure, Holand, Gosnold, Parleia 
(Parleys or Parlys) ; the same, or and s., Borle 
(Sir Henry Borle). B. FLORENCE SCARLETT. 

JUVENILE AUTHORS (8 th S. iv. 349, 490). The 
query under this head has been answered in part 



[&** S. V. JAN. 6, '94. 

by letter. I am informed by a correspondent at 
Cambridge that a copy of Thirlwall's Primitise' 
was bought at the sale of the library of the late 
Master of Trinity College. F. JAKRATT. 

Howard Dudley produced another book when 
he was sixteen, ( The History and Antiquities of 
Horsham ' (privately printed, London), 1836. 



BONNER (8 th S. iv. 429). In 'Visitation of 
Cheshire, 1580,' Harl. Soc., vol. xviii. p. 205, a 
foot-note adds that Elizabeth, the mother of Bouner, 
died at Fulham in King Edward VI. 's time, "when 
Boner was prisoner in the Marshalsey, who, not- 
withstanding, gave for her mourning coates at her 
death." Bonner was imprisoned shortly after Ed- 
ward's accession to the throne. 


"Edmund Savage (whome wee call Edmund Boner) 
was the base son of George Savage, Parson of Dunham, 
in Dunham, Cheshire (who was the natural son of Sir 
John Savage, Knight of the Garter), and Elizabeth ffrods- 
ham, who being with child was sent out of Cheshire to 
one that was called Savage, of Emley, in Worcestershire. 
[After the birth of Edmund (Bonner)] one Boner, a sawyer, 
with Mr. Armingsham, married her and had issue. They 
resided at Potter's Handley, in Worcestershire. Eliza- 
beth ffrodsham (Boner) died at Fulham in K. E. 6 
tvme, during the imprisonment of (her son) Boner in 
the Marshalsey, who, notwithstanding, gave for her 
mourning coates at her death." 

See Hurleian Soc., vol. xviii. p. 205. 


THAMASP (8 th S. iv. 448). Thamasp was a cele- 
brated Persian general who became king. He was 
born 1688, and assassinated in 1747. His history, 
written in Persian, was translated into French by 
Will. Jones in 1770. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

LEAP-FROG BIBLE (8 th S. iv. 447). I have 
always understood that the Bible to which the 
term " Frog" or " Leap-frog " was applied is the 
quarto Coverdale,printedbyChristopherFroschover, 
1550, the title-page of which has a representation 
of several frogs. This Bible was reissued, with 
different preliminary matter, by "Andrewe Hester, 
dweilynge in Paules churchyard at the sygne of 
the whyte horse," and afterwards again reissued, 
with another new title-page, by Richard Jugge. 

J. R. DORE. 

" NEW CHURCH," WESTMINSTER (8 th S. iv. 409). 
The building about which V.H.LL. I.C.I. V. in- 
quires was in all parish documents and proceedings 
always known as the "New Chapel," and was 
upon the site, or nearly so, of the church now 
known as Christ Church, about half way up 
Victoria Street, on the right-hand side going from 
Westminster Abbey. The New Chapel was built 
upon a piece of waste ground, the property of the 

Dean and Chapter of Westminster, for the purpose 
of founding which the Rev. Dr. George Darrell, a 
Prebendary of St. Peter's Abbey, left by his will, 
dated April 24, 1631, the sum of 400?., making a 
stipulation that it was to be used for " Publick 
Prayers on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
and for prayers and plain catechisings on Sunday 
afternoons." This amount was insufficient for 
the purpose, and was supplemented by gifts of 
500Z. from Sir Robert Pye, to be devoted towards 
"the furniture and benches." Archbishop Laud 
gave l.OOOZ. and some very quaint old glass, 
which latter was, by order of Sir Robert Harley, 
during the Rebellion, torn out of the windows, 
made into heaps, and by the soldiery trodden to 
pieces, which was by him denominated " dancing 
a jig to Laud." The vestry of St. Margaret's, in 
1638, gave 200 J., and Dr. Sutton a like amount. 
A licence under the Privy Seal was granted, under 
which the building was erected, the fabric itself 
being completed in 1636, and by order of the 
House of Commons it was opened for divine 
worship in December, 1642. Several men of note 
were ministers here : Robert Twisse, who died in 
1674; John Hayns, who died 1680. Onesiphorus 
Roode, who succeeded Herbert Palmer in 1648, was 
also one. He was chaplain to the Upper House 
after the expulsion of the bishops. Thomas Jekyll, 
D.D., Rector of Cottenham, died in 1698. The 
others were John Taylor, 1740; Lawrence Brod- 
rick, D.D., 1795; John Davies; Isaac Saunders ; 
William Mutter; and Thomas Sims. But the 
most eminent was Dr. George Smaldridge, of Christ 
Church, Oxford, appointed by the Dean and 
Chapter, 1692. (See Chalmers's * Dictionary of 
Biography.') The present church was dedicated in 
the name of our Lord on Dec. 14, 1843, and is said 
by those versed in architecture to be a very beauti- 
ful structure. It still wants the tower, for which 
funds have been accumulating for many years. 
There are many matters of interest connected with 
this church which time and space forbid being 
entered upon here. W. E. HARLAND-OXLET. 
20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Tour correspondent is referred to an interesting 
paper on Herbert Palmer and his works, by MR. 
GROSART, given in ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. vi. 221, 525. 
The date of his death and his burial-place were the 
subject of another communication (see 3 rd S. vii. 
11), from which we learn, on the authority of 
Peter Cunningham, that New Chapel, Broadway, 
Westminster, was a chapel of ease to St. Mar- 
garet's, since replaced by a new church, dedicated 
Dec. 14, 1843, and called Christ Church. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Christ Church, Broadway, stands upon the site 
of the New Chapel. The chapel was built by a 
licence under the Privy Seal, and was opened by 

8* S. V. JAN. 6, '94.] 



an order of the House of Commons in December 
1642. Onesiphorus Roode, who succeeded Her 
bert Palmer in the living, acted as chaplain of th 
Upper House after the expulsion of the bishops 
See Walcott's 'Westminster' (1849), pp. 285-9. 

G. F. R. B. 

447). I know of four versions of Petroniu 
Arbiter. (1) William Burnaby, 1694 ; (2) Thomas 
Brown, 1708 ; (3) Mr. Addison, 1736 ; (4) W. K 
Kelly (editor in " Bonn's Classical Library," 1854) 
The only one of these that I have read is that by 
Mr. Addison. Who was he ? It has occurred to 
me that it may be an assumed name, and that the 
real author was Harris, the man who wrote the 
* List of Co vent Garden Ladies ' and ' The Ghost 
of Moll King.' I trust that the book, whoever 
made it, will not be reprinted. 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

The Satyr of Titua Petroniua Arbiter, with its Frag- 
ments recovered at Belgrade. Translated into English 
by William Burnaby, &c., London, 1694, em. 8vo. 

The same. Translated by Mr. Addison, with Life of 
I'etronius, &c., London, 1736, 12mo. 

Petronius Arbiter, literally translated (with Proper- 
tius, Joannes Secundus, and Aristaenetus). Edited by 
W. K. Kelly, London ("Bonn's Classical Library"), 
1854, post 8vo. 


There is an English translation of Petronius 
Arbiter, 8vo., 1708 ; 12mo., 1736 ; translated by 
several hands, with a key by a person of honour, 
8vo., 1714. Also with Propertius and others, by 
Kelly, in Bohn's series. See Bohn's ' Lowndes.' 

W. C. B. 

S. iv. 164, 270). Webster-Mahn explains what is 
meant by " Sidero Graphia ": 

"Siderography, n. [Fr. siderographie, from Gr. 
<7tfl7poe, iron, and ypadeiv, to engrave, write]. The 
art or practice of steel engraving ; especially the process 
invented by Perkins, of multiplying facsimiles of an en- 
graved steel plate, by first rolling over it, when hardened, 
a soft steel cylinder, and then rolling the cylinder, when 
hardened, over a soft steel plate, which thus becomes a 
facsimile of the original ; now superseded by electrotypy." 


Wl, 349, 413). I have been much interested in 
the discussion on this subject, for I have ":en 
noticed how persistently this epitaph has oeen 
misquoted. I am glad to see that 'N. & Q.' has 
now gibbeted the blunder, as MR. J. T. PAGE puts 
it. I may perhaps take the opportunity of men- 
tioning that there is a strange parody of this 
epitaph on a grave in Brompton Cemetery. Be- 
neath a humble head and body stone, near the 
*ulham Road entrance, lie the remains of old 

" Tom" Faulkner, the " historian of Chelsea," of 
Fulham, and other parishes of West London. On 
the stone is the following : " Ulcior, si monu- 
raentum requiris, libros ejus diligenter evolve." 
I can only suppose that the monumental mason 
blundered, and should have written " lector " for 
" ulcior. " The inscription is a quaint adaptation of 
Wren's immortal epitaph. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

"CHIMNEY-STACK" (8 th S. ii. 528). There is 
an example of the word "stack" for "shaft "in 
Jim Bludso, of the Prairie Belle': 

Through the hot, black breath of the burnin' boat 

Jim Bludso's voice was heard, 
And they all had trust in his cussedness 
And knowed he would keep his word. 
And sure 'a you "re born, they all got off 

Afore the smokestacks fell, 
And Bludso's ghost went up alone 

In the smoke of the Prairie Belle. 
'Little Breeches, and other Pieces by Col. John Hay,' 
London, Cam den Hotten, p. 17. 

I suppose that " smokestack " is an Americanism. 

DICK ENGLAND (8 th S. iv. 429). Steinmetz's 
' The Gaming Table ' will supply some particulars 
of the life of this gentleman " sharp." 


COUNTY MAGISTRATES (8 th S. iv. 489). 
County magistrates, in the modern sense of the 
words, and as contradistinguished from the ancient 
conservators of the peace, who were chosen by the 
freeholders in full County Court, were first ap- 
pointed in 1326 under the statute 1 Edw. III. 
st. 2, c. 16. It was not, however, until the 
statute 34 Edw. III. c. 1 gave them the power 
of trying felonies that they acquired the title of 
"ustices of the peace. Upon the subject, generally, 
see Blackstone's ' Commentaries/ sixteenth edition, 
edit. Coleridge, vol. i. pp. 349-354. 

Capstone House, Hammersmith. 

This query, to which no reply has been given, 
appeared upwards of thirty-five years ago (2 nd S. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

TITLE OP BOOK (8 th S. iv. 367, 471).' Reminis- 
cences of a Soldier/ by William Kier Stuart, 
874, London, Hurst, 2 vols. This is probably the 
work your correspondent is seeking. 


8, Morrison Street, S.W. 

STRACHEY FAMILY (8 th S. ii. 508 ; Hi. 14, 134, 

256 ; iv. 388). In the ' Calendar of State Papers' I 

"nd that the Keyes who married Lady Mary Grey 

as named Thomas, and that he was Serjeant- 

'orter. Most of the peerages and quaint old 

'uller speak of Martin Keyes, Groom-Porter. In 

he * State Papers' there is a letter dated May 7, 



V. JAN. 6, '94. 

1750, from "Sandgate Castle," wherein Keyes 
solicits the Archbishop of Canterbury " that he 
will be a mean to the Queen for mercy, and that, 
according to the laws of God, he may be permitted 
to live with his wife." Thomas Keyes appears to 
have died a little more than a year after the date 
of this Sandgate Castle letter. Did he die there ? 

Sandgate, Kent. 

WATERLOO (8 th S. iv. 383). Those who have 
made a study of its tactical details will know how 
difficult it is to reconcile the many conflicting and 
confusing accounts of the battle of Waterloo. 
French accounts are generally not the most trust- 
worthy. They " vary so much among themselves 
that it is impossible to gather from them, either in 
detail or in the aggregate, anything like a know- 
ledge of the truth." So writes Gleig,* who him- 
self is often inaccurate and seldom impartial. 
Describing what I take to be the episode under 
discussion, he merely says that "some" of the 
French Cuirassiers floundered into a sandpit, 
where they died to a man. As to Victor Hugo, 
an able critic of military history f recommends to 
the student's notice the chapters on the battle in 
'Lea Mis Arables,' "not for their historic value, 
which is very slight, but for their powerful scene- 
painting." In a note relative to the Ohain road 
the same authority says : 

" The western portion of road was probably slightly 
sunk ; certainly nut so much as Victor Hugo describes 
in the Mite" rabies,' but still a little. Cbarras thinks 
about six feet : 1 should be inclined, after much investi- 
gation, to put it at an average of three or four." 

And once again, when discussing the French 
cavalry charges, " The description in the ' Mise'r- 
ables ' is admirably vivid, but the story of the 
sunken road is quite untenable." In 'Le Con- 
sulat et 1'Empire ' Thiers appears to ignore the inci- 
dent, which is a significant fact ; but he thus 
accounts for the name of the battle : 

'Un peu au dela de Mont-Saint- Jean, et a 1'entree de 
la foret de Soignee, ee trouvait le village de Waterloo, qui 
a donne son nom a la bataille, parce que c'eet de la que le 
general anglais ecrivait et datait sea depeches." 

I may add that as a military historian, at any 
rate of the Waterloo campaign, Thiers is repeatedly 
guilty of the grossest inaccuracies. I agree with 
MB. EOUCHIER in thinking that a couple of 
thousand horsemen would not have turned the 
scale in Napoleon's favour ; but after the battle had 
been lost an unbroken cavalry brigade would have 
been of great service in checking the Prussian 
pursuit. GUALTERULUS. 

* ' Story of the Battle of Waterloo.' 

| 'The Campaign of Waterloo,' extracted from 
Tbiers's ' History of the Consulate and the Empire,' and 
edited, with English notes, by Edward E. Bowen, M.A., 

WATERLOO IN 1893 (8 th S. iv. 263, 430, 490). 
Let me advise any one before visiting the field of 
Waterloo to peruse or reperuse the excellent 
account given of the battle and the circumstances 
which preceded it in 'Vanity Fair,' by W. M. 
Thackeray, said to be the best ever written. 

There is a very fine engraving, oblong folio in 
form, after the painting by Luke Clennell, entitled 
* The Decisive Charge of the Life Guards at the 
Battle of Waterloo.' Another fine large engraving, 
' Wellington at Waterloo/ represents the Duke on 
horseback on the right, very plainly dreseed > 
presenting a strong contrast to the brilliant staff by 
which he is surrounded, giving orders to an aide- 
de-camp, Lord Fitzroy Somerset. In the fore- 
ground on the left is depicted Sir Thomas Picton, 
mortally wounded, supported by some soldiers, and 
in the background the charge of the Life Guards 
and Capt. Kelly killing the colonel of the French 
Cuirassiers. In both these an artist's licence is 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I have read the recent notices of Waterloo with 
much interest. With regard to what is said at the 
last reference about the charge of the Guards, I 
remember going over the field of Waterloo in 
1857, under the guidance of Sergeant Mundy 
(son-in-law and successor of the famous Waterloo 
guide Colour-Sergeant Cotton). We had reached 
the scene of the charge, whereupon the sergeant 
said, " This, ladies and gentlemen, is the place 
where the great Duke of Wellington is reported 
to have said but the great Duke of Wellington 
was too good a soldier ever to have said 'Up, 
Guards, and at 'em ! ' " JOHN DENTON. 

The Vicarage, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD (8 th S. iv. 327, 412, 
475). I do not see any impropriety in the name 
Marcellus being applied to the prince, though he 
was not cut off in the flower of his age, as the 
nephew of Augustus was B.C. 22. Most probably 
the Bishop of Ross and Caithness was thinking of 
the fine lines in the ' ^Eneid ' (vi. 882-3) : 
Heu miserande puer ! si qua fata aspera rumpas, 
Tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date liliu plenis. 

Many registers have been illustrated by inter- 
polations and marginal notes. 

Newbourne, Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The prince was probably called Marcellus in 
allusion to the well-known line of Virgil, addressed 
to the youthful heir of Augustus, " Tu Marcellus 
eria." There is no reason for thinking that Mar- 
cellus was ever " in common use " as a name. 


"BEAKS" (8 th S. iv. 409). As it was not the 
rostrum, but the tribunal, from which the Roman 

8" 8. V. JAH. 6, '94.] 



magistrate dispensed justice, it is somewhat diffi- 
cult to see how your correspondent should have 
arrived at the conclusion that in rostrum we may 
possibly find the origin of the slang word " beak." 
What we do know is that in Barman's ' Caveat 
for Common Cursetore,' 1573, harman beck is ex 
plained as " the constable," while quier cuffin is 
the "Justice of Peace." According to the 
*N. E. D.' the derivation is unknown. The 
earliest instance therein given for the use of bek 
is from Hood, 1845. Grose, however, in his 
* Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue,' third 
edition, 1796, has " Bealc, a justice of peace, or 
magistrate," and in the last century Sir John 
Fielding was nicknamed "the blind beak." 

In the ' Canters' Holiday,' 1737, is the verse : 

Be it peace or be it War, 

Here at liberty we are; 

Hang all Harman becks, we cry, 

We the Cuffin-queeres defy. 
1 A Pedlar's Pack of Ballada andfiongs,' 1869, p. 142. 

Are we to infer that the term beck or beak has been 
transferred from the constable to the justice ? 


There were guesses at the term in ' N. & Q.,' 
4 S. x. 65, 137. At xii. 200, in the " Notices " 
there is this : 

" ' Beak,' the word ia of much older origin than the 
one claimed for it. Formerly it was led; suggested aa 
from A.-S. beag, a collar (of authority). In tbo last 
century Sir John Fielding waa called ' the blind beak.' " 

This is only meant as a reference, not to assert a 
better claim by conjecture ; not to support or refute 
this or any other conjecture. ED. MARSHALL. 

The origin suggested for this title seems very 
far-fetched. In Edward's * Words, Facts, and 
Phrases,' it is said, on the authority of Mr. W. B. 
Black, to be derived from Mr. Beke, formerly a 
resident magistrate for the Tower Hamlets ; or, 
like " Hookey Walker," from a London magistrate 
named Walker, who had a remarkably hooked 
nose. C. C. B. 

TROPHY TAX (8 th S. iv. 328, 414, 493). I 
thank my old friend MR. CARMICHAEL for the 
correction, as well as for the kind way of making 
it. I suppose that, from being so much more 
familiar with "ecclesiastical" than "constitu- 
tional," I wrote the former unconsciously. The 
book was on the table. ED. MARSHALL. 

HOLT=HILL (8 th S. iv. 348, 392, 517). At 
the last reference I find four correspondents all 
eagerly dashing at me at once, in the hope of 
proving some slight inaccuracy against me. I do 
not find that they have proved much, but I thank 
them for their attention. I wish, however, that I 
had described the use of holt for " wooded hill" 
as due to " popular use " rather than to " popular 
etymology," though the difference is not really 

very great. With this emendation, I believe my 
critics will be content. MR. ADAMS finds fault 
with me for saying that the interpretation hill is 
probably modern, and he adduces a passage from 
Malory, in the middle of the fifteenth century, 
which seems to him a proof of the contrary. But 
all depends on the definition of " modern." I 
cannot tell how often in print I have defined 
"modern English "as commencing with the date 
1 500, or thereabouts. Really, there is not much 
amiss here. Few things are more misleading than 
speaking of Middle English as "Old English,' 
except the still greater mistake (etym logically) of 
applying the same designation to English of the 
Tudor period. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

UNIVERSITY GRACES (8 th S. iv. 507). MR. 
GiLDKRSoME-DicKiNsoN will find a complete col- 
lection of the various graces used at Oxford in 
Hearne's days in appendix v, vol. iii., p. 217, 
second edition, enlarged, London, 1869, of 
Dr. Bliss's * Reliquiae Hearnianse,' in John 
Russell Smith's " Library of Old Authors." And 
I am able to certify that from 1856 nntil 1861 
the graces there given (p. 226) were in regular 
use before and after dinner at Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford. They were always said by the 
junior scholar, and were handed down orally. At 
all events, I never saw them in print until I found 
them in 'Hearne's Remains.' Whether they are 
still used now, as Hearne gives them, at Corpus or 
the other colleges I cannot say. C. W. PENNY. 


If MR. C. E. GiLDERSOME-DicKiNSON will tarn 
to the 'Reliquiaa Hearnianse,' edited by Philip 
Bliss, edition of 1869, vol. iii. appendix v. pp. 217- 
230, he will find an interesting and valuable col- 
lection of the graces said before and after meat at 
nearly all the colleges at Oxford. I am not aware 
whether a similar collection has been made for the 
sister university. W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

"KITCHEL" CAKE (8 th S. iv. 308, 433). 
"Kitchel" has nothing at all to do with coquille, 
but is simply an altered form of A.-S. cicel, " a 
morsel, little mouthful, cake ; buccella, placenta " 
[see Prof. Toller's ' Anglo-Saxon Dictionary'). 
Forby's 'Glossary of East Anglia' has " Kitchel, a 
sort of flat cake with sugar and currants strewn 
on the top." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF (8 th S. iv. 305, 391). 
This title was applied to more than one person 
during the Civil War. Lieut.-General Cromwell 
addresses the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Fairfax as 

Commander-in-Chiefof the Parliament's Forces" 
on August 4, 1645, and Col. Jones, the Governor 
of Dublin, is " Commander-in-Chief of all the 
Forces in Leinster," September 14, 1647. Car- 
lyle, in quoting the ' Commons Journals,' says that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8^ s. V.JAN. 6/94. 

on Wednesday, June 26, 1650, the Act appointing 
" That Oliver Cromwell, Esquire, be constituted 
Captain-General and Commander-in-Ohief of all 
the Forces raised or to be raised by authority of 
Parliament within the Common wealth of England" 
was passed. (See * Oliver Cromwell's Letters and 
Speeches, 1 by Thomas Carlyle.) KNOWLER. 

VERSES (7 th S. xii. 289, 378). I cannot recol- 
lect any officer named Church on board the Pike, 
although I have a vivid recollection of that 
beautiful schooner and her popular officers. 
During the summer of 1833 the Pike was 
stationed in the River Barrow, at New Ross, c 

whose * Eros and Psyche ' is thus accounted for) 
he knows of only one more outside of great 
libraries. How comes it to pass that so delightful 
a book, and one so often reprinted, is so scarce ? 

0. 0. B. 

DUKE OF NORMANDY (8 tb S. iv. 408, 475). I 
can remember that in 1844 a relative of mine 
possessed some valuable articles which had once 
been the property of the ci-devant Duke of Nor- 
mandy as a magnificent dressing-case, with silver- 
case containing gold-thread epaulettes ; and a case 
of pistols. About the same time, or rather later, 
i, narrating his strange 
Edinburgh Journal, to 

Brooking, R.N., commanded her, and I recollect 
amongst her officers Mr. Matticott and Mr. Bean. 
I think her surgeon was a Mr. Graham, a very 
polished and popular man ; there was a black sea- 
man named Ross. The Pike was, I think, an 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ENGLAND (8 th S. iv. 467). Macaulay treats the 

the general grief, by the Cambridge men. 
name of the Pike has stirred up many old 
memories in Y. S. M. 

American privateer, and getting into a dense fog 8U bject at length in his review of ' Gladstone on 
on her first voyage, found herself under the guns Church and State,' 1839, in the essay on this sub- 
of a large British man-of-war, and had to sur- ject, * Essays/ vol. ii. p. 71-82, Longmans, 1858. 
render without firing a shot. The officers and g e wr ites with what in any writer of the present 
men were hospitably entertained at New Ross, t i, ne w ho might traverse the same course of his- 
and for the most part were very popular. There tory must be taken to be a want of exact information 
was a boat-race between them and the officers of U p n it, not to say prejudice against it. The essay 
the 52nd Regiment, but they were defeated, to j s da t e d April, 1839, and in the same year, within 

The I t wo months or so, for the preface is dated " June, 
1839," at Dr. Hook's request, there was written by 
the Hon. and Rev. A. P. Percival ' An Apology 

, ^ , .... for the Doctrine of Apostolical Succession : with 

WILLIAM H. OXBERRY (8* S. iv. 507). Little an Ap p end i x O n the English Orders,' which con- 
Oxberry, for he was of small stature, died rather tains ft far more accura t e statement of the doctrine 
suddenly of lung disease. Just previous to his from an ni8fc orical point of view. But the best 
death he was fulfilling an engagement at the in f ormafc i n is now obtainable in ' The Apostolical 
Lyceum under Charles Mathews and Madame Succe38 i on m the Church of England,' by A. W. 
Vestnss management, and performed in 'The Haddan 18 69. There is also the ' Registrum 
Game of Speculation and * The Pnnce of Happy Sacrum Anglicanum : an Attempt to exhibit the 
Land 'up to the time of his decease. He succeeded Oourse of Episcopal Succession in England from 
Keeleyat Covent Garden in the autumn of 1841, L he Records and Chronicles of the Church/ by 
plavmg Flute mthe Midsummer Night's Dream,' Buh Stubb s, Oxf., Univ. Press, 1858, in which 
and was announced as from the Theatre Royal Hay- L he m F aterials f or a reply to various assertions by 
market He left a widow and three children. A Macaul are fco ^ fo 5 nd . 
son of his was acting manager at the Amphitheatre, 


Liverpool, in 1870. Like his father, he figured as 
printer, publisher, player, and playwright. 

Ware Priory. 

479). Mr. Lang, in his preface to Mr. Nutt's 
reprint from Adlington's translation of Apuleius 
(London, 1887), says that the translator dates the 
dedication to the Earl of Sussex (first ed.) "From 
Universitie Colledge in Oxforde, the seventeenth 
of September 1566." There were other editions in 
1571, 1582, 1596, 1600, and 1639. Mr. Lang 
ays that in addition to his copy of the work 

Lord Macaulay*s remarks on this subject are to 
be found in his essay * Gladstone on Church and 
State' (1839). He denies that the Church of 
England has this succession, and, I fancy, did not 
believe that any such thing as the apostolical 
succesion existed, or can exist. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

POTIPHAR (8 th S. iv. 367). Your correspondent 
will find that there is no unanimity among Egypto- 
logists as to the derivations of the names in 
Genesis. Every prominent scholar has his own 
theories. Prof. Georg Ebers, who has written an 

(which was given to him by Mr. Robert Bridges, elaborate work on the subject, denies the explana- 

8 th S. V. JAN. 6, '94.] 



tion of Dr. Brugsch altogether, and points out 
that it has no analogy upon the Egyptian monu- 
ments. He himself leans to the theory of Dr. 
Steindorff, that Potipbar represents an ancient 
Pe-du-pa-Ra, or Pe-du-Ra = " gift of the sun-god." 
Rosellini suggested Pet-p-Ra=" belonging to the 
sun"; and he is still followed by Mr. R. S. Poole. 
The * Speaker's Commentary ' gives other deriva- 
tions. The Coptic version of Genesis throws no 
light on the name of Potiphar, which it transcribes 
Petephre, from the Septuagint Petephres, as the 
translators evidently did not recognize the name 
as Egyptian. Potiphar, or Potipherab, may be 
Semitic. If your correspondent has a Hebrew 
Bible, let him turn to Exod. vi. 25, when he will 
Bee that Putiel has the same initial element as 
Potiphar. Dr. Glaser, in his ' Geschichte Ara- 
biens," points out that a deity named Puti some- 
times occurs upon Semitic monuments. 


"Present researches" are perhaps later than 
1888, but in that year Mr. E. A. Wallis Budge 
wrote in his little book, ' Dwellers on the Nile,' 

" The name of his former master, Potiphar, appears 
to be a perfectly good Egyptian name, and Egyptologists 
have pointed out that its probable equivalent in hiero- 
glyphics is Pa-ta-pa-Rd, i. e., ' devoted to the sun-god.' " 


"NoNEFiNCfl" (8W S. iv. 468). A blunder for 
nonesinch. Both this and nonesince, which sounds 
nonsense to MR. GIBBONS, are corrupt forms of a 
familiar though antiquated word. In Brand's 
'Popular Antiquities' (ed. Ellis) the notes on 
Holy-Rood Day contain excerpts from the accounts 
of the churchwardens of St. Mary-at-Hill for 1426, 
relating to the erection of the rood-loft. Sir H. 
Ellis remarks that " the carpenters on this occasion 
appear to have had what in modern language is 
called ' their Drinks ' allowed them over and above 
their wages," and then quotes the following from 
the same accounts : " Also the day after St. Dun- 
ston, the 19 day of May, two carpenters with her 
[i. ., their] Nonsiens." This last word runs none- 
since very close, and may prepare your corre- 
spondent for Cotgrave's "nuncions ornuncheon" 
and Harrison's (Holinshed, i. 170) " beuerages or 
nuntions after dinner." In Riley's ' Memorials of 
London ' (p. 265, note) it is said : "Donations for 
drink to workmen are called in Letter-Book G. 
fol. iv. (27 Edw. III.) nonechenche" On this word 
Prof. Skeat (see his ' Dictionary ') bases his ety- 
mology of nuncheon, " literally a ' noon-drink ' to 
accompany the nonemete or 'noon meat.'" Mr. 
Lothrop Withington, the editor of 'Elizabethan 
England ' in the " Camelot Series," notes (p. 104) 
that nuncheon is still the word for luncheon among 
south-coast countryfolk. Be this as it may, I can 
aver that the kindred word " noon-meat " (" nun- 

mete," ' Prompt. Parv.'), corrupted to " nummet," 
is a popular word in the Isle of Wight as well as 
in Dorset (see 8 th S. iv. 469) ; and readers who 
turn to Skeat's 'Dictionary' for nuncheon may 
bear this in mind. F. ADAMS. 

345, 472). MR. FERET'S informant was wrong in 
supposing Edmund Kean to have died at Walnut 
Tree Cottage, North End. It was in a small room 
at the side of the Richmond Theatre that Kean, 
on May 15, 1833, breathed his last. The theatre 
is now no more ; it was pulled down some few years 
since, and its site was thrown into, and now forms 
part of, the road known as Asgill Lane. Kean's 
funeral was long remembered by the people of 
Richmond, from the number of persons who at- 
tended the ceremony. He lies buried in the church- 
yard of St. Mary's, and on the external wall of 
the church, immediately over the vault containing 
his remains, is affixed a medallion likeness in stone 
of the once celebrated actor. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

I think that the memory of MR. FERET'S " old 
resident of Fulham" is very decidedly at fault. 
There really appears no evidence that Edmund 
Kean died at Walnut Tree Cottage, North End, 
but a very large amount that his death took place 
at Richmond. I do not know what Barry Corn- 
wall's ' Life of Kean ' (2 vols., 1835) or the ' Life ' 
by F. W. Hawkins (2 vols., 1869) may say, as I 
have not been able to consult them ; but the 
' D. N. B.,' the 'Encyclopaedia Brit.,' 'Chamber's 
Encyclopaedia/ and Baker's 'Our Old Actors/ 
as well as Edward Stirling's ' Old Drury Lane,' all 
give as a recognized fact that he died at Richmond 
on May 15, 1833. This is also borne out by one 
who has not been dead many years Paul Bed- 
ford who says : " I was invited by my associate 
John Lee to take a last look at our lamented one, 
and before the arrival of the learned ones of ana- 
tomy I was taken to the chamber of sorrow." A 
month after his death (June 24, 1833) " Kean'a 
furniture, theatrical and private wardrobe, to- 
gether with various property, were sold by auction 
on the stage at Richmond Theatre by Mr. George 
Robins"; so says ' A Celebrated Old Playhouse/ 
the history of Richmond Theatre, by Frederick 
Bingham, 1886. That he, for a time, may have 
lived at Walnut Tree Cottage is pretty evident. 
Croker, in ' A Walk from London to Fulham,' 
mentions it, but gives no date. Perhaps the Fulham 
rate- books will furnish fuller particulars ; they often 
assist in clearing up a knotty point when other 
local evidence fails. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 
20, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

There has, I believe, never been aay question as 
to the place of Edmund Kean's death. He died 
May 15, 1833, at his house adjoining the little 



V. JAN. 6, '94. 

theatre on Richmond Green. Full particulars are 
given in the newspapers of the time, and accompany 
the notes to Mr. Procter's ' Life of Edmund Kean.' 

Ware Priory. 

VACHE (8 th S. iv. 249, 456, 491). There is a 
farm, formerly called the Vache, near Obirk, in 
Derbyshire, but, according to a recent auctioneer's 
announcement, it is now called the Fach, which 
probably means the retreat, or the sheltered corner, 
or sheltered meadow. The Facb, or Vache, is asso- 
ciated with an early battle in the career of the 
Duke of Wellington, which is recorded in the 
' Gossiping Guide to Wales ': 

"The incident, as communicated to the Osweslry Ad- 
vertiter by the late Lord Dungannon, is noteworthy. 
Told in brief, the fight was in this wise. The Duke of 
Wellington, when a boy at Eton, used to pass bis holidays 
at Brynkinallt, at that time occupied by his grand- 
mother, Anne, Viscountess Dungannon. One day the 
future duke and a boy named Evans were playing at 
marbles and the duke lost. A fight ensued, in which 
Evans was nearly worsted, when his sister made her 
appearance with a wet towel, and damped the embryo 
hero's ardour. In fact, ehe clouted him well, and re- 
tored to her brother his lawful prize. The heroine, who 
lived with her parents at the Vache, afterwards married 
a Mr. Randies, who took the farm. The Earl of M<>rn- 
ington, elder brother to the duke, says Lady Dungannon, 
* was a highly amused witness to the scene, and never, 
when in after-life he used frequently to visit Brynkinallt, 
did he omit to ride or walk over to the Vache, and leave 
Mrs. Randies a substantial proof of his recollection of 
her girlish encounter with his illustrious brother.' " 

E. W. 

I fear it may be rather late in the day to answer 
a query of last February, but as no answer has 
been given in ' N. & Q ' to Miss POLLARD'S ques- 
tion as to the above, I venture to point out that in 
a letter to Hone, dated May 19, 1823, Charles 
Lamb says, " I am at 14, Kingsland Row, Dalston." 

W. H. 0. 

MARIA (8'* S. iv. 509). Having been sub-editor 
of Once a Week from its commencement, and 
eventually for some years its editor, I think that 
I may safely assert that Mr. P. Cunningham never 
redeemed his promise on this subject 

Y ln o, 

S. iv. 609). The John Hervey referred to was of 
London and of Westminster, Esq., and next 
younger brother of Dr. Wm. Harvey, the discoverer 
of the circulation of the blood, both being natives 
of Folkestone. The former, born Nov. 12, 1582 
was "servant in ordinary" ("Footman") to 
James I. ; and admitted as such at Gray's Inn 
March 6 (or 14), 1624/5, on which 6rst-named day 
the doctor was also admitted there as " one of the 

paid Physicians to the King "; King's Receiver for 
Lincolnshire with his brother Daniel (grant, with 
survivorship, March 15, 1625/6); " Castleman " at 
Sandgate ; M.P. for Hythe, co. Kent, 1640 ; died 
unmarried July 20, 1645. Will, dated June 26, 
1645, proved July 28 following (P.C.C., Rivers 93). 
The place of his burial is uncertain, and I should 
myself be glad of any evidence as to the same. I 
presume that the offices of King's Footman and 
Castleman (equivalent, probably, to Keeper of the 
Castle) at Sandgate were mere sinecures. There 
was a grant to John Harvey of a pension of 502. 
per annum on resigning his place of King's Foot- 
man to Toby Johnson, July 6, 1620. For further 
information your correspondent might with ad- 
vantage consult my privately printed ' Genealogy* 
of the family, a copy of which, presented by me, is 
in the Folkestone Public Library. 

W. I. R. V. 

KISSING (8 th S. iv. 301). Miss HU,L comments 
on the surprise, or rather disgust, awakened in 
Englishmen by the osculatory salutations of our 
continental neighbours. In his interesting book, 
' The Indian Eye on English Life,' B. M. Malabari 
has somewhat the same emotionary repugnance 
awakened by the kissing habits of our ladies : 

" How they kiss one another, and offer their children, 
even their cats and dogs, to be kissed by the friends de- 
parting ! Does this last ceremony show heart hunger 
or is it affectation 1 " 

Lately perusing some of Tolstoi's novels, I was 
struck with the kissing habits, and the frequency 
of the great novelist's references. For instance, it 
is the custom when a gentleman kisses a lady's 
hand for her to return the salute on his forehead. 
See note * War and Peace,' vol. i. p. 232, Vizetelly 
edition. Kissing is common between gentlemen, 
though this passage marks the revolt against it : 

"The youthful impulse to escape from beaten paths 
was strong in Nicholas, and he constantly longed to ex- 
press his feeling in some new and original way, to avoid 
conformity to ordinary formalities. His one idea was to 
do something odd to pinch his friend at any rate, to 
escape the customary greeting. Boris, on the contrary, 
pressed the three regulation kisses on his cheek quite 
calmly and affectionately." Ibid., p. 249. 

The triple kiss is evidently the mode among 
males of saluting near friends and relations. See 
* Anna Kare"nina,' part v. chap. ii. The ancient 
custom of kissing the hand is still practised : 

" Wait just a moment, princess : allow me to kiss your 
hand before you put on your glove. Nothing pleases 
me so much, in returning to ancient ways, as the custom, 
of kissing a lady's hand." * Anna Karenina,' part iv. 
chap. xxi. 

The Russian, if we may trust Tolstoi, is less natu- 
rally restrained, less under the control of a prim 
and proper conventionalism than his occidental 
neighbour. In the more vehement of our love 
fiction it is usual for the enamoured, in his blind 
passion, to kiss his lady's lips, nose, eyes, anywhere 

8" 8. V. JAN. 6, -94.] 


and everywhere his burning lips can fasten on. 
But in Russia it is the deliberate custom to touch 
with the lips portions of the body not sanctioned 
by our island etiquette. The shoulder is a favourite 
place for the labial salute. See l Anna Kardaina,' 
pt. ii. chap, xi., pt. v. chap. xxx. ; ' War and 
Peace/ vol. i. pp. 306, 328, 335. Tne neck, hair, 
eyes, bosom, are all frequently mentioned as cus- 
tomary recipents of the sweet pressure of the lips. 
Tolstoi invariably notes precisely where the kiss 
was placed. Has it ever been customary in Bog- 
land, at anytime, to kiss intentionally the shoulders, 
bosom, hair, neck, eyes? (The query does not 
apply to children.) George Eliot gives an ex- 
ample of the neck in ' Daniel Deronda': 

" One day, indeed, he had kissed not her cheek, but her 
neck a little Oelow her ear ; and Gwendolen, taken by 
surprise, had started up with a marked agitation which 
made him rise too and say, ' I beg your pardon did i 
annoy you]' 'Oh, it was nothing,' said Gwendolen, 
rather afraid of herself, 'only I cannot bear to be 
kissed under my ear.' "P. 242. 

Was not kissing a capital offence under one of the 
Coesars ? W. A. HENDERSON. 

H. G. AND T. H. B. OLDFIELD (8 tb S. iv. 447). 
By a notice in the Athenceum of Oct. 15, 1892, it 
is intended that the life of Thomas Hinton Barley 
Oldfield (1755-1822), historian of Parliament, 
shall be given in the * Dictionary of National Bio- 

MRS. MARKHAM'S ' HISTORY' (8 th S. iv. 449). 
We have the third edition here, dated 1829. 
There is a passage about the " Black Death " in it, 
but I do not know if it is the passage wanted. 

The Brassey Institute, Hastings. 

COLLEGE (8 ttt S. iv. 527). The degree of D.D. 
was conferred upon the Rev. Henry Dison Gabell 
by Charles Manners-Sutton, Archbishop of Canter 
bury, on Jan. 4, 1811. G. F. R. B. 

The Story of Egil Sbdlagrimsson. Translated from the 

Icelandic by the Rev. W. C. Green, late Fellow of 

King's College, Cambridge. (Stock.) 
AMONG Icelandic Sagas the ' Egla,' now first rendered 
accessible to the English public, is in some respects the 
most characteristic ad spirited. It comes in the trans- 
lator's estimate behind the * Njala 'only second to ih*t 
and "after no long interval." It ia superior in these 
respects, however, that it is less encumbered with 
tedious detail, ami at the close, if less heroic or tender 
is more sympathetic. It is, of course, open to remark 
that sympathy, in the sense in which the term is 
ordinarily accepted, ia the last thing for which th< 
author would bid. Its characters are, meanwhile, ad- 
mirably lifelike, the passages dealing with England in 
the reign of Athelstan are of signal value, and the 

descriptions of battles put our modern novelists to the 
>Iuah. Little in history or fiction is more spirited than 
he account of the battle of Yen-heath and the death 
>f Thorolf. Hero and skald as he is, Egil obtains with 
difficulty our sympathy at the outset. His youth is 
surly as well as tempestuous, and his father and his 
>rother look upon him askance. In later life even he 
s unmanageable, selfish, and, one is apt to think, a little 
careful, not to say greedy, in his transactions. His 
animosities are chiefly directed against those who pre- 
vent his acquisition of worldly gear ; and his closing 
appearance, when over eighty years of age he takes bis 
son's part against that of the son of bis loyal friend, 
ibough justifiable, is wanting in magnanimity. His 
heroism m-tkes, however, amends for all. It is extrava- 
gant enough to secure him a place in Hugo's ' Le^endes- 
des >iecles.' No dangers terrify, no od is appal. He is, 
moreover, cool, t resourceful, wily as, says Mr. Green, 
a born leader of men." His father, called on account 
f his baldness Skallagrim, is also a striking and heroic 
figure ; and Arinbjorn is a veritable nobleman, using the 
term in its highest sense. With the authority and value 
of the Saga as chronicle there is no temptation to deal. 
It is a superb record of heroic action, and is splendidly 
translated. Abundance of matter of int rest can be 
extracted. There is little dealing with the supernatural, 
though Egil's own knowledge in the matter ot runes 
is once turned to profitable account. From the folk-lore 
standpoint much may be studied with advantage. See 
the account (pp. 121-2) of Egil erecting a hazel pole and 
fizmg on it a horse's head, which he turns inward to the 
mainland before curbing King Eric and IIH wife. 
" Tnis curse." he declares ' I turn also on the guardian- 
spirits who dwell in this land, that they may all wander 
a*tray, nor reach [n]or find their home till they have 
driven out of the land King Eric and Gunnhilda." Very 
touching is it when Thorgerdr, Egil's daughter, comes 
to share bis fate when he refuses food on account of the 
death of his son. Here comes in again a curious piece 
of folk-lore. " Then Egil epoke : What is it now, 
daughter? You are chewing something, are you not?' 
' I am chewing samphire,' said she, 'because I think it 
will do me harm. Otherwise I think I may live too 
long.' ' la samphire bad for man ? ' said Egil. ' Very 
bad.' said she; 'will you eat some?' 'Wny should I 
not 1 ? ' said he." It would be interesting to know if this 
superstition prevails elsewhere. Mr. Green hag been 
very happy with the verse. His book will be a delight 
to those interested in his subject. 

The Windtor Peerage for 1894. By Edward Watford, 

M.A. (Chatto & Windus.) 

SHORT, comparatively, as is the period during which the 
' Windsor Peerage ' has been before the public and the 
present is the fifth annual issue it has won its way into 
public favour. It is admirable in arrangement, con- 
densed in information, and up to date. The recent and 
lamented death of the Earl of Cromartie ia thus 

The Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. (Black.) 
A NEW volume of this attractive and valuable journal 
begins under most flourishing conditions. The list of 
members steadily augments, and interest in the proceed- 
ings maintains a no le->s satisfactory pr -gross. The 
opening number for 1894 contains three plates of the 
very curious heraldic book-plates of the Nuremberg 
f-.mily of Kreis, of Kreisenatein ; two dated book-plates, 
1698, of Gwyn of Lansanor ; and two others, dated 
respectively 1713 and 1733, of Henry, Duke of ,Kent. 
The literary matter is of no less interest. 

IN the Fortnightly Review Mr. Coventry Patmore 
reveals the existence of what he calls A New Poet ' in 



[8 S. V. JAN. 6, '94. 

the person of Mr. F. Thompson, who is said to be a 
greater Crashaw. The article would have been more ; 
convincing had it been lets dogmatic and ex cathedra, \ 
and had some specimens been supplied of the qualities 
with which the poet is credited. The interminable 
question of ' The True Discovery of America is dis- | 
cussed by Capt. Gambier, R.N., who holds the opinion 
that everything referring to Cousin or to the indebted- 
ness of Columbus to the Pincons was carefully expunged 
from the writings of Columbus. Prof. Judd sends a 
highly erudite paper on ' Chemical Action of Marine 
Organisms/ and Prof. Buchner has a no less learned 
contribution on ' The Origin of Mankind.' It will thus 
be seen that the interest of this review, when not 
political, is scientific rather than literary. Prince Alex- 
ander of Battenberg is also the subject of a contribution. 
The Nineteenth Century leads off with an all-important 
essay, by Prof. Huxley, on Tyodall. In this it is stated 
that ample materials exist, and will be used, for a fitting 
biography, with the addition that the arranging of 
these things in autobiographical form was the task to 
which, had his life not been arrested, Tyndall, with his 
wife's aid, had intended to devote himself. ' Protection 
for Surnames ' is claimed by Lord Dundonald, who 
holds that in most cases an alias is only adopted for dis- 
honest or fraudulent purposes. Among literary and 
artistic aliases, which come into a different category, he 
classes John Henry Brodribb, alias Henry Irving, and 
John Fairs, alias John Hare. In the latter instance, if 
not in both, the first name has been definitely aban- 
doned in favour of the latter. Such names, when borne 
by the family, stand on a different footing from those 
like George Sand or George Eliot, which are used for an 
independently literary purpose. Lord Egerton of Tatton 
writes on ' The Manchester Ship Canal,' and Mr. Her- 
bert A. Giles on ' Chinese Poetry in English Verse.' 
The New Review appears with a new publisher, Mr. 
William Heinemann, and under a new guise. Its price 
ia now a shilling, and it is practically an illustrated 
magazine, its contents are pleasantly varied, though 
nihilism, socialism, and anarchy occupy a large, we will 
not say a disproportionate, space. Count Lyof Tolstoi 
thus supports a species of Christian socialism, and pro- 
tests in the name of Christ against the churches, in 
favour of these Mr. Augustine Birrell finds little to say. 
* Anarchists, their Methods and Organization,' are 
treated of by two writers, Z. and Ivanoff, who, though 
approaching the question from different points, are 
joint in condemnation. Mr. Walter Crane seems in 
America to have been indiscreet in utterance concern- 
ing anarchists, and to have incurred some social discom- 
fort thereby. Turning to much pleasanter subjects, we 
find an admirable and most humorous paper, by Mr. 
Traiil, on 'The Future of Humour.' Mr. William 
Archer writes thoughtfully corncerning French Plays 
and English Money.' Prof. Max MUller gives a pro- 
foundly interesting account of the ' Sidon Sarcophagi,' 
with numerous illustrations, and Mr. Chalmers Mit- 
chell, sums up concerning Prof. Tyndall, in saying, 
' He did a great work and received a great reward 
in fame, and his name will be written in water." 
In the Century Frans Hals is treated as one of the 
Dutch Masters.' A reproduction of ' The Jester ' serves 
as frontispiece, and other striking and familiar works 
are engraved. A sketch of Mr. Andrew Lang is accom 
panied by an excellent portrait. ' The Vanishing Moose 
will be read with interest and regret. ' Life in a Light- 
house ' is finely illustrated. Among the celebrities dealt 
with are George Sand and Robert Schumann, of both of 
whom portraits are supplied. * Stories in Stone from 
Notre Dame,' which appears in Scribner's, gives some 
most striking designs from photographs of the gargoyles 

and other grotesques ornaments of the great cathedral. 
Very grim and powerful are these, and study is well 
bestowed upon them. An admirable picture of Con- 
stantinople, by Mr. F. Marion Crawford, is accompanied 
by no less excellent illustrations. The whole description 
is the most lifelike we have seen. Manet's ' Fifer ' forms 
the frontispiece. Sir Joshua Reynolds is the subject of 
an essay, accompanied by illustrations from his works. 
'A Humorous Rogue,' in Temple Bar, deals with Carew, 
known as the " King of the Beggars." ' Mrs. Montagu ' 
and ' Count Mollien's Memoirs ' are also the subjects of 
good papers. 'A Pirate's Paradise,' in the Gentleman's, 
describes Jamaica, and deals with Sir Henry Morgan 
and the more famous of the Buccaneers. Mr. Stewart 
writes on Old Edinburgh Inns ' ; Dr. Japp on Mr. 
Jeaffreson's Recollections.' Dr. Richardson, in Long- 
man's, has a remarkable paper on ' The Athletic Life '; 
and Mr. Austin Dobson has some characteristic utter- 
ances on ' Nivernais in England.' 'Insect Gods' and 
' The Caldera of Palma ' repay attention in the Cornhill. 
Bdgravia has a paper on ' Ibsen and the Moral Taint.' 

A NEW volume of CasselFs Storehouse of Information 
appears. It ends with an account of James Cotter 
Morrison, whose memory is still green. Part IV. of the 
Gazetteer is enriched with a map. 

READERS of ' N. & Q.' will hear with regret of the 
death of HKRMENTRUDE (Miss Emily 8. Holt), one of the 
most frequent and erudite contributors to ' N. & Q.' 
Her 'Wills from the Close Rolls' remains unfinished. 
Few contributors united to a greater knowledge of 
Mediaeval history a style more picturesque and animated. 
Apart from ' N. & Q.,' she was a somewhat voluminous 
author. Two of her works were noticed in our number 
for Dec. 23. 

Ijtoijjtta ia C0m*g0Kfcttig, 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

F. G. SAUNDERS (" Not Proven "). The verdict bars 
further trial. 

F. W. L. (" Forms of Judicial Oath "). See Indexes 
to 'N. &Q.' under "Oath." The Rev. J. E. Tylor's 
work on oaths (Parker, 1834) contains much information 
on the subject. 

H. C. HART ("When our Lady falls in our Lord's 
lap," &c.)-See 1" S. vii. 157; 6'h S. vii. 200, 206, 209, 
252, 273, 314. 

ERRATA. 8th g. i v . 525, col. 2, 1. 34, for " Character- 
scopes" read Characterscapes ; p. 528, col. 1, 11. 11 and 
13 from bottom, for " G. E. D." read Q. E. D. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

gth s. V. JAN. 13, 'S4.] 




CONTENT 8. N" 107. 

UOTES: "Coaching" and "Cramming," 21 William 
Hoare, R.A., 23 Hermentrude Preservation of Genea- 
logies Dulcarnon, 25 Sir Albert Pell " Platform " 
Nelson's Birthplace, 2<5 Anniversaries, 27. 

QUERIES :" Larvaricus "Name of Watchmaker " Rid- 
ing about of victoring" "Nuder" "Goblin" John 
Buckna(e)ll Lincoln Inventory, 27 Hester Hawes 
Prujean Square Counts Palatine Monumental Brasses- 
Col. George Twistletoii Fulham Bridge Sir John Moore 
Aldersey Cromwell and Napoleon, 28 St. Winifred- 
Extraordinary Field Verses Little Chelsea Sir Eustace 
d'Aubrichecourt Bt. Thomas of Canterbury, 29. 

REPLIES : Man with Iron Mask, 29 Thomas Parker, Lord 
Macclesfield, 30 Macdonell of Glengarry " Adam," 31 
Devonian : Leoline Jenkins Roman Daughter Ivy in 
America Institute "Leaps and bounds" Lord Chan- 
cellor Cowper, 32 Sedan Chair King Charles and the 
1642 Prayer Book Heads on City Gates Great Chester- 
ford Church "Bred and born," 33 Public Execution of 
Criminals" Morbleu "Folk-loreDante and Noah's Ark 
Hear, hear ! " 34 Italian Birdcage Clock Italian 
Idiom Survivors of Unreformed House of Commons 
Miss=Mistress Armorial Bearings, 3#-Troy Town Yeo 
' Euphues ' " Sh " and "Teh," 37 Prosecution for 
Heresy" Admiral Christ " " Michery," Thieving, Kna- 
very" To hold tack,'' 38" Whips "Epitaph, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lee's Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' Vol. XXXVII. Lang's Scott's ' Quentin Dur- 
ward' Lewis Carroll's ' Sylvie and Bruno ' Weigall's 
4 Letters of Lady Burghersh.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

Having been repeatedly asked to quote the 
references in my letter on the above subject in the 
Athenceum of July 29, 1893, I hope the Editor 
will allow these extracts to appear in ' N. & Q.,' 
especially as (in Dr. J. A. H. Murray's words) 
the facts adduced in the * N. E. D.' do not support 
my theory that "coaching" is of Oxford, and 
"cramming" (as between the two universities) of 
Cambridge origin. 

The earliest example in the ' N. E. D.' of the 
word cramming, applied to reading, is the passage 
first, I believe, given in Richardson (1836) from 
Watts's 'Improvement of the Mind' (1741). An 
earlier instance, in precisely the same sense, is to 
be found in Locke's 'Conduct of the Understanding' 
(written about 1697 ; Locke died October, 1704) : 
" They dream on in a constant course of reading and 
cramming themselves; but not digesting anything, it 
produce nothing but a heap of crudities. "P. 36 of Mr. 
Fowler's edition (Clarendon Press). 

I have not been able to find any instance of the 
use of the word again until the appearance of 
No. 33 of the Microcosm (July 2, 1787) : 

"And natural dulness is crammed with a crude 

mass of indigested learning; like a green goose at 
Michaelmas or a mathematical ignoramus before his 

In 1795 appeared the well-known correspondence 

on Cambridge slang in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
where the word is only noticed in the sense of 
hoaxing or humbugging. 

The Rev. John Lane's * Familiar Remarks on 
Education' (1795): 

" Frequent are the instances of boys cramm'd with 

Ovid, Virgil, &c., and sent to a public school to disgorge 
as it were this indigested farrago." P. 23. 

John Anstey's Pleader's Guide ' (1796) : 
For you from five years old to twenty 
Were cramm'd with Latin words in plenty. 

P. 7. 

The Morning Chronicle had, in 1800, a Cam- 
bridge drinking-song, the chorus of which was : 

Then lay by your books, lads, and never repine, 
And cram your attics 
With dry mathematics, 
But moisten your clay with bumpers of wine. 
See ' Gradus ad Cantabrigians, ' first edition, 1S03. 

Between my first and second letters in the 
Athenceum (April and May, 1892), I spent an 
afternoon in the British Museum in a vain search 
for this edition of the ' Gradus. 1 I suspected that 
the passage presently to be quoted which is found 
in my own copy of the second edition would be 
in it. I could not get at the first edition, how- 
ever, nor could I get any help from the officials ; 
and I sorely missed the presence of Dr. Garnett, 
of whose ever-ready help in the early eighties I 
still cherish a most grateful recollection. Soon 
after the appearance of my reply to Dr. Murray's 
letter in the Athenceum, I received a note from 
Dr. Charnock, to whom I was personally a stranger, 
but whose name and works were, of course, per- 
fectly familiar to me. He kindly referred me to 
the first edition (1803) of the * Gradus ad Cant.' 
So I determined to search for the work once more, 
and was delighted to find it newly entered as 
among the Grenville books. I had completely 
forgotten that the Grenville Library was separately 
catalogued. Here is the quotation at last : 

" To cram (knowledge is as food, Milton). Prepara- 
tory to keeping in the schools, or standing examination 
for degrees, those who have the misfortune to have but 
weak and empty heads are glad to become foragers on 
others' wisdom; or, to borrow a phrase from Lord 
Bolingbroke, to keep their magazine well stuff'd by some 
one of their own standing who has made better use of 
his time. The following passage from Shakspeare will 
furnish the most apposite illustration : 

You CRAM these words into mine ears against 
The stomach of my sense. ' Tempest.' 

One would think that Milton alluded to a college CRAM- 
MING, when he spoke of knowledge, for him that will, to 
take and SWALLOW DOWN at pleasure (glib and easy) 
which, proving but of bad nourishment in tue concoction,** 
it was heedless in the DEVOURING, puffs up unhealthily, a 
certain big face of pretended learning." ' On Divorce.' 
I pointed out in the Athenceum (May, 1892) that 
R. L. Edgeworth used the term crammer in 1809; 
and yet the 'N. E. D.' gives as its earliest autho- 
rity for the word what is practically the same 



[8 S. V. JAN. 13, '94 

passage, from Maria Edgeworth's 'Patronage' 
(1813). The 'Patronage' passage, I may add, 
had previously appeared in Mr. Farmer's 'Slang 
and its Analogues/ though neither the ' N. E. D.' 
nor Dr. Murray, in his letter, says so. 

We now come to 1810. In that year appeared 
Dr. Tatham's ' New Address to the Free Members 
of Convocation,' from which the ' N. E. D.' quotes. 
In his letter Dr. Murray characterizes this as a 
"technical" quotation. Tatham's use fulBls Dr. 
Murray's dictum completely ; it is certainly both 
"depreciatory and hostile." That it did not 
obtain "technical" currency at Oxford at that 
date was not the eccentric Rector of Exeter's fault. 
The thing did not exist in the Oxford of that day, 
having been successfully guarded against, as is 
clear from Copleston's pamphlets. The same con- 
clusion is to be drawn from H. H. Drummond's 
'Reply to the Edinburgh Review' (1810), where 
pointed reference is made to Tatham's "strange" 
epithets. Here is Copleston's use : 

" That specious error that the more there is crammed 
into a young man's mind, whether it stays there or not, 
still the wiser he is."' Reply to Edinb. Rtv: (1810), 
p. 176. 

Mr. John Hughes, of Oriel College (Sir Walter 
Scott's " young Oxonian friend, a poet, a draughts- 
man, and a scholar," see Introd. to ' Quentin Dur- 
ward '), the father of His Honour Judge Hughes, 
writes as follows : 

" Of the necessity of the modern system of getting up 
books for a degree, styled by the young men ' coaching ' 
or ' cramming,' I cannot presume to offer an opinion ; 
all I can fay is that Mr. Copleston's mode of lecturing 
rendered it a work of supererogation." ' Memoirs of 
Bp. Copleston,' p. 30. Letter, dated Donnington Priory, 
March 20, 1851. 

And here the imp Digredivus tempts me to 
notice Dr. Murray's reference to " the new Oxford 
statute respecting Public Examination introduced 
three years before," i. e., in 1807, as being carelesp, 
if not "misleading." I suppose it was thought 
good enough when dealing with " men of one word, 
or, more exactly, of one sense of one word." I 
regret that I can lay no claim to such an extreme 
refinement of specialization. Nearly all the quota- 
tions "exhibited " in my letters to the Athemeum 
were taken in the course of a Sunday afternoon's 
hunt among books on my own shelves, after reading 
Mr. Walter Wren's odd account of the invention of 

I had better add here that the common " tech- 
nical " term at Cambridge, until the century was 
well on in its teens, was " getting up " books, and 
the corresponding one at Oxford was " taking up" 
books. In 1817, Mason, of Cambridge, published 
a portrait of Jemmy Gordon, with the inscription : 
James Qordon of Cambridge 
Who to save from Rustication 
Crams the Junce with Declamation. 

J. Wright, of Trinity's, ' Alma Mater ' appeared 

in 1827, but it professes to be a picture of Cam- 
bridge life about 1818. It contains the following 
explanation of cram : 

" [At Cambridge] everything which is learnt so as to 
be produced on paper at a moment's notice is called 
cram." Vol. i. p. 47. 

" O'Doherty," i. e., Maginn, on the occasion of a 
visit to Cambridge, sent some verses to ttlackwood, 
from which I quote : 

Ours, is no Whirling, chance-crawm'rf for an honour 
That blooms in the Tripos, to fade in the House. 

BlacTcwood, viii. p. 375 (1821). 

Appendix to 'Gradus ad Cant.,' second edition 
(1824) : 

" But now comes the time when he is to be ex- 
amined for the Little Go; and about three weeks before 
the examination he begins to read. He finds himself 
unequal to the task without cramming. He, in con- 
sequence, engages a private tutor, and buys all the cram- 

The Saturday Review, August, 1858, p. 150, is the 
earliest authority for cram-book* in the ' N. E. D/ 
"published for the occasion" (p. 128). 
' Letters from Cambridge 7 (1828) : 
" Now to point out the superior utility of a tutor, fresh 
from the senate-house; such a person will necessarily have 
crammed [note, " cramming knowledge in a kind of a 
metaphysical sense, independent of perception "] a great 

deal, and this with considerable judgment Whai 

would you think of a tutor whose whole celebrity de- 
pends upon his skill in the art of felicitous cramming, 
who has attained very high distinctions without a single 
particle of genius, talent, or ability? Go to him and 
say, ' I want such and such a place.' ' Very well, sir ' 
(he will answer, and take down the J MSS.) ; ' very 
well, you must get up half this page ; you see, I have 
marked it, and' (turning over the pages) 'this short 
proof here, it is often set ; and there 's the crepusculum, 

that you must have by all means.' Things were 

managed differently in the days of cram (for classics 
have had their cram days too, though they are happily 
past)."-Pp. 68-72. 

The cryptic use of crepusculum in the above pas- 
sage is not in the ' N. E. D.' 

Dean Alford'a ' Life':- 

" I think that if I really can cram these, as we Cantabs 
call it, it will be a very respectable set out in classics." 
Letter dated Sept., 1828, p. 35. 

" Dec. 2, 1828, at the lecture Evans gave us a quantity 
of cram about the choruses in the ' Eumenides.' "P. 36* 

" Dec. 12. Evans's lecture all cram about ' Thucy- 
didea.' " 

"May 18, 1830, I shall not easily forget this night, 
when 1 have been writing out cram till 1 cannot write 
legibly and am brimfull of the examination." P. 51. 

Lytton's ' England and the English ' (1833) : 
" Suppose that together they have broken lamps, and 
passed the ' little go,' together they have ' crammed ' 
Euclid and visited Barnwell." 1840 edition of ' Works,' 
p. 305. 

Lord Melbourne on the second reading of Lord 
Radnor's Bill : 

41 But that system of private tuition leads to another 
evil, calling 'cramming,' which is not only unfair to- 
wards others who have not the means, but the knowledge 

8"- S. V. JAN. 13, '94 ] 



is not BO wholesome aa that obtained by the student's 
own exertions." 'Mirror of Parliament,' April 11, 1837. 
" He had crammed all the beat men for the six pre- 
ceding years Isn't it as clear as bricks that you are 

the man 1 Doesn't everybody know it ; and hasn't your 
own coach said done to it nix months ago." Caleb 
Stukely,' Blatkwood, March, 1812, pp. 316, 320. 

J. Hewlett's ' College Life ' (1843) : 

" During which Octavius meant to ' stay up ' for the 
benefit of being crammed by his private tutor." II. 
p. 77. 

" Tutor (drunk): Me ? I 'm his Pidus Achates, old 
boy! his private coach tool htm through the schools like 
* brick." III. p. 42. 

'Strictures on Granta' (1848) : 

" For this end they have recourse to that habitue of 
Granta, a so-called private tutor ; a man who panders 
to idle men by cramming his pupils at the last minute 
with all sorts of heterogeneous knowledge, unconnected 
scraps of no future benefit, similiar to the discipline 
which a Norfolk turkey undergoes a week previous to 
Christmas ; the poulterer forces down corporeal susten- 
ance, the sacerdotal crammer substitutes mental expedi- 
encies to be reproduced on scribbing paper." P. 27. 

One more quotation in reference to the extract 
from the 1837 edition of Whately's * Logic/ against 
which I warned the unwary reader. That the 
warning was a necessary one I have proved ex- 
peri men tally. Let the reader try the experiment 
on any of bis unwarned friends. The passage does 
not appear in any edition before the first lists after 
the passing of the ' Examination Statute ' of 1830 
were published. 

In the Eclectic Review for May, 1845, p. 661, 
there is the following passage : 

"We have observed that the complaints against the 
cramming system have exceedingly increased at Oxford 
with that of private tutors, in the last twenty years ; and 
that at Cambridge it had already readied a great height 
before it was known at Oxford, also side by side with the 

private tutors but we are persuaded that the last 

change made in the Oxford system of examination about 
the year 1830 (by which in many respects they approxi- 
mated to the mechanical system of Cambridge in regard 
to paper-work ') was an unhappy one." 

I shall here place all the references in the 
N. E. D.' before 1850; cram (verb), Watt?, 
1741 ; Tatham, 1810 ; Westminster Review, 1825 ; 
Whately, 1827 (1837) ; crammed, Lord Beacons- 
field, 1837 ; crammer, Maria Edge worth, 1813 ; 
camming, Southey, 1821-1830. 

Had these quotations been " exhibited " by my 
original opponent Mr. Wren, I might claim an 
asy victory ; but, of course, I hesitate even to 
whiaper such a word as " victory " in front of the 
serried ranks of the Oxford experts. 

One word finally on Mr. Wren's I mean Dr. 
Murray's dictum, u always depreciative or hostile." 
The learned doctor says that "its usefulness as a 
statement of fact is not at all impaired by the 
other fact that Mr. Owen rather likes, and perhaps 
uru ik useful to be known as a ' crammer.' " 
What I had said was something quite different, 

namely, that the dictum in question was " surely 
too sweeping and illogical for a scientific work"; 
and I was thinking, not of my own insignificant 
likes and dislikes, but of Lord Sherbrooke's words 
quoted from a letter in the Spectator (see my letter 
of May, 1892, in the Athenceum}. Before printing 
his dictum in the 'N. E. D.,' or even before sub- 
mitting it to his jury of twelve experts, Dr. 
Murray might, I venture to think, be expected to 
show at least as much care as the editor of the 
Athenaeum, by writing to ask my authority for the 
statement that the word "examiner," in the 
quotation from the Spectator, was a misprint for 
" crammer." Summing up, as against the * N. E. D./ 

I have shown (1) that cramming was employed as 
early as Locke's time in reference to reading ; 
(2) that cramming was applied to preparing for 
examination as early as 1789 ; (3) that cramming 
was a technical term at Cambridge as early as 
1802 ; (4) that crammer was applied to teachers 
as early as 1809 ; (5) that cramming was a slang 
term at Cambridge as early as 1817 ; (6) that 
cramming was not current at Oxford, either in a 
technical or a "slang" sense, before 1830 Tatham's 
use, for reasons already given, and Southey's, for 
reasons known to every literary man, not being 
relevant ; (7) that the Whately quotation in the 
1 N. E. D.' ought to have borne the date 1831, and 
not 1827 ; (8) that Mr. Gladstone used it in that 
sense as an Oxford undergraduate in 1831 ; (9) that 

II coaching " first appeared in print in 1836, in Ed- 
ward Caswall, of Brasenose's, * Pluck Papers,' and 
was immediately adopted at Cambridge. I have 
been kindly informed by Mr. Gladstone that, in 
his opinion, the word was unknown in the Oxford 
of his day. 

It is, no doubt, irrelevant, but it may probably 
be interesting to the readers of this note to be 
reminded that the similar German University 
term, given by Heine in his 'Reise-bilder ' (1828), 
though in a different sense, was translated the 
same year in the Foreign Quarterly, ii. p. 370, 
"graduation-coaches." J. P. OWBN. 

48, Comeragh Road, West Kensington. 



(Continued from S"> S. iv. 482.) 
In P.uh, where he resided until his death, 
Hoare may be said to have worked without a rival. 
He succeeded so well here that his painting room 
became the resort of all who could boast of beauty 
or fashion. Most of the celebrated persons visiting 
Bath sat to him. So highly was he esteemed for 
the beauty of his crayon portraits that his sitters 
scarcely allowed him time for a moment of relaxa- 
tion. Amongst the distinguished characters of 
the time who, visiting Bath for health or pleasure, 


[8 th 8. V. JAN. 13, '84. 

came to his gallery were Mr. Pitt, the Duke of 
Norfolk, Mr. Legge,* Lord Grenville, Lord 
Chesterfield, &c. Of these and other eminent 
men his scholarly tastes gained him the per- 
sonal friendship. His intimacy was close with 
Mr. Ralph Allen and his nephew Warburton, 
afterwards Bishop of Gloucester. Christian 
Frederick Zincke, the celebrated miniature painter, 
he reckoned amongst his close friends ; and a por- 
trait of Zincke in chalks in the British Museum 
Print Room is the only drawing by William 
Hoare that institution possesses. This is done in 
black and white, excepting the cap, face, and 
hands, which are in red. At the foot is written, 
evidently in Hoare's own handwriting, 

" Frederick Zink, painter in enamel, drawn by William 
Hoare, from hig love and friendship as well as many 
obligations to him, in the year 1752 ; Mr. Zink being at 
that time retired from business, and amusing himself 
painting his own daughter's picture." 

This portrait has, I am told, been engraved. 
This year Hoare visited London for a short while. 
His meeting with William Pitt, afterwards the 
Earl of Chatham, in 1754 resulted in his winning 
fresh laurels, for in the crayon likeness he made of 
him he succeeded BO well as to draw from Pitt 
the following remarks. Writing to Lord Gren- 
ville, he said, speaking of the portrait just 
completed, which he had presented to the Earl 
Temple, " I find it the very best thing he [Hoare] 
has yet done in point of likeness." Following up 
the vicissitudes of this portrait, I find it sold at the 
Stowe sale in 1848, when it was bought by "Farrer" 
for 821. 6s., and it afterwards went to the collection 
of Sir Robert Peel. It was engraved by Fisher, 
Spilsbnry (reversed), Bockman, Houston, Johnson, 
and Sisson. In my possession is a crayon in black 
and white by Hoare of Pitt, evidently, as are 
all the other drawings I have of Hoare, done for 
the engraver to work from. The subject of my 
monograph formed one of the committee who 
tried unsuccessfully in 1755 to establish an academy 
of art in London. It may have been the great 
success of Hoare in Bath that in 1758 induced 
Gainsborough to come to that town, though more 
probably it was Philip Thicknesse,t his art patron. 
It was certainly a quarrel with his patron, whose 
picture he never could be induced to paint, though 
he did paint Mrs. Thicknesse, that caused him to 
leave Bath in 1774, and the coast was again clear 
for Hoare. I note this year that his portrait of 
Robert Dingley, a merchant, who formed the plan 
of Magdalen Hospital, was engraved by Dixon. 
One of my unnamed crayons by Hoare represents 

* Henry Bilson Legge, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and colleague of Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 

f The governor of Languard Fort, author of 'A 
Sketch of Gainsborough's Life and Paintings,' ' The New 
Bath Guide,' and the successor to " Beau " Nash as 
Master of the Ceremonies. 

a gentleman sitting in a library, with a youth 
standing by him holding an open book in his 
hands ; on a roll of paper at the back of this 
young man is written "in London, 1759." This 
year, too, Hoare painted a portrait of Charles, 
Lord Camden (in judge's robes), the Recorder 
of Bath, which portrait Spilsbury engraved. 

Hoare now became an exhibitor for the first 
time in London, sending to the Society of Artists, 
a society of a year's standing, in 1761, a crayon 
representing a "family, a gentleman, his lady 
and child." Throughout the exhibition catalogues 
of this period we meet with none but the most 
meagre descriptions. I have a crayon drawing by 
Hoare that answers to this account, and ban, like 
all I possess, evidently been engraved from ; but 
there its history must cease until I discover more. 
In the midst of the gay scenes at Bath Hoare did 
not forget to strive for higher excellence in his art, 
and in 1762 he painted two pictures, sending 
them to the exhibition that year of the Society of 
Artists. One is described as "a picture intended 
to be given to the Bath Hospital." It represents 
Dr. Oliver and Mr. Pierce, the latter feeling the 
pulse of a patient, while other patients are seen 
afflicted with leprosy, paralysis, &c. a clever work, 
but hard. The other, of which I find no note in 
the catalogue, is 'The Lame Man Healed at the Pool 
of Bethesda.' For this last work Hoare received 
100Z. and a pew in Octagon Chapel, in Bath, for 
which chapel this picture was painted, and where 
it still remains at the altar. Both these pictures 
are in the style of his old master Imperiale. Hoare 
at this period drew in crayons a likeness of him- 
selfmerely a head, but very excellent. He enjoyed 
the patronage when in Bath of the Pelham family, 
whose portraits he frequently executed. That the 
celebrated "Beau" Nash should have employed 
Hoare to take his likeness is but natural. In 1762 
this was done, and the picture was engraved for his 
' Life.' This portrait is in the keeping of the Corpo- 
ration of Bath, which also possesses portraits by 
Hoare of Pitt, Earl of Chatham, and of Christopher 
Anstey, Samuel Derrick, and Governor Pownall. 
William Warburton's head he etched in 1765. 
An impression of this is in the British Museum 
Print Room. While on the subject of etchings, I 
would mention that Hoare etched a few besides 
this head of the Bishop of Gloucester, viz., Chris- 
topher Anstey of Bath, and a landscape after N. 
Poussin " in aqua fortis," as well as the head before 
mentioned of Job Dgiallo, one of his first known 
works ; also of Reynolds's profile portrait of the 
Countess of Waldegrave, Peter Stephens, and Ralph 
Allen, of Prior Park. This last (the head only) is 
used for the dedicatory frontispiece in Hurd'a 
1 Moral and Political Dialogues,' and was etched at 
Bath in 1769. All these etchings find a place in 
the Print Room of the British Museum. Others 
be scratched, not to be found there, are those 

8 h a. V. JAN. 13, '94. J 


of the fourth Duke of Beaufort and Sir Isaac 

In 1768, on the formation of the Royal Academy, 
a proper respect was paid to Hoare by placing his 
name amongst the original members. He was soon 
followed by his son Prince ; and at the second ex- 
hibition of that establishment both father and son 
exhibited for the first time. William Hoare, 
R.A., of Bath, as he is now designated, seems to 
have had a London painting room in little St. Mar- 
tin's Lane, and thence came in 1770, for exhibition 
to the Academy, No. 104, " The Portraits of two 
Children, in crayons "; 105, " A ditto of a Young 
Midshipman, whole length "; and 106, " A View in 
the Gardens of Henry Hoare, Esqre., at Stourhead, 
Wilts.'' In the folio wing year he sent " A Por- 
trait of a Lady and a Boy, whole length." At 
the Academy Exhibition of 1772 we find 114 to 
be " A Portrait of a Boy, whole length "; 115, " A 
ditto ditto in the character of a Cupid"; 116, 
"Prudence instructing her Children"; and 117, 
"A Diana" these last three " in crayons." To 
the next year's exhibition Hoare sent five the 
most he ever sent at one time viz.: 137, "A 
Gentleman and Lady and Child, half length/' and 
the numbers consecutively following, " A Lady 
ditto," "A ditto ditto/' "A ditto ditto," "A 
Gentleman, three quarters." At 122 and 123 
of the Academy of 1774 are two portraits, " Por- 
trait of a Gentleman" and "Ditto of a Lady 
in the character of Emma," both half lengths. 
1 24 is described as " A Zingara, in crayons." The 
next year he exhibited was in 1776, sending two : 
130, "Portrait of a Lady, whole length," and 131, 
"Ditto of three Young Gentlemen." We do not 
find Hoare as an exhibitor again until 1779, 
when for the last time he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy. He sent four this year, viz.: 
130, " A Gentleman and his Daughter, half length," 
"A young Student, whole length," " A Landscape 
with the sun going down," and "A Child lying on 
a sofa, crayons." He did exhibit once more in 
London, but this was at the Free Society in 1783, 
the subject being " A View on the Tyber." 

(To be continued.) 

HERMENTRUDE. I trust, Mr. Editor, you will 
permit me, as an old though very humble contributor 
to ' N. & Q./ to join with you in the expression of 
regret with which you have announced the death 
of HERMENTRUDE. Her knowledge of Mediaeval 
history was not only minute and accurate, but ever 
at the service of those who asked for more light 
on some perplexing historical question. And in 
any discussion in which she took part there was 
one great charm about her writing. She was 

* Newton dying in 1727, this would be a posthumous 
portrait, I should say, as Hoare was then in Italy. 

Iways perfectly courteous. Search the volumes of 

N. & Q.,' and not one unkind word will be found 

)o which her signature is placed. It was never 

my good fortune to have known her personally, but 

, for one of her numerous readers, owe to her so 

many happy hours and so much assistance that I 

cannot refrain from acknowledging the debt of 

gratitude due to her. H. G. GRIFFIN HOOFE. 

of N. & Q.' will feel that he has lost a friend on 
reading of the death of HERMENTRDDE. What I 
wish to ask is whether care has been taken to secure 
aer lists of pedigrees for some public institution, 
where they may be consulted ; that such painstaking 
abour be not thrown away. I should like to suggest 
to MRS. SCARLETT and MRS. BOGER that they 
should make arrangements that their labour be 
preserved for the benefit of posterity. 


DULCARNON. Referring, the other day, to 
Halliwell's 'Dictionary/ my eye accidentally fell 
upon this : " Dulcarnon. This word has set all the 
editors of Chaucer at defiance." Not being aware 
such was the case, I turned to the Glossaries of 
my two modern editions, Bell's and Morris's, and 
found it in neither ; but in Speight's Glossary 
to the 1602 folio I found Dulcarnon 
" is a proportion in Euclide, lib. 1. Theorem. 33. propot. 
47. which was found out by Pythagoras after an whole 
yeeres study, & much beatyng of his brayne : In thank* 
fulnes whereof, he sacrificed an Oxe to the gods ; which 
sacrifice he called Dulcarnon. Alexander Neckam an 
ancient writer in his booke De Naluris rerum, com- 
poundeth this word of Dulia, and Caro, & will haue 
Dulcarnon to be quasi sacrificium carnis. Chaucer aptly 
applieth it to Creseide in this place: shewing that shoe 
was as much amazed how to answer Troilus, as Pytha- 
goras was wearied to bring his desire to effect." 

In Drayton's ' Polyolbion,' 1613, in the address 
to the reader, " the Author of the Illustrations " 
that is Selden says: 

"Our Worthy Chaucer: whose name by the way 
Occuring, and my worke here being but to adde plaine 
song after Muses descanting, I cannot but digresse to 
admonition of abuse which this Learned allusion, in his 
Troilus, by ignorance hath indured. 

I am till Ood mee better mind send 
At Dulcarnon right at my wits end. 

Its not Neckam, or any else, that can make mee enter- 
taine the least thought of the signification of Dulcarnon 
to be Pythagoras hia sacrifice after his Geometricall 
Theorem in finding the Squares of an Orthogonnll Tri- 
angles sides, or that it is a word of Laline deduction ; 
but indeed by easier pronunciation it was made of 
[Arabic characters here] .i. Two horned: which the 
Mahometan Arabians vse for a Root in Calculation, 
meaning Alexander, as that great Dictator of knowledge 
loseph Scaliger (with some Ancients) wills, but, by war- 
ranted opinion of my learned friend M r Lydyat in hia 
Emendatio Temporum, it began in Selucus Nicanor, xii. 
yeares after Alexanders death ; The name was applyed, 
either because after time that Alexander had pers waded 
Limselfe to be Jupiter Hammons sonne, whose Statue 



[S S. V. JAN. 1?, '94. 

was with Rams homes, both his owne and his Succes- 
sors Coines were stanipt with horned Images : or else in 
respect of his ii. pillars erected in the East M&Nihil vllra 
of his Conquest ; and some say because hee had in Power 
the Eatterne and Weiterne World, signified in the two 
Homes. But, howsoeuer, it well fits the Passage, either, 
us if hee had personated Creseidt. at the entrance of two 
wayes, not knowing which to take; in like sense as that 
of Prodicut his Hercules, Pythagoras his Y, or the 
Logicians Dilemma expresse ; or else, which is the truth 
of his conceit, that shee was at a Nonplus, as the inter- 
pretation in his next Staffe makes plaine. How many 
of Noble Chaucert Readers neuer so much as suspect 
this his f>hort essay of knowledge, transcending the 
common Rode? and by his Treatise of the Astrolabe 
(which, I dare nweare, was chiefly learned out of Mes- 
sahalah) it is plaine hee was much acquainted with the 
Mathematiques, and amongst their Authors had it." 

Only very learned men write like that, and a 
good thing too. I hope it is as plain as a pikestaff 
to all readers. Sir T. More alludes to this pas- 
sage in Chaucer : 

" In good fayth, father, I can no ferther goe, but 
am (as I trowe Creside saith in Chaucer), comen to 
DulcarnO euen at my wittes ende." Sir T. More, 1557, 
p. 1441. 

R. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

fifteenth child of Robert Pell (born 1722), a 
physician in Wellclose Square, and magistrate for 
the Tower Hamlets, by his marriage, in June, 
1747, with Esther Wilson (nte Long), a widow. 
The said Robert Pell, a major in the Middlesex 
Militia, who died in camp on Farley Common in 
November, 1779, was the son of Wm. Pell (baptized 
at Chatham, Kent, Dec. 21, 1684), an officer in the 
Royal Navy, who perished, together with 1,000 
men, on board the Victory, as was supposed 
on the rocks called the Caskets, in a gale ofl 
Alderney, February, 1745. An entry in the 
parish register of St. Botolph, Aldgate, Lon- 
don, records the marriage, on June 10, 1707, of 
the said William Pell with Martha Pilgrim, who 
died in October, 1752. 

Albert Pell, born Sept. 30, 1768, and baptized 
in the parish church of St. George-in-the-East, 
co. Middlesex, on Oct. 19 following, as the son oi 
Robert and Esther Pell, was admitted to Mer- 
chant Taylors' School in 1775, and matriculated 
from St. John's College, Oxford (of which society 
he was scholar and fellow until 1813), on June 26, 
1787, graduating B.C.L. in 1793, and proceeding 
D.C.L. in 1798 (Foster's 'Alumni Oxon.,' 1715- 
1886, iii. 1091). Called to the bar in 1795 by the 
Hon. Soc. of the Inner Temple, he appeared 
for many years as counsel in a great number 
of important cases brought into the Court o 
Common Plea?. He was also a leading counsel on 
the Western Circuit, where he acquired both fame 
and fortune, frequently leaving London with up- 
wards of two hundred retainers. His profession 

ncome at that time was estimated at 6,0002. a 
year. " He was a cautious yet energetic advocate, 
and particularly excelled in the skilful examina- 
tion of witnesses." He was called to the degree of 
serjeant-at-law in May, 1808, and became King's 
Serjeant in 1819. He received the honour of 
^nighthood Dec. 7, 1831, on his appointment, by 
the Lord Chancellor, as one of the judges of the 
new Court of Bankruptcy. 

Sir Albert married at Cardington, co. Bedford, 
April 20, 1813, the Hon. Margaret Letitia Matilda 
St. John, third daughter of Henry Beauchamp, 
twelfth Lord St. John of Bletsoe, by Emma 
Maria Elizabeth, second daughter of Samuel Whit- 
bread, Esq., of Cardington, aforesaid, and by her 
had issue four sons and two daughter?. He died 
in Harley Street, London, on Sept. 6, 1832, and 
was buried in the family vault at St. George's-in- 
the-East. Lady Pell, who survived her husband 
for many years, died March 5, 1868, in her eighty- 
third year, and was buried at Wilburton, co. 
Cambridge, on March 12 following. 


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

MR. J. P. OWEN, in his note on ' Electrocute or 
Electrocusa,' in 'N. & Q.,' 8 th S. iv. 463, is, I 
think, in error in supposing the use of platform to 
signify political or other opinion is a recent Ameri- 
canism. In a foot-note on p. 432 of Hallam's 
'Constitutional History of England' reference is 
made to a tract emanating from the army of the 
Commonwealth, entitled ' Vox Militaris/ and the 
following passage is quoted : 

' We did never engage against this platform, nor for 
that platform, nor ever will, except better informed; 
and therefore if the state establisheth presbytery we 
shall never oppose it." 

I think careful research will show that many so- 
called Americanisms, as appears to be the case in 
this instance, are merely well preserved old Eng- 
lish turns of speech which have fallen into disuse 
on this side of the Atlantic. 


Upper Wimpole Street, W. 

NELSON'S BIRTHPLACE. The following para- 
graph is from the South Wales Daily News, 
Nov. 30, 1893 : 

" The final meeting of the committee for the restora- 
tion of Burnham Thorpe Church was held on Monday 
at Marlborough Club, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotba, 
the chairman, presiding. A surplus of 336J. 165. Id. 
(which includes subscriptions in addition to those pre- 
viously acknowledged in the newspapers) was declared, 
and the committee resolved to make over this amount 
to the Rev. J. L. Knight, tbe present rector, lo be 
applied by him for the complete restoration of the tower 
of the church. Subsequently tbe Duke of Saxe-Coburg 
was presented with a photogravure of three notices in 
the parish books bearing Nelson's name. These notices 
settle the dispute as to whether his name was Horace or 

8">S. V. JiH. 13/J4.J 



Horatio. The first is the certificate of baptism, dated 
1758. The second is Nelson's signature (at the age of 11 
years) as a witness of a marriage in his father's church. 
He signed himself Horace, but his father (presumably) 
corrected the name to Horatio. The third notice is 
dated nine months later, and here Nelson signed his 
name in a bold hand as ' Horatio Nelson.' " 


To the young child, the Year is but a round 
Of mixed delight, of gift times, feasts at home, 
Mirth in the summer fields, or by the foam 

Of its strange playmate, sea ; of pleasure found 

When nuts are ripe, when the snow hides the ground 
Or when the cuckoo wiles it forth to roam. 
Cloudlets may fleck awhile the azure dome, 

Yet sunshine rules while all such joys abound. 
Not till of life and death we feel the might, 

Till days when mem'ry should not grieve are rare, 
And bolts are feared from out the bluest skies, 
Comes the Year sadly which was erewhile bright, 

And shows to tearful eyes, a face, once fair, 
All over-scarred with Anniversaries. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"LAR VARIOUS." This word occurs in two of 
the charters printed by Prof. Earle in his ' Hand- 
book to the Land -Charters and other Saxonic 
Documents.' In ^Ethelred's Charter (A.D. 1006) 
conveying land to !St. Albans, the impious wretch 
who "larvarico attactus instinctu " uses fraudu- 
lent means to annul the document is threatened 
with horrible eternal torments. In Eadgar's 
Charter (A.D. 972), granting to the monks of 
Pershore perpetual freedom in the choice of their 
abbot, we are reminded that "Adam pomum 

inomordit vetitum larvarica pro dolor seductus 

cavillatione." In Kemble's ' Codex Dipl.,' in a 
Charter of ^Ethelred's (A.D. 986), No. 655, any 
one who is daring enough to attempt to infringe 
the terms of the instrument is assumed to be 
"larvarico instinctus aflUtu." Prof. Earle, in his 
Glossarial Index,' explains larvaricus as meaning 
diabolic. It is doubtless a derivative of larva. 
The Romans used the term larvoz for uncanny dis- 
quieting apparitions, generally for spectres of the 
dead, but in the Middle Ages the term was trans- 
ferred to the sense of demon or devil. So in 
'Monachus Sangallensia,' lib. i. de Carolo M., 
cap. 25 (apud Ducange), we find "daemon qui 
dicitur Larva." See also indexes to Grimm's * Teu- 
tonic Mythology' (Bag. ed.). la Wiitcker's ' Voca- 
bularies,' 783, 9, we find the line, " Larva fugit 
volucrea, faciem tegit, eat quoque demon." I can 
find no trace of the word larvaricus anywhere 
except in these charters. The word does not occur 

in Ducange nor in the above-mentioned 'Vocabu- 
laries.' I should be glad if any correspondent 
could give me a quotation for larvaricus from any 
continental text, or a reference to its occurrence 
in any continental glossary. The suffix -ricus looks 
as if it were of German origin, cp. G. Wegerich 
from Weg, G. Knoterich from Knote. I cannot 
recall any instances of its occurrence in Old 
English words. More information with regard to 
the extent of the usage of larvaricus, and illustra- 
tive of the formation of the word, would be welcome. 


NAME OF A WATCHMAKER. There is a silver 
watch in New York of the seventeenth century. 
In the inner case is engraved " Cornelis Uyter- 
Ween." Is there in any English collection a watch 
with this name ? Of what nationality was the 
watchmaker ? In what city did he exercise his 
calling ? What would be the exact date of the 
watch? Any information relative to " Cornells 
Uyter-Ween " might be the means of solving an 
historical question of major interest. B. P. 

New York. 

statutes for governing Merchant Taylors' School 
(1561) we have the following prohibitions : "The 
boys are not to indulge in cockfighting, tennis 
play, nor riding about of victoring." What is 
" riding about of victoring " ? 


" NUDER." What is the meaning, and what is 
the origin of this word? I find it in Turner's 
1 Herball,' part ii., 1568, p. 150. Writing of the 
yew tree, Turner says : 

" The Ughe of Narbone is so full of poyson, that if any 
shepe nuder it, or sit under the shaddow of it, are hurt 
and ofte tymes dye." 

J. DlXON. 
[Is it a misprint for " slepe under " ?] 

" GOBLIN." Wishing to trace the derivation 
and use of the word goblin, as distinguished from 
ghost, I shall be glad of references to instances of 
such distinctive use in Old English or Anglo- 
Saxon, and to its equivalents in the associated 
group of languages. E. WESTLAKE. 


JOHN BUCKNA(E)LI M of Crick, co. Northampton- 
shire, married Alice, daughter of Richard Bagnall, 
of Reading, co. Berkshire, between 1600 and 1645. 
When, where : and by licence or banns ? 

C. M. 

LINCOLN INVENTORY. Many years ago, when 
I was but little observant of such things, my 
attention was drawn to an inventory relating to 
the city of Lincoln, in which, if I recollect right, 
certain confiscated church goods were mentioned. 
The only thing that remains clearly in my memory 



C6 th S. V. JAN. 13, '94. 

is that the mayor for the time being was named 
Fulbeck. I think, but am not sure, that this 
document occurred in an old volume of the 
Gentleman's Magazine. If any one can direct me 
to it I shall be obliged. COM. LING. 

HKSTER HAWES, living in Somerset House, 
Strand, in 1688-90. Who and what was she ; 
when did she die ; and where was she buried ? She 
founded the school at Stoke Golding, co. Leicester- 
shire. C. M. 

PRUJEAN SQUARE. Can any reader of ' N. & Q/ 
tell why Prujean Square is so called ? It is in the 
Old Bailey, and is not mentioned by Thornbury in 
his 4 History of London,' nor by Knight. 

K. W. 

accidentally upon the following passage in an un- 
likely quarter, and the statement on the above 
subject being novel to me, and probably to many 
equally ignorant readers, I make a note of it. It 
is in Ducange, under the word "Curtana," and 
quoted by him from Matthew Paris's account of 
the marriage of King Henry III., A.D. 1236 : 

"The Earl of Chester carrying before the King the 
sword of St. Edward (which ia called Curtein), in token 
that he is a Count Palatine, and baa dejure the power of 
rettraining the King if he goes wrong.' 1 * 

At first blush this seems to conflict strangely 
with the accepted legal maxim that " the king can 
do no wrong "; and the more so that a sword appa- 
rently typifies restraint by force. Was the monkish 
chronicler's statement correct at the time of his 
writing, in the thirteenth century ? From what 
period does the principle date that " the king can 
do no wrong " ? I have no wish to invite in the 
non-controversial columns of 'N. & Q.' either dis- 
cussion or explanation of the meaning of that prin- 
ciple, but limit my query to the origin of the 
formula. JOHN W. BONE, F.S.A. 

MONUMENTAL BRASSES. I have heard that a 
society has recently been founded at Oxford of a 
similar nature to the Cambridge University Associa- 
tion of Brass Collectors. Can any one oblige me 
with the name and address of the secretary ? 


The Groves, Cheater. 

COL. GEORGE TWISTLETON. He was Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Governor of Denbigh Castle in the 
Civil War, and M.P. for Anglesea under the 
Commonwealth. What was his precise relation- 
ship to the Twistletons of Barley, in Yorkshire ? 
He is said to have been son of John Twistleton, of 
Aula Barrow, co. York, and to have married Mary 
daughter of William Glyn, of Lleuar, co. Carnarvon^ 
in whose right he became possessed of that estate. 

* " In signum quod Comes eat Palatinun, et Regem, si 
oberret, kabeat de jure potestatem cohibendi." 

A George Twistleton of Lleuar presumably the 
ex-Common wealth M.P. served as High Sheriff of 
Carnarvon in 1682, and died in June, 1697 ; but I 
have a note that the George Twistleton who mar- 
ried Mary Glyn died at Clynog Fawr, Carnarvon, 
on May 12, 1647, aged forty-nine, in which case 
the Governor of Denbigh Castle would probably be 
the son, and not the husband, of the heiress of 
Lleuar. W. D. PINK. 

FULHAM BRIDGE. In the cash books of old 
Fulham Bridge I find many entries such as this : 

1749. Paid the Higler a quarter's Drawback as p. bill 
on >" File, II. 10*. 4d. 

I would like to ask two queries. (1) What was 
a "higler"? Was he a kind of provisioner or 
itinerant tradesman? (2) Was the "drawback" 
the return of a certain percentage of the sum pre- 
viously paid as toll in passing over the bridge ? 

information respecting the public career of Sir 
John Moore, Knt., of the City of London, who 
was Lord Mayor in or about 1680, and who 
received marks of favour from Charles II. Sir 
John was a benefactor of Christ's Hospital, and he 
is buried in the church of St. Dunstan-in-the- 
East. He received in 1683 a grant of arms, and 
subsequently a grant of augmentation of arms, 
particulars of which I have. The originals of 
these grants were carried to the grantee, and copies 
aie within reach, but the originals are lost. There 
is reason to believe that they were at one time in 
the possession of the descendants of a brother of 
Sir John, the Moores of Kentweli Hall, Suffolk, a 
family now extinct. Should this meet the eye of 
any collector into whose hands the papers of the 
Kentweli branch have come, or in whose possession 
these grants now are, he will confer a favour by 
communicating with me. W. H. QUARRBLL. 


ALDERSEY FAMILY. I shall be much obliged 
for any references to persons of the name of 
Aldersey outside of the county of Chester, where 
the family originated and is still very worthily 
represented. One branch was settled at Bredgar, 
co. Kent, and others in London and other places, 
and any information relating to them, in addition 
to what is given in Hasted's ' History of Kent,' 
will be gladly received. Please answer direct. 

Penearn, Abergele, N. Wales. 

Mise" rabies,' partie iii. livre iv. chap, v., Victor 
Hugo makes Marius say, "Comme Cromwell 
soufflant une chandelle sur deux, il [Napoleon] 
s'en allait au Temple marchander un gland de 
rideau." What is the incident in Cromwell's his- 
tory to which Marius alludes ? I do not remember 

8S. V.JAH. 13, '84.] 



it. The " gland de rideau " incident is mentioned 
by Carlyle in his lecture on Napoleon in ' Hero- 

ST. WINIFRED. In Mr. Henry Gaily Knight's 
' Normans in Sicily,' p. 322 (1838), the writer 
speaks of a steamer plying between Sicily and the 
mainland called the San Wenefrede. If this be 
our old English St. Winifred, it is passing strange 
to find an Italian steamer bearing her name. Has 
our St. Winifred a shrine in Italy; or is there an 
Italian saint of her name ? ASTARTE. 

Landowners of Great Britain* (London, 1878), 
under " Dunsany," it is stated : 

"Among Lord Dunsany'a Irish possessions is one field 
of a few acres which is remarkable for its fatal effects on 
all lire stock, if grazed on it, horses lose their hoofa ; if 
hay is made from it, stock fed on the hay lose hoofs, 
and if the diet be continued they die; if corn or potatoes 
be grown on it, the human animal who eats them loses 
his nails." 

I do not know if this has previously been referred 
to in *N. & Q.,' as I have no index here to con- 
sult; but it would be interesting to know if the 
disastrous effects ascribed to the produce of the 
field may be accepted as facts ; or should we look 
upon them as a "popular delusion"? Perhaps 
some reader may be able to say. 

Wiesbaden, Germany. 

VERSES. About the year 1843 there went the 
round of the newspapers a set of verses relating 
to the career, as I suppose, of an Irish patriot. I 
remember the lines quoted below, and should be 
glad to meet with the remainder and to know to 
whom they referred : 

He is dead ; he died of a broken heart, 

Of a frightened soul and a frenzied brain; 
He died of playing a desperate part 

For folly, which others played for gain : 
Yet o'er his turf the rebels rave ; 
Be silent, wretches ; spare the grave. 

S. A. 

LITTLE CHELSEA. What part of Chelsea was 
so called; and in what part of it was LocheVs 
Academy ? In a field near it was fought the duel, 
at three o'clock in the afternoon, on February 13, 
1784, between Capt. Charles Mostyn of the navy 
and Capt. John Montague Clarke of the army. 

W. P. 

(name also spelt Dabrieschescourt) in 1360 was 
guilty of a very serious ecclesiastical offence, when 
he married Elizabeth, daughter of the Marquis 
de Juliers, and a niece of Edward III., who, after 
the death, in 1352, of her first husband, John, 
Earl of Kent, became a nun at Waverley, in 
Surrey. The marriage took place secretly, ' ' before ' 
the sun-rising upon the feast of S. Michael," in 

the (then) Collegiate Church of Wingeham, by one 
of the canons. For the offence Archbishop Simon 
Islip imposed a penance upon both of them, which 
in her case lasted for fifty-one years, as she lived 
until 1411. What is known of this Sir Eustace, 
and where did he live? Was it in this parish? 
Date of death, &c. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingeham, near Dover. 

your readers give me a list of churches in Great 
Britain and Ireland dedicated to St. Thomas of 
Canterbury ; and any information respecting devo- 
tions used by pilgrims to the place of his martyr- 
dom, either in mediaeval or modern times? Is 
there any extant pilgrims' manual ? 


Lyndhurst, Parkside, Cambridge. 


(8 th S. iv. 506.) 

The paragraph from the Western Morning News 
is probably one of those pieces of newspaper 
" padding " that are resuscitated from time to 
time, and evidently itself refers to one of the 
" persons put forward by historians with more or 
less of plausibility " as identical with the Man in 
the Iron Mask. It has been generally held that 
the identity of this individual was settled some 
seventy years ago by J. Delort in his * Histoire de 
1'Horame au Masque de Fer, accompagne'e des 
Pieces Authentiques et de Fac Simile,' Paris, 
1825. This book formed the basis of an enter- 
taining work in English, published in London in 
the following year by the Hon. George Agar- 
Ellis, entitled * The True History of the State 
Prisoner commonly called " The Iron Mask," ex- 
tracted from Documents in the French Archives. 1 
These books were noticed in the Quarterly Review, 
vol. xxxiv. p. 19, and a sketch of their contents 
was given at the same time. The principal facts 
are also mentioned by L. A. Muratori in the 
* Annals of Italy.' In these writings it is clearly 
proved that the Man in the Iron Mask was Ercolo 
Antonio Matthioli, Bachelor of Laws of Bologna, 
Senator of Mantua, and Secretary to Ferdinand, 
Duke of Mantua. In 1677 Matthioli was engaged 
with the Abbe" d'Estrades in an intrigue for the 
admission of French troops into the fortress of 
Casal, coveted by Louis XIV. Matthioli deceived, 
or at any rate disappointed, Louis in this matter, 
which might not have given so much offence had 
not the Italian been so imprudent as to talk about 
the king's share in the intrigue. This was not to 
be tolerated by Louis, who instructed d'Estrades 
to decoy Matthioli across the French frontier, 
under the pretence that he should receive pay- 



[5 th S. V. JAN. 13, '94. 

raent of the sum due to him for his expenses 
in the intrigue, for which he had imprudently 
" dunned " Louis. At the same time Louis ordered 
the following letter to be sent to the Governor of 
Pignerol : 

A M. de St. Mars. 

St. Germain en Laye, ce 27 Avril, 1679. 

Le Roy Envoye presentetnent ordre & M. 1'Abbe 
d'Estradea d'envoyer de faire arreter un homine de la 
conduite duquel Sa Majeete n'a paa sujet d'etre satis- 
faite, de quoi elle m'a coimnande de voua douner advia 
afin que vous no faasiez point de difficulte de le recevoir 
loraqu'il voua sera en?oy6 et que vous le gardiez de 
raaniere que non seulement il n'ayt commerce avec per- 
Bonne, mais encore qu'il ayt lieu do se repentir de la 
mauvaiae conduite qu'il a tenue et que Ton ne puisse 
point penetre que TOUB ayez un nouveau priaonier. 

DE Louvois. 

On May 2, 1679 that is, within a week of these 
instructions d'Estrades succeeded in inducing 
Matthioli to leave Turin with him to receive the 
money due to him from Marshal Gatinat. He 
was arrested soon after crossing the French 
frontier, and Catinat sent him to St. Mars, at 
Pignerol, under the name of L'Estang. In order 
that there may be no doubt it was Matthioli, there 
are letters of St. Mars published in the above 
works referring to his prisoner under the latter 
name. Here he remained until 1681, when St. Mars 
was removed to the command of Exiles, where 
he took Matthioli. In 1687 St. Mars was ap- 
pointed Governor of Lea Isles Ste. Marguerite, 
where he and Matthioli resided eleven years. It 
was during his residence here that Voltaire heard 
of the prisoner, and made the well-known com- 
ments in his 'Siecle de Louis XIV. 1 In 1698 St. 
Mars was appointed Governor of the Bastille, and 
went there, taking Matthioli in a closed vehicle. 
St. Mars stopped on the journey at his Chateau 
of Palteau, and his prisoner was seen getting out 
of the carriage wearing a black mask. They 
entered the Bastille September 18, 1698 ; but the 
page of the register which should have contained 
the entry of Matthioli's arrival was found in 1789 
to have been previously removed. After an im- 
prisonment of twenty-four years and six months, 
Matthioli died somewhat; suddenly on a Sunday 
in November, 1703. He was buried, under the 
name of Marchiali, in the churchyard of St. Paul, 
and was stated to be about forty-five years of age. 
These statements as to age and name do not affect 
the question of identity, as it is well known that 
many persons were buried from the Bastille under 
false names. For some time before his death this 
unfortunate man showed signs of mental disease, 
one of his delusions being that he was nearly 
related to the King of France. Delort's account 
of the affair is supported by many other circum- 
stances. Matthioli was immediately missed, and 
a remonstrance was addressed by Ferdinand to the 
Grande Monarque, who in that character naturally 
denied the treachery charged against him. Three 

months after the arrest all the circumstances lead- 
ing up to it, as well as those of its execution, 
were given in a letter appended to a * Histoire 
Abre"ge"e de 1'Europe,' published at Leyden. They 
were also published at Turin about twenty years 
after. Louis XV. also knew all about Matthioli, 
and admitted to Madame de Pompadour, who 
questioned him on the part of the Due de Choiseul, 
that the prisoner had been minister to an Italian 

It is evident that the letter dated 1691, referred 
to by your correspondent, was not the order for 
the arrest of the Man in the Iron Mask, as he 
had been already some twelve years a prisoner. 
Admitting that Commandant Bazeries has de- 
ciphered it correctly, it is but one of the lettres 
de cachet so common at the time, and was ad- 
dressed to Catinat as De Bulonde's General. Had 
Commandant Bazeries extended his researches 
through the many letters in numerical c'pher to 
and from the king contained in the Catinat corre- 
spondence, he might have found Catinat's request 
for these instructions. JAMES DONELAN. 

CLESFIBLD (8 th S. iv. 206, 354). He was born at 
Leek, co. Stafford, and the date is recorded as 
July 23, 1666 ; but that register gives, " Tho 8 , son 
of T. Parker, gen., & Ann of Leek, bap. 8 Aug., 
1667 "; and this agrees with age when admitted to 
Trinity College, Cantab. Married at the church 
of Wirksworth, co. Darby, April 23, 1691, 
Jennet, second daughter and coheiress of Kobert 
Carrier, of Wirksworth aforesaid, gent. This 
lady, who was aunt to Anson, the circumnavigator, 
nearly missed being Countess of Macclesfield and 
" Lady Chancellor " to boot, for it would appear 
that some one set about obtaining licence from the 
Vicar-General, May 23, 1687, for a marriage be- 
tween "Francis Bythell of S Dunstan West, 
widower, about 28, and M" Jennett Carrier of 
Wirksworth, co. Derby, about 21"; but the entry 
is not completed, and the marriage never came off. 

Sir Thomas Parker was raised to the Peerage, 
by patent dated March 10, 1715 (O.S.), as "Lord 
Parker, Baron of Macclesfield, in the county of 
Chester," with remainder to the heirs male of his 
body. On November 15,* 1721, he was advanced 
to the dignities of Viscount Parker of Ewelme, 
co. Oxford, and Earl of Macclesfield, with re- 
mainder to heirs male of his body, and for default 
in both these titles, together with the original 
barony, to Elizabeth, his daughter, then wife of 
William Heathcote, of Hursley, Esq. Though 
the contingencies thereby provided for have not 
yet arisen, curiously enough, Elizabeth's daughter, 
Mary Heathcote, became Countess of Macclesfield 
by marriage with her cousin, the third earl. If 

* Patent Roll, the signet ia Nov. 5. 

8** S. V. JAN. 13, '94.] 



the Heathcotes should ever inherit these titles, 
wonder whether the precedence of the barony 
would be reckoned from the original creation. 

The Lord Chancellor founded the Leek Gram 
mar School, above the portals of which is in 
scribed, " This building erected by the Earl o 
Macclesfield, Lord High Chancellor of Grea 
Britain, Anno Doiu. 1723." His maternal grand 
father, General Robert Venables, of Wincham 
co. Chester, was the author of ' The Experienced 
Angler,' and his first cousin, Sir Richard Levinge, 
Bart., was Lord Chief Justice of the Common 

As for the Lord Lieutenancy and Recordership 
I can offer nothing, except that, the latter being 
in the election of the Corporation of Derby, the 
Town Clerk there would probably supply the date. 
If G. F. R. B. has not already referred to Sleigh's 
' History of Leek,' 1883 (British Museum, 1853, 
b. 19), he should do so, as it affords many in- 
teresting particulars of the only Lord High Chan- 
cellor who ever had his body opened. 

8, Morrison Street, S.W. 

MACDONELL OF GLENGARRY (8 th S. iv. 508). 
The best book on the subject is Alexander Mac- 
kenzie's ' History of the Macdonalds.' An account 
of the settlement of the Glengarries in Ontario 
will be found in 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' *.v., " Mac- 
donell, Alexander" (1762-1840), vol. xxxv. 
pp. 49, 50. A. F. P. 

Thongh this name has disappeared from Sir B. 
Bnrke'a Landed Gentry,' the Glengarry estates 
having passed into other hands, yet MR. A. 
MASTERS MACDONELL will find the family fully 
recorded in his earlier editions. 



(5* S. i. 305 ; 8> S. i v. 30 1 ). That form of the legend 
which gives the angels' names is not of English ori- 
gin. Nearly fifty years ago I copied a Latin version 
from a MS. by an English scribe ; but at a later 
date I met with a more recent copy, to which was 
added a reference to " Guarinus Veronensis in 
litera A"; and I find that in the ' Vocabularius 
Breviloquus,' which was several times printed in 
the fifteenth century together with Guarinus's 
tract, * De Arte Diphthongandi,' the story is given 
under the word " Adam " as found in the English 
version quoted by MR. MAYHEW. In substance 
t is found also in the writings of another Latin 
father besides St. Cyprian. St. Augustine, in his 
commentary on St. John, tract, ix., writes thus: 

"Quis autem nesciat quod de illo [ac. AdamJ exort 
aunt omnes gentee, et in ejus vocabulo quatuor litteris 
quatuor orbia terrarum partes per Graecas appellationes 

monstrantur ? Si enim Gnece dicatur oriens, occidens, 
aquilo, meridies, sicut eaa plerisque locis Sancta Scrip- 

tura commemorat, in capitibus verborum invenis Adam: 
dcuntur enim Graece quatuor memoratae muudi partes, 
dvaroXr], dvvig, aperof, nearjpfipia. Ista quatuor 
nomina si tanquam versus quatuor subinvicem scribas, in 
eorum capitibus Adam legitur." ' Opp.,' edit. Basil., 
1529, vol. ix. p. 59. 

I have asked my friend Dr. Neubauer whether 
in Talmudic writers any form of the myth occurs, 
and he (whose authority on such a matter is all- 
sufficient) tells me that there is no myth connected 
with Adam's name, but only with the formation of 
his body, viz., that the trunk was formed from the 
earth of Babylonia, as representing fruitfulness ; 
the head from that of Palestine, as representing 
intelligence ; and the other parts from other lands. 
The Greek origin is still to be sought ; it will not 
be found in Philo. W. D. MACRAY. 

Abu'lgbazi begins his history of the Tatars with 
the myth of the creation of Adam. Four angels 
figure in it ; and though it does not bear directly 
on the subject of MR. MAYHEW'S note, it may be 
interesting to compare the two myths, and possibly 
the one may have suggested the other. 

When God had determined to create Adam, he 
sent in succession the four angels Sabrail, Michael, 
Asraphil, and Asrail for a handful of earth for the 
purpose. Each of the first three came back in 
turn empty-handed, having been persuaded by the 
earth that the creation would result only in con- 
fusion and misery ; but Asrail was faithful to bis 
commission. He gathered a handful of earth from 
the place where the Temple at Mecca now stands, 
and carried it to God, and of this earth Adam was 
fashioned. For thirty-nine days the new-made 
man was kept at Mecca, awaiting his soul. On 
the fortieth day this was given him, and he was 
then put into the Garden of Eden. His name, 
Adam, signifies " of the turf," but he wassurnamed 
Saphi-Jula. To the angel Asrail, for his faith- 
fulness, was given the office of receiving men's 
souls at their death and carrying them to God. 

Such is the myth. The only point of resem- 
blance with the other is the four angels. 

C. C. B. 

In 'Legends of Old Testament Characters,' 
vol. i. ch. ii., Mr. Bering- Gould refers to "the 
most authoritative Mussulman traditions" con- 
cerning the creation of man, according to which 
the four archangels, Gabriel, Michael, Israfiel, and 
Asrael, were sent in quest of earth to serve for the 

ashioning of Adam. The legend is told by Sale 

n a note to the chapter of ' Al Koran ' entitled 

The Cow." I do not find that either author 

mentions his authority for the names ; and as MR. 

VIAYHEW wishes to be referred to the original 
version in language other than our own, I fear this 
note will be of less service to him than I could 
ish. In a story taken from ' The Chronicle of 
Abou-djafar Mohammed Tabari,' which has been 

>artially rendered into French for the Oriental 



[8 th S. V. JAN. 13, '94. 

Translation Fund, the instruments of the Almighty 
are spoken of as Gabriel, Michael, and Azrael. 
Baretb, or Satan, went to look at the figure of 
clay, which, as yet inanimate, lay stretched on the 
earth for something like forty years, and despised 
the new creation. ST. SWITHIN. 

DEVONISH : LEOUNE JENKINS (8 th S. iv. 227, 
452). Robert Devonisb, created York Herald 
on February 23, 1674/5 ; Norroy in October, 
patent November 22, 1700. Nephew to Sir 
Thomas and Sir Henry St. George, Garters in 
succession. He was Registrar of the College of 
Arms until removed by the Duke of Norfolk in 
favour of Mr. King, Rouge-Dragon, afterwards 
Lancaster. Dying April 7, 1704, aged sixty-six, 
he was buried at Mortlake, in Surrey. Over the 
west gallery in that church is a monument to his 
memory, erected by Mary, his eldest daughter 
(also in memory of her sister Elizabeth, who died 
May 25, 1717). He married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of George Tucker, of Milton, co. Kent, 
who died May 15, 1701. Sir Leoline (Llewellyn) 
Jenkins was a distinguished statesman and 
civilian, descended from a good Welsh family. 
He was the son of Leoline Jenkyns of Llan- 
blethian, co. Glamorgan, born at Llantrisaint (Le 
Neve gives Llanthshed) in 1623. Entered Jesus 
College, Oxford, 1649, and resided abroad during 
the usurpation; LL.D. Oxford, February 16, 
1661 ; Principal of Jesus College, March 1, 1661; 
appointed by the Duke of York Judge of Court of 
Admiralty (1665 I); Judge of Prerogative Court, 
1666 ; Burgess for Hythe (a Cinque Port), 1668 ; 
knighted at Whitehall, January 7, 1670 (Le Neve, 
1669) ; Ambassador to Holland, 1673 ; nego- 
tiated Treaty of Nimeguen, 1676-9; M.P. for 
Oxford University, 1679 ; Privy Councillor and 
Secretary of State, February 11, 1680; resigned 
April, 1684 ; died a bachelor, September 1, 1685, 
aged sixty-two, and buried in Jesus College Chapel 
on the 17th. A monument was placed over his 
grave. He gave most of his estate to the above- 
mentioned college, said to be worth 700?. per 
annum, and two advowsons. His letters, &c., 
with his life were published by Wynne in 1724, 
two volumes, folio. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

ROMAN DAUGHTER (8 th S. iv. 248, 394, 457). 
I have to thank your correspondents for the infor- 
mation given in answer to my query. It was 
suggested, or partly so, by the handsome marble 
sculpture in the summer-house, called the " Temple 
of Piety," in the Marquis of Ripon's grounds in 
Studley Park. According to Thorpe's ' Guide to 
Harrogate,' " The mural bas-relief represents the 
Roman legend of a daughter affording sustenance 
to her captive father." G. 

I do not know whether it has been noted in 
connexion with this subject that it occurs in one 

of the old stories of filial piety current for many 
centuries in China. There Tsui She was blessed 
with a great-great-grandmother who had lost her 
teeth and could not eat, so she fed her for many 
years from her own bosom. The legend has been 
passed on to Japan, and I have it charmingly 
portrayed in a netsuJcc, where an infant decidedly 
objects to its mother's milk going elsewhere than 
to its legitimate claimant. 


IVY IN AMERICA (8 th S. ii. 143, 249). The 
Blandford ivy is a true ivy (Hedera helix), supposed 
to have been planted by one of the Puddledock 
Herberts, a slip from an old Westmoreland St. 
Cuthbert Church near Penrith, which once be- 
longed to some family into which the Herberts 
married. The ivy is of interest, coming as it did 
from a church at which the saint's body rested on 
its way to Durham several centuries ago. Can 
any one give the exact location of the church men- 

Boston, U.S. 

INSTITUTE (8 th S. iv. 467). Dr. Birkbeck 
certainly set the thing going in 1800, but the word 
was later. It appeared in a proposal for a " Lon- 
don Mechanics' Institute," in 1822, in the Me- 
chanics' Magazine. See the Quarterly Review, 
October, 1825. 


"LEAPS AND BOUNDS" (8 th S. i. 86). At the 
above reference MR. PICKFORD says that the origin 
of this phrase was asked for in ' N. & Q.' some 
time ago, but that, to the best of his recollection, no 
answer was given. I venture to suggest that it is 
a misinterpretation of the French phrase, (t Par 
sauts et par bonds," which really means "by fits 
and starts." If my theory be correct, Mr. Glad- 
stone was perpetrating or perpetuating an error of 
translation when be made use of the expression 
"by leaps and bounds" in his historical speech; 
and some may even go so far as to think that " by 
fits and starts " would have been not only a more 
correct rendering, but, alas ! a nearer approach to 
the truth. I have no authority for saying that 
Mr. Gladstone introduced the phrase, but he has 
certainly made it at once classical and popular. 


LORD CHANCELLOR COWPER (8 th S. iv. 488). 
J. S. is no doubt correct in fixing the date of 
Cowper's birth "about the middle of 1664." 
Kippis records that he was unable to obtain any 
certain information " of the place or time of his 
birth, or where he was educated." Nor could he 
find the least memorial of him in Her tingford bury 
Church, nor any entry of his birth in the parish 
registers at Hertford ('Biog. Brit.,' 1789, vol. iv. 
383). Foss says that Cowper "was born at Hert- 
ford Castle about four or five years after the 

8 th S. V. JAN. 13, '94.] 



Restoration," and that " there is DO other trace of 
his education than that he was some years at a 
school at St. Albans till he became a student at 
the Middle Temple on March 8, 1681/2 " ('Judges 
of England,' 1864, vol. viii. p. 19). The 'Diction- 
ary of National Biography ' (vol. xii. p. 390) throws 
no further light on these points. The admissions 
to Westminster School of that date no longer exist, 
and the absence of his name from the list of King's 
Scholars in the ' Alumni Westmon.' proves that he 
was never admitted into college. His name does 
not even appear in the lists of distinguished old 
Westminsters which were appended to the Epigram 
Books of 1859, 1871, and 1880. In point of 
fact there is no evidence whatever, so far as I am 
aware, in favour of the statement that Lord Cowper 
was educated at Westminster. It is true that 
Lord Campbell says, "from evidence given on his 
brother's famous trial at Hertford for murder there 
seems reason to think that they were both for some 
years at Westminster " (' Lives of the Lord Chan- 
cellors/ 1857, vol. v. p. 220). All who have 
endeavoured to verify anything in those most 
interesting and amusing ' Lives ' will know exactly 
how far it is safe to quote Lord Campbell as an 
authority. The trial of Spencer Cowper, the Lord 
Chancellor's younger brother, is reported at length 
in Howell's 'State Trials,' 1812 (vol. xiii. 1105- 
1250). The report, however, does not contain a 
scrap of evidence showing that the Lord Chancellor 
was educated at Westminster, though a certain 
Mr. Thompson does say that he had " the honour 
to go to Westminster School" with Spencer Cowper 
(ibid., xiii. 1180). The fact that the younger 
brother was educated at the school is, I submit, 
hardly a good and sufficient reason for thinking 
that "they were both for some years at West- 
minster." G. F. R. B. 

The biographers of Lord Chancellor Cowper 
who ignore his birth must not be thought to 
include Lord Campbell, who says that he was 
"born in the Castle of Hertford in the year 1664. His 
baptismal register haa not been found, and the exact 
day of his birth cannot be ascertained. "V. 219. 


SEDAN-CHAIR (8 th S. ii. 142, 511 ; iii. 54, 214, 
533 ; iv. 229). From the following passage, which 
I transcribe from the late Mr. Henry Gaily Knight's 
'The Normans in Sicily,' 1838, it would appear 
that the sedan-chair was a well-known object fifty- 
five years ago, The lettiga which he describes is, 
I believe, yet in use, but I do not speak from per- 
sonal knowledge : 

" Aug. 29. This day was entirely occupied in returning 
by land to Catania, a distance of about forty miles. We 
performed the journey in a lettiga, a kind of vehicle 
which only exists in Sicily, because no other civilized 
country is without carriage roads. The lettiga is a small 
vis-d-vis, carried on long poles, by two mules ; exactly in 

the manner in which a sedan-chair is carried by men. 
Two guides accompany each lettiga. They take it in 
turns to encourage the mules. The one who is not on 
duty rests himself on the back of the foremost beast. 
The mules are so sure-footed, that the lettiga is trans- 
ported along the roughest paths, up and down the 
steepest hills, through the dry beds of wintry torrents, 
in perfect safety, to the equal astonishment and satis- 
faction of its inmates. The lettiga is by no means an 
uncomfortable conveyance, especially in summer, when 
it affords protection from the scorching rays of the sun." 
P. 148. 


(8 th S. iv. 428, 513). Apropos of MR. EDWARD 
H. MARSHALL'S observation at the last reference, 
I send you the following, from the title-page of the 
eighth edition of Heylyn's * Microcosmus': "Ox- 
ford : Printed by William Turner Ann. Dom. 1939." 


HEADS ON CITY GATES (8 th S. iv. 489). Cer- 
tain it is that from 1305 Traitor's Gate, first at 
the north end, and subsequently, in 1577, at the 
south end of London Bridge, was adorned with 
ghastly human heads upon poles or spikes, where 
they were allowed to remain until decayed. Temple 
Bar, built in 1670, was first so ornamented in 1684. 
For a complete list of the heads so exhibited, see 
* Memorials of Temple Bar,' by J. C. Noble, Lon- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The earliest mention I have met with is that of 
William Wallace, whose head was displayed on a 
pole above the entrance gate on London Bridge in 
1305. The earliest instance I know of heads being 
exhibited on Temple Bar is that of the Rye House 
conspirators, who were gibbeted thus in 1684. 



111. 368 ; iv. 427, 492). It may be added that a 
pen-and-ink drawing, in the merest outline, of one 
of the south windows of the chancel at Chesterford 
(the written entry being simply, " Chesterford S 
window of the Chancel") is preserved in Add. 
MS. 6747, fo. 9 (Brit. Mus.). A similar drawing 
of a window (of different form from the other), 
with the entry, " Chesterford, a S. window," finds 
a place in Add. MS. 6748, fo. 27. The entries 
are in the handwriting, and the sketches are doubt- 
less the work of, the Rev. Thos. Kerrich, F.S.A. 
(1748-1828), Principal Librarian to the University 
of Cambridge, who bequeathed his collections of 
sketches and notes (now Add. MSS. 6728-6773) 
to the Trustees of the British Museum. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

" BRED AND BORN " (6"> S. iv. 68, 275 ; v. 77, 

112, 152, 213, 318, 375, 416 ; vL 17, 259, 496). 
If it is not harking back too far, an addition may 
be made here, in obedience to C.ipt. Cuttle, to 


V. JAN. 13, '94. 

the many interesting and valuable notes already 
written on this proverbial phrase. Writing to 
Scott, in 1813, his friend Morritt of Rokeby thus 
playfully refers to a rumour that has reached him 
about the oracle of the Edinburgh Rtview (Scott's 
' Familiar Letters,' i. 302): 

" I hear Jeffrey's tour to America ia not to avoid, but 
to fetch, a wife, and that she is a niece of Johnny 
Wilkei", bred and born in America. What a portentous 
conjunction of philosophic republicanism ! " 

The rumour, it may just be added, was correct. 
Jeffrey on that occasion married Miss Charlotte 
Wilkes, who was, however, a step further removed 
from "Johnny" than Morritt supposed. Her 
father was John Wilkes's nephew, he himself 
being Charles Wilkes, a banker in New York 
(Cockburn's * Life of Lord Jeffrey,' i. 213). 


Helensburgb, N.B. 

404, 514). MR. PEACOCK may be interested to 
learn that in Sicily before 1860 mothers used 
to take their children to executions, and, in order to 
impress the lesson deeply on the memory, adminis- 
tered a very sound thrashing to the little folks 
immediately all was over. THORNFIELD. 

" MORBLEU" (8 th S. iv. 468). I can remember 
sixty and more years ago at Launceston the ex- 
pression being used, if a boy were whipped, that 
he "sang out ' Morbleu '"; and it has frequently 
been employed in my hearing since. The idea I 
had was that it was a relic of the time when French 
prisoners of war, and especially officers on parole, 
were detained at Launceston, as they were at the 
beginning of the century. The officers were 
boarded with private families in the town ; and 
I recollect well that one of the privates continued 
to live in the place even after peaee was concluded, 
and ended his days as caretaker of the local Wes- 
ieyan Chapel. R BOBBINS. 

In 'The Slang Dictionary,' J. 0. Hotten, 1864, 
"Blue murder*' is defined as a "desperate or 
alarming cry. French, mortbleu." In ' The Bag- 
man's Dog,' in the * Ingoldsby Legends,' Barham 
writes : 

His ear caught the sound of the word " Morbleu/" 
Pronounced by the old woman under her breath. 
Now, not knowing what she could mean by " Blue 

Death ! " 

He conceived she referr'd to a delicate brewing 
Which is almost synonymous, namely, " Blue Ruin." 


S. iv. 348, 413, 453). It is hardly worth while 
quoting lines about magpies, which are well known 
all over the country. la the Rev. C. Swainson's 
* Folk-lore of British Birds ' (Folk-lore Society) it 
is stated at p, 90 that if the raven was heard 

croaking over a house in Andalusia, an unlucky 
day was expected ; if repeated thrice, it was a 
fatal presage. Furthermore, Mr. Swainson re- 
marks that to see one raven was accounted lucky, 
three the reverse. He quotes the following lines, 
from M. G. Lewis's ballad of 'Bill Jones': 

Ah ! well-a-day, the sailor said, 

Some danger must impend ! 

Three ravens sit in yonder glade, 

And evil will happen, I 'm sore afraid, 

Ere we reach our journey's end. 

And what have the ravens with us to do ? 

Does their eight betoken us evil 1 

To see one raven is lucky, 'tis true, 

But it 's certain misfortune to light upon two, 

And meeting with three U the devil ! 


DANTE AND NOAH'S ARK (8 th S. iv. 168, 236, 
373). E. L. G. may be informed that Sir John 
Maundevile, who saw Noah's Ark, saw also 

men whose heads 
Do grow beneath their shoulders. 

He probably derived his information from Pliny, 
when he wrote : 

' And in another yle, toward the southe, duellen folk 
of foule stature, and of cursed kynde, that ban no hedea, 
and here eyen bin in here scholdres." 


Highgate, N. 

" HEAR, HEAR ! " (8 th S. iv. 447). I think the 
earliest instance of the use of this phrase is to be 
found in 2 Samuel xx. 16, "Then cried a wise 
woman out of the city, Hear, hear ! " Lord 
Macaulay, in his ' History of England ' (ch. xi.), 
gives the origin of this exclamation : 

" The King f William III.] therefore, on the fifth day 
after he had been proclaimed [1689], went with royal 
state to the House of Lords, and took his seat on the 
throne. The Commons were called in ; and he, with 
many gracious expressions, reminded his hearers of the 
perilous situation of the country, and exhorted them to 
tbke such steps as might prevent unnecessary delay in 
the transaction of public business. His speech was 
received by the gentlemen who crowded the bar with the 
deep hum by which our ancestors were wont to indicate 
approbation, and which was often heard in places more 
sacred than the chamber of the Peers.* As soon as he 
had retired, a Bill declaring the Convention or Parlia- 
ment was laid on the table of the Lordf, and rapidly 
passed by them. In the Commons the debates were 
warm. The House resolved itself into a Committee ; and 
so great was the excitement that, when the authority of 
the Speaker was withdrawn, it was hardly possible to 
preserve order. Sharp personalities were exchanged. 
The phrase 'hear him,' a phrase which had originally 
been used only to silence irregular noises, and to remind 
members of the duty of attending to the discussion, had, 
during some years, been gradually becoming what it now 
is ; that is to say, a cry indicative, according to the tone, 
of admiration, acquiescence, indignation, or derision. On 
this occasion the "Whigs vociferated 'Hear, hear,' so 
tumultuously that the Tories complained of unfair 

* Van C.ttere, Feb. 19 (March 1), 1688/9. 

V.JAN. 13, '24.) 



See also N. & Q.,' 4< h S. ix. 200, 229, 285 ; 6 th 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I do not know the exact date of John Burgoyne's 
' Maid of the Oaks/ but the following passage 
from Garrick's epilogue to that play may be in- 
teresting : 

Hear him ! Hear him ! 
the best Speaker cannot keep you quiet : 
Nay, there as here, he knows not how to steer him 
When order, order 'a drown'd in hear him, hear him ! 

The italics are as given in the edition of the play 
from which I quote. JAMES HOOPER. 


I would refer this "cry " back to the Norman- 
French " Oyez, oyez," which is vulgarized among us 
as "Oh yes." A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, B.C. 

ITALIAN BIRDCAGE CLOCK (8 th S. iv. 388). 
" The old clock-faces, like that at StT Peter's (Rome) 
were divided only into eiz parts instead of twelve, and 
the bands went round four times in the day and night. 

A traveller at Chivasao, about 1729, tells us that he 

was puzzled to reconcile the Italian clocks with the 
French and German method of computing time. In 
some places the clocks struck no more than twelve, in 
others only six, beginning again at one." ' Curiosities of 
Clocks and Watches,' by Edward J. Wood, 1866. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ITALIAN TDIOM (8" S. ii. 445, 498; iii. 37, 
171,289,414; iv. 56, 111, 250, 352, 395). It 
would have saved much trouble if MR. YOUNG 
had stated who Prof. Lodovfco Biagi is, and 
what he is professor of, for Italian professors 
are as little known to Englishmen as English 
professors are to Italians. As it is, I have 
been obliged to make inquiries for myself, 
but, so far as I can make out and I may, of 
course, be mistaken this Prof. Biagi* is cer- 
tainly not entitled to be called, as MR. INQLEBY, 
probably without inquiry, calls him, "the most 
competent authority in Italy in this particular 
matter." At any rate, this is what the Professor 
of Geology in the University of Modena, but who 
was born and brought up at Sienna, says con- 
cerning him : 
"II Prof. Lodovico Biagi come letterato e sconosciuto, 

i almeno mi hanno asserito alcuni colleghi che 
doTrebbero conoscerlo ; pero ho trovato nell' annuariof 
che o professors di grammatica all' iatituto musicale e di 
declamazione in Firenze ed e fiorentino." 

* It seems that there is a Prof. Guido Biagi, who is 
well known na a critic, and has an appointment at the 
Ministry of Public Instruction at Rome, and it is pos- 
sible that MR. INQLEBY has taken him to be the professor 
cited by MR. YOUKQ. 

t This " Annuario" is not an ordinary directory. It 
is a directory for the Italian universities and other 
public institutions which are under the control of the 

As I have already made some remarks about 
Prof. Biaei's note, I will now deal with two 
points only, or chiefly, and these are : First, 
whether in voi dovevi, &c., the dovevi is a contrac- 
tion of the plural dovevate, or whether it has 
arisen from a popular and ungrammatical use of 
the singular. Upon this point, however, there is 
really no occasion for me to say anything. If I 
have provisionally declared myself in favour of 
the second view, it is simply because, as I have 
stated, no evidence worth naming has been given 
on the other side ; and yet it is they who ought 
to produce evidence of the contraction. I merely 
follow Diez, Corticelli, and Petrocchi ; Prof. 
Biagi follows Nannucci and Mr. Adams. 

The second point is whether voi dovevi ifi 
" used only when voi is employed for tu." Prof. 
Biagi says that this view is " quite erroneous," so 
far as Florence is concerned. But I spoke of 
Tuscany in genera), and not of Florence in par- 
ticular; and as my informant, the much-abused 
Italian governess, has lived nearly the wnole of 
her life at Sienna, and has never passed more than 
a few months at Florence, and has resided in no 
other towns in Italy than these two, I should have 
done better to limit my statement to Sienna and 
the neighbourhood. There are many differences 
of idiom between Florence and Sienna,* and I 
have no doubt, therefore, that my governess is 
correct when she says that educated people (Prof. 
Biagi has taken no notice of this restriction) in 
and about Sienna, who are careful in their speech, 
prefer to use voi dovevi, &c., when voi=tu. Why 
should she say it is so if it is not so ? It was her 
own volunteered statement to me. I never made 
any suggestion to her ; indeed, at that time, the 
idiom was new to me, and I knew nothing about 
it excepting what I had read in the grammars, and 
they none of them say anything upon this par- 
ticular point. Besides, I have found support for 
her statement, though Prof. Biagi has chosen to 
ignore my quotations. I showed, namely, that no 
less a writer than Massimo d'Azeglio, in his his- 
torical novel ' Niccolo de* Lapi ' constantly uses 
voi with the sing, imperfect (both indie, and 
subj.) when one person only is addressed, whilst 
he always uses voi with the plural when more than 
one person is addressed. It is evident, therefore, 
that he at least followed the same rule as the 
Italian governess. 

Nor is there anything surprising that such a 
rule should be adopted, if only by some people. 
In the Basque language, also, a device has been 
adopted by which you, sing., is distinguished from 

* Thus, in Florence, dla is what is commonly heard ; 
in Sienna it is lei. Again, in Florence this dla. is fre- 
quently corrupted into la, even by educated people, as, 
e. </.. " La non ci pensi," " La non si pigli suggezione " 
(Francescbi's 'Dialogtu di Lingua parlata,' eighth edit., 
Turin, pp. 127-8;. This la is not used at Sienna. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s= s. v. JA is, -91. 

you, plural. In Basque an auxiliary verb is con- 
stantly used, just as we may say " I do speak" 
instead of " I speak." The personal pronouns are 
affixed to the auxiliary verb, whilst the principal 
verb is left unchanged for all the persons, just as 
aime is in French when the auxiliary verb at, as, 
a, &c., is used with it. Zu originally meant you 
(plural), but when, through politeness, it came to 
be used of one person only, then, in order to avoid 
any ambiguity, the form zue was devised to denote 
you (plural). Thu?, emaiten duzu = you. (sing.) 
give, and emaiten duzueyou. (plur.) give, emaiten 
representing our give. 

Prof. Biagi says that voi is used less in Florence 
than in any other Italian city. No doubt, but it 
must not be inferred that what holds good for 
Florence holds good for the rest of Tuscany. The 
Professor of Geology whom I have quoted above 
says, after reading Prof. Biagi's note, which I for- 
warded to him : 

" L'uao di Ella e Florentine, nel resto della Toscana 
fii usa il voi e s'impiega nello class! agiate verso le per- 
sone di condizione inferiors, dalle sign ore congli uomini 
in segno di confidenza, e nelle class! inferior! in segno di 
rispetto reciproco; pero ee le persone delle class! 
inferior! si rivolgono a quelle delle class! superior! usano 
sempre la terza persona." 

We see from this that a person may live all his 
life in Tuscany and my governess has done this 
with the exception of three or four years passed in 
France and England and yet be thoroughly con- 
versant with the use of voi. 

In conclusion, this same professor says, with 
regard to Maesta, "II vocativo in Italiano & 
Maesta tout court, vostra Maesta e un francesismo; 
cosi dicesi al vocativo, Altezza, eccellenza, &c." I 
do not quite agree as to "Vostra Maesta" being 
a Gallicism,* but the professor's words show us, 
at any rate, how much difference of opinion 
about such points of grammar there is among 
Italians themselves. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

COMMONS (7* S. xii. 161, 353; 8" S. i. 12). 
Amongst the survivors who were alive within the 
last few years was Mr. Charles Tottenham, of 
Ballycurry, co. Wicklow. He was elected for the 
borough of New Ross, May 7, 1831. He was 
defeated at the election immediately following the 
passing of the Reform Act, but was again elected 
in 1856 and 1863. He died June 1, 1886. His 
son, Col. Charles George Tottenham, succeeded 
his father, and was the sixth Charles Tottenham 

* I consulted two French friends upon the subject. 
The one, a lady, said at once, decisively, " Votre 
Majestd " is never used in the vocative ; " Majest6 " 
alone must be used. The other, a gentleman, hummed 
and hawed, and at length said he preferred " Majeste " 
alone, but thought that " Votre Majeste " might be used. 
"At the same time," he went on, " we never really use 
one or the other ; we always say Sire ! ' " 

in direct lineal succession who represented the 
same constituency. The borough of New Ross 
has ceased to return a member, it being merged 
in South Wexford under Mr. Gladstone's Reform 
Act. Y. S. M. 

Miss = MISTRESS (8 tb S. iv. 186). It is some 
what wonderful that Prof. Skeat has allowed MR. 
E. H. MARSHALL'S note to pass unnoticed. If 
the latter gentleman understands the " Miss, "of 
his quotation, printed with a capital letter, as an 
independent word, he is quite wrong. I have taken 
the trouble to refer to an early edition (1548 1) of 
Tyndale's * Parable,' and copy the following, which 
will show the meaning more plainly than MR. 
MARSHALL'S quotation : 

" Lykewyse when I eaye mysse women tyre them 
selues with golde and sylke to please theyr louers. 
What wylte not thou garnyshe thy soule w l faythe to 
please Cbryste? here prayse I not whoredome, but the 
dylygence which the whore myau[8]etb." 

The "mysse" here has no connexion with miss = 
kept mistress; it is identical with the mis- of 
such words as misdeed, and is therefore the first 
element of a compound word which would now be 
printed "miswoman," and indeed it is so printed 
twice in the ' Remedie of Love,' a composition 
(fifteenth century ?) formerly attributed to Chaucer : 

Flie the miswoman lest she the disceve, 

Thus saith Salomon 

Flie the miswoman if thou love thy life. 

Anderson's ' Poets,' i. 551. 

Towards the end of the piece occurs " misse-liver >7 
applied to a male debaucher. Unless any be 
hardy enough to contend that miss mistress is 
derived from " miswoman," the etymology must 
remain where Prof. Skeat has left it. 

While on this subject, I observe that the English 
Historical Review printed last July (viii. 533) a 
newsletter of 1653 from the Clarendon State 
Papers (No. 1115 in Cal), having in the top mar- 
gin : " My services to Mis Hoare and my Cosins," 
&c. Any reader who has access to the Bodleian 
Library would greatly oblige me by informing 
me if this " Mis " is in the original written aa 
printed or as " M 18 ." F. ADAMS. 

MR. ADAMS has called my attention to the 
above. Of course MR. MARSHALL is talking 
about a different word altogether, and has entirely 
ignored Evelyn's explicit statement that the par- 
ticular miss which was short for mistress first came 
up in 1662. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS (8 tn S. iv. 89, 335). 
Surely the statement transcribed from ' Cbambers's 
Encyclopaedia' and quoted in 'N. & Q.' should 
not pass unnoticed, viz., that armorial bearings 
originated in the thirteenth century. The more so 
since it is the popular idea on the subject, and is 
unhesitatingly set forth as a fact in modern heraldic 
works. But our oldest, fullest, and best heraldic 

S" S. V. JAN. 13, '4.] 



writers give a far greater antiquity to arms, and, 
venture to think, a truer one. Guillim (' Display 
1679, p. 5) mentions both views, and very decidedlj 
upholds the great antiquity of armorial bearings 
Homer describes the devices on the shields of th< 
Greek leaders ; Virgil mentions the Trojan heroe 
as bearing such emblems ; Diodorus Siculus relate 
that, in their emigration, Osiris, Hercules, Macedon 
Anubis, in their warfare bore on their shield 
respectively eye, lion, wolf, dog. The real or rnythi 
existence of such characters makes no difference 
as to the knowledge and custom of arms. In ful 
agreement with and illustration of these authors 
we find the Greek vases in the British, Naples, and 
other museums adorned with Greek warriors 
having shields bearing various armorial devices 
(Gerhard, ' Austerlisene Grieschische Vasenbilder,' 
iii., Berlin). On these vases we find the shields of 
Agamemnon bearing a lion ; Ajax, a bull ; Achilles^ 
a gorgon; ^Eneas, a lion; Memnon, a star; Paris^ 
a globe ; Idomeneus, a fulmen ; Aristomenup, an 
eagle ; Antilochus, a boar ; Menelaus, a serpent ; 
Hector, a cock ; Pelides, a cuttle ; Polybotus, a 
serpent, et al. (See a valuable article on the episema 
of Greek shields in Archceologia, vol. xxxii.). 

The very designation "armorial," being derived 
from arma, distinctly defines the above emblems 
on shields to be correctly described as armorial 
bearings. This would carry them back at least to 
B.C. 580, the latest date given for the writing of 
the ' Iliad.' 

The above refer to men ; but the gods also bore 
arms. On the vases we find Athene bearing an 
eagle ; Minerva, a serpent ; Mars, a gorgon ; Her- 
cules, a tripod; Apollo, a tripod ; Pallas, a serpent 
on staff, &c. 

These are personal armorial bearings ; but tribes 
and nations bore them also, just as they do now ; 
and, as in modern times, occasionally altered them, 
to we read of the eagle of Rome, bull of Egypt, 
fulmen of Scythia, hog of Phrygia, Mars of Thrace, 
bow of Persia, wheel of the Corali, &c. 

When armorial bearings were introduced into 
.Britain is not recorded ; but certainly the raven of 
Denmark, the dragon of Wales, the horse of the 
baxons, the trinacria of the Manx, give evidence 
of national armorial bearings vastly older than the 
Crusades, while old writers constantly attribute 

s to Edward, Alfred, and other Saxon kings. 
The oldest distinct intimation of national or 
ibal armorial devices is in Numbers ii., where 
each Hebrew tribe was arranged to gather round 
its own standard. To be of any use these must 
have had various emblems. The Chaldee para- 
rase and Josephus say the twelve Hebrew 
bore the twelve signs of the zodiac on their 
standards, and many collateral corroborations sin- 
gularly support this apparently incongruous state- 
ment (Rolleston, ' Mazzaroth '). 
The question of hereditary national armorial bear- 

ings in the ancient world must certainly be decided 
in the affirmative. That of hereditary personal 
armorial bearings, though usually confounded with 
the general question of the antiquity of arms, is 
quite distinct. On this we have very little data to 
go upon as yet. Guillim speaks of hereditary arms 
as having commenced in the reign of Lewis le 
Gros, A.D. 884. 

The Earls of Fitzwilliam possess charters from 
1117. The seals on them bear the arms (Lozengy 
argent and gules) which they use to this day 
(Collins, * Peerage'). The Fitzwilliams are de- 
scended from the Grimaldis of Genoa, both bear- 
ing the same arms and motto. A branch of the 
latter settled in Normandy about 1012, taking the 
name of Bee, one of whom came to England with 
William (Burke, ' Heraldic Register,' 1850, ii. 54). 
The same arms, sculptured on a tower dated 1087 
(Venasque, ' Genealogica Grimaldse,' 1647), are 
found in the town of Grimaldo, near Salamanca. 
See ' Arcbasologia,' 1788, and Clifford, 'Collec- 
tanea Cliffordiana,' 1817, p. 206, where the same 
early use of arms is maintained. D. J. 

TROT TOWN (8 th S. iv. 8, 96). In a list of 
places bearing this name is found "Troy Town, 
Rochester." This part of the city owes its name to 
an owner or builder of the present century who 
bore the name of Troy. J. LANGHORNE. 


YEO FAMILY (8 th S. iv. 368). Supposing a work 
of fiction to be allowed as an authority, the name 
Salvation Yeo may be found in ' Westward Ho,' 
by Charles Kingsley, pointing to a west-country 
origin. I have never met with it elsewhere, though 
the name Yeoman is not of uncommon occurrence. 

[The name Yeo is familiar and respected in London.] 

' EUPHUES ' (8 th S. iv. 385). I have a copy of 

Euphues and his England ' which seems to 

resemble very closely that described by MR. SPIN- 

GARN, even to the number of pages. The title- 

>age is nearly the same, but it was printed by 

G. Eld for W. B., and is dated 1617. The author's 

name is spelt " Lilie." J. FOSTER PALMER. 

" SH AND " Ten " (8 th S. iv. 487). I have just 
een the query of your correspondent MR. TUER, 
nd, as I doubt if he is aware of the antiquity of 
he confusion he refers to, I venture to point out 
hat it is at least a thousand years old ; its exist- 
nce in Anglo-Saxon being attested by variant 
pellinge, of which there are, at any rate, three 
nstances. Dr. Sweet was, I think, the first to 
oint out that our word orchard, which should 
tymologically be ortgeard in the old language, 
ppeared also as orceard. Another example was 
iscovered by your contributor, Prof. Skeat, in the 
bape of our word witch, Anglo-Saxon witge, COT- 
upted to wicce. Those are both nouns ; but about 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. v. j. is, M 

the same time I discovered and published in a 
German paper a verb fetian, corrupted to /ccan, 
oar modern fetch, and, on account of the way the 
corruption affects the conjugation, the most inter- 
esting example of the three. J. PLATT. 

Affectation is the unpardonable sin ; but it is 
well to be correct without being affected. Sloven- 
liness soon destroys the beauty of a language. A 
line like Milton's 

Whisp'ring new joys to the mild ocean, 
has become impossible in English ; and it is not 
long since I heard Keble credited with a verse 
beginning " When the soft Jews." But whilst pro- 
testing against the degradation of the language, 
one may still hate that sort of clergy which would 
have us say " right-e-ous" and " dev-il." 

0. C. B. 

PROSECUTION FOR HERESY (8 th S. iv. 489). 
Prof. Jowett was not delated before " the ecclesi- 
astical court " at all. Proceedings were instituted 
against him in the Oxford Chancellor's Court, 
which is not a court Christian. The assessor 
refused to try the case. This was in 1863. Two 
ecclesiastical cause* ctlebres have happened much 
more recently : Mr. Voysey's condemnation, in 
1871 ; Mr. Bennett's acquittal, in 1872. 



The latest prosecution for heresy in the English 
Church is that of the Rev. Charles Voysey, Vicar of 
Healaugh. The judgment of the Chancery Court 
of York was given on Dec. 2, 1869, and Mr. 
Voysey'a appeal came before the Judicial Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council in November, 1870. 
A report of the appeal was published by Messrs. 
Triibner & Co. in 1870. 


Capstone House, Hammersmith. 

"ADMIRAL CHRIST" (7 th S. vi. 25, 117, 238 ; 
xil 43, 78, 510 ; 8" S. i. 76, 278, 382). In the 
admirable Report for 1890 of the Society for the 
Preservation of Memorials of the Dead, edited by 
CoL Vigors, I find the following : 

Captain James Hamilton departed this life 27 th Dee. 1766, 
aged 39. 

Tho' Boreas' blasts, and Neptune's waves 

Have tossed me to and fro, 

In spite of both, by God's decree, 

I harbour here below ; 

And tho' at anchor here I lie 

With many of our fleet, 

I must one day set sail again 

Our Saviour, Christ, to meet. 

This seems to be copied from Col. Wood Martin's 
' History of Sligo.' 

CoL Vigors is a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland, and an indefatigable archseo- 
logist, and has worked with great perseverance in 
striving to enlist the interest of the public in the 

preservation of monuments and other memorials of 
the dead in Ireland. Y. S. M. 

(8 th S. iv. 426). Mychery is given in the 
Promptorium Parvulorum,' circa 1440, p. 337 
(Camden Society). A note says : 
" Gower thus describes secrelum latrocinium : 
With couetise yet I finde 
A seruant of the same kinde. 
Which stelth is hote, and micherie 
With hym is euer in company. 


Although Skeat only gives the common dialectal 
meaning of skulking, truancy, yet in M.E. this 
word certainly meant petty thieving, pilfering. 

Your correspondent will find a long note on this 
subject in the * Promp. Par v.,' pp. 336-7, "My- 
chyn, or pryuely stelyn smale thyngys." In the 
' Chronicon Vilodunense,' st. 206, is 

Theff ne mycher forsothe there nasse. 
Beaumont and Fletcher, ' Scornful Lady,' V. i. : 

Some meacbing rascal in her house. 
In fact the extract of 1573 given by F. J. F. 
gives the word in its then most usual sense. 


"To HOLD TACK" (8 tl1 S. iv. 247, 314). The 
following lines, prompted by Tonson's artful plan 
of putting King William's nose on John Dryden's 
^Eoeas, may throw further light on the use of 
this phrase : 

Old Jacob, by deep judgments swayed, 

To please the wise beholders, 
Has placed oM Nassau's hook-nosed head 

On young Eneas' shoulders. 

To make the parallel hold tack 
Methinks there 's little lacking ; 

One took his father pick-a-back 
And t'other sent his packing. 

Tonson had wished to dedicate Dryden's trans- 
lations to the king; but the poet was too staunch a 
Tory to agree, hence the device of the wily biblio- 

I do not know who wrote the lines, nor the date 
of their seeing the light. To make the quotation 
available for Dr. Murray or others, perhaps some 
reader of ' N. & Q.' can supply date and author. 


Tack ( = substance) is twice used in Tusser's 
1 Fiue Hundred Pointes of Good Husbandrie/ 
1580 : 

And Martilmas beefe doth beare good tack, 
When countrie folke doe dainties lack. 12. 
What taclce in a pudding, saith greedie gut wringer, 
Giue such ye wote what, ere a pudding he finger. 


Adam Littleton's Latin Dictionary, 1678, has: 
" To hold tack, consto, persevero, psrsisto." Miege, 
in his French Dictionary, 1688, gives : 

8 th S. V. JAN. 13, '94.] 


" To hold tack, tenir ferae. ' This business will hold 
you tack, or will keep you imploy'd,' cette Affaire vous 
tiendra long terns, vous donnera de 1'occupation." 

Grose, in his 'Glossary,' 1790, has: " Tcfc, 
substance, solidity, proof. Spoken of the food of 
cattle and other stock. Norf." 


iv. 149, 190, 237,274, 449). The term " whipper- 
in " would seem to have been well established in 
the reign of George IV., for Sir E. Bulwer uses it 
in 'Pelbain,' which deals with the unreformed 
House of Commons prior to Catholic Emanci- 
pation in 1829. He writes in chap, liv., " Oar 

Whipper-in, , poor fellow, is so ill that I fear 

we shall make but a very pitiful figure.' 7 


QUAINT EPITAPH (8" S. iv. 486). The lines 
quoted by G. L. G. from a hymn book in the inn 
at Hever, Kent, differ slightly from the common 
text of my own school days. It may be prejudice, 
but I prefer the following, which 1 take from the 
fly-leaf of an old Latin grammar : 

Steal not this book, for fear of shame : 

For in it lies the owner's name. 

And if, upon the Judgment Bay, 

You 're asked, " Who stole this book away 1 " 

You falsely Bay: " I do not know " : 

You will descend to shades below ! 



Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 

Lee. Vol. XXXVII. Masquerier Millyng. (Smith 

& Elder.) 

IF no name of primary importance comes into the latest 
volume of the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' there 
are, in revenge, some quaint and eccentric beings, whose 
lives constitute delightful rending. Passing over Thomas 
Middleton, in some respects the most interesting literary 
figure in the book, the editor contents himself with minor 
luminaries. Prominent among theee id the ecclesiastical 
dramatist Jasper Mayne, Archdeacon of Chichester, for 
whose literary accomplishments Mr. Lee has no special 
admiration. He, at least, hesitates to assign to him the 
elegy, signed J. M. S., prefixed to the 1632 folio Shak- 
peare, as being of far superior quality to any lines 
assigned with certainty to Mayne. Francis Meres, 
another writer and divine, is also in the hands of Mr. 
Lee, who declares his commendation of Shakspeare and 
account of Malcolm's death to be loci daitici in English 
literary history. Joseph Miller, of facetious reputation ; 
Sir Gelly Meyrick, hanged for participation in the Essex 
rebellion ; Edward Michelborne, a Latin poet ; Sir Walter 
Mildmay, the founder of Emanuel College ; and Andrew 
Maunsell, the bibliographer, are among those of whom 
the editor supplies succinct and graphic biographies. 
In John Stuart Mill, the philosopher, and his father, the 
historian of India, Mr. Leslie Stephen finds eminently 
congenial subjects. The former is declared to have been 
irritable and sensitive, and capable of speaking sharply. 
In published controversy, however, his " candour and 

calmness were conspicuous," and his appreciation of 
some friends was " expressed in terms of even excessive 
generosity." The elder Mill is credited with the pos- 
session of a powerful, though rigid and unimaginative, 
intellect. Frederick Denison Maurice receives at the 
same hands sympathetic treatment. Hid character is 
declared to have been fascinating. He is described as 
gentle, courteous, with an excessively scrupulous serif e 
of honour. The etstimate of Kingeley is quoted with 
approval, that Maurice was " the most beautiful human 
soul he had ever known." Concerning Herman Merivale, 
Mr. Stephen gives the opinion of Lord Lytton that his 
intellectual characteristic was mafsiveuess. Conyers 
Middleton obtains praise as a stylist, but his fame as a 
writer of pure English is said to have raiber faded. 
Two articles of some importance issue from Mr. C. H. 
Firth. These are Thomas May, the poet and historian, 
and Sir John Meldrum, the Commonwealth soldier, 
killed before Scarborough. The latter life is especially 
picturesque. May's prose style, as shown in his ' History 
of the Long Parliament,' is said to have been flowing 
and elegant. The Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I. ; 
her mother, consort of the same monarch ; and Matilda, 
queen of Stephen, are the subjects of especially admirable 
and erudite biographies by Miss Eate Norgate ; Matilda, 
queen of William the Conqueror, being dealt with by the 
Rev. William Hunt. Prof. Laughton's lives of sailors 
retain all their well-known characteristics. Opportunity 
for some dealing with literature is furnished by Sir John 
Menries, or Mennis, with whom Pepys constantly con- 
cerns himself. Mennes has a distinct place in literature, 
and bis fairy lyrics are very clever and delicate. Among 
many others Meagher, " of the sword," and John Methuen, 
the Chancellor of Ireland, are in the competent hands of 
Mr. Russell Barker. The quaint, erratic personality of 
Maturin is treated of by Dr. Garnett. A sympathetic 
life of " Chancellor " Massirigberd comes from Canon 
Venables. William Meston, the Scotch burlesque poet, 
is in the hands of Mr. G. A. Aitken; the other Scotch 
poets, including Mickle, the translator of the ' Luaiad,' 
being capitally treated by Mr. Thomas Bayne. Dr. 
Norman Moore's physicians include the famous Dr. 
Mead. Massinger, the dramatist, is treated by Mr. 
Robert Boyle, and Middleton, the dramatist, by Prof. 
Herford. Messrs. Boase and Courtney supply much 
valuable matter, and Mr. Lionel Oust, Mr. R. E. Graves, 
Mr. J. M. Riag, Mr. Charles Welch, Mr. Walford, and 
Miss Lee take part in a volume which appears with 
honourable punctuality, and pales before none of its 

Quentin Duncard. By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. Edited 

by Andrew Lang. (Nimmo.) 

THE opinion may be maintained that ' Quentin Durward 7 
stands foremost among the "Waverley Novels." With 
becoming caution Mr. Lang asserts that " in a sense " 
it is " perhaps " the best, and, warming as he proceeds, 
maintains that it is in construction " far beyond them 
all." It has in overflowing measure that sense of adven- 
ture in which Scott exceeded all novelists, not excepting 
Dumas. There is no moment in it quite BO overpower- 
ingly delicious and romantic as that wherein Osbaldistone 
recognizes Diana Vernon in the casual traveller he en- 
counters when his fortunes seem most overclouded. The 
manner, however, in which things work together to 
bring within reach of the Scotch adventurer a prize 
which royalty might, and does, covet is beyond ptaise. 
Scarcely a moment is there when probability is violated, 
yet the entire action counts among the most romantic 
ever depicted. Quentin Durward himself is miles above 
the ordinary heroes of Scott. There are times when he is 
a little priggish and assertive true gifts of the juvenile 
Scot. On the whole, however, he is brave, natural, and 



[8 S. V. JAN. 13, '94. 

acceptable ; and of which other hero of Scott can the 
same be said? la&belle of Croye is a little colourless, but 
will pass. Pavilion ia a sort of Flemish Bailie Nicol 
Jarvie. How rapid and animated is, meanwhile, the 
action. Not a pause ia there, and there are no passages 
the reader is called upon to skip. Splendid, too, ia the 
historical pageant, and the characters live before our 
eyea. Almost the only moment when Scott faila to carry 
ua with him with facile abandonment ia when he makes 
Quentin, at the moment when fighting for life and love 
with the wild boar of the Ardennes, turn on one side to 
look at "Trudchen," and suspend his fight for the 
purpose of rescuing her. At such a time the energies 
would be too tightly braced to admit of a moment's 
pause or aversion of the head, which would necessarily 
mean temporary oblivion of guard, and consequent peril 
of the most imminent kind. Such minor shortcomings 
are, however, of little account. With artistic insight 
Scott shrank from making his boy lover perform too 
great prodigies of valour. The form of the book, mean- 
while, remains unsurpassable. It is difficult to hope for 
a greater work in a more delightful shape. Mr. Nimmo 
has done wisely in selecting M. Lalauze to illustrate a 
work the scene and characters of which are French. 
Nothing can be better than his backgrounds, presenting 
feudal France at Pleaaia, or Loches, or Peronne, and the 
pictures of action are dramatic and spirited. Mr. Lang 
has some admirable notes, and the book is equal to any 
of its predecessors in the same fine series. 

Sylvie and Bruno. Concluded by Lewis Carroll. (Mac- 

millan & Co.) 

THE only part of this book we do not like is the preface. 
This may, perhaps, be described as vapouring. After 
thanking his critics, who have noticed, either favourably 
or unfavourably, his previous volume, Lewis Carroll 
declares that he has carefully forborne from reading 
any. He holds that in the case of an author unfavour- 
able criticisms are almost certain to make him croaa and 
the favourable ones conceited. In the case of Lewis 
Carroll this alternative scarcely seems to present itself. 
Very much of tbe new volume is delightful. There are 
passages that excite cheerfulness, and there are others 
that elicit tears. Again and aain the writer's witchery 
has asserted itself, and a delighted response has been 
accorded to his demands upon us. There are long 
quasi-controversial passages, however, which should be 
ekipped, and there are periods when the humour appears 
forced and the sentiment jejune. The writer seems, 
indeed, to have substituted appeals to sentimentality for 
the frank drollery of his early work, and to be leas 
anxious to amuse than to instruct. Here is a lamentable 
decadence. Lewis Carroll has alwaya been fortunate in 
his artists. Mr. Furniss's designs are marvels of inge- 
nuity and humour. 

The Letters of Lady Burghersh ( afterwards Countess of 
Westmorland) from Germany and France during the 
Campaign of 1813-14. Edited by her daughter, Lady 
Hose Weigall. (Murray.) 

LADY BURGHERSH was a niece of the great Duke of 
Wellington, and was connected by blood and friendship 
with many of the most noteworthy men of the day. 
She was born just a century ago (March, 1793) and 
was, therefore, too young to remember the crash of the 
French Revolution. Her father was constantly in high 
official employment, and she had the advantage from 
childhood of being; on intimate terms with several of 
those whose function it was to make history. Many 
foreigners, especially the French emigres, we are told, 
were frequent visitors at her father's house. Living 
among such surroundings we should have expected to 
find her letters tainted by the fierce prejudiced of a 

partisan. To our surprise this is not so. The lively 
girl she waa only twenty, though she had been married 
two years was wonderfully observant ; but there is 
hardly a passage in this correspondence which indicates 
violence of feeling. The domestic affections had much 
hold upon her, and, unlike so many persona of her time, 
she never sinks into that affected phraseology which, 
when we encounter it, always casts a doubt as to the 
genuineness of tbe feelings expressed. 

Lady Burghersh cannot have had the faintest idea 
that these letters would ever be read beyond her own 
family circle. They are, therefore, quite artless. They 
have, indeed, the flavour of a more modern time than 
that when they were really written. The stately periods 
in which governesses were wont to teach their pupils to 
clothe the most commonplace ideas are wanting. Her 
letters are pure, limpid English, and nothing further. 
The reader will not hope to gain from these pages 
historical knowledge of which he was before ignorant, 
but he will find a picture of that disturbed time as it 
presented itself to a keen observer who had exceptional 
meana of knowing what was taking place day by day. 

We value these letters for their transparent honesty. 
The writer never tries to hide the evil deeds of those 
with whom she is in sympathy. The cruelties com- 
mitted by the forces of the allies are often referred to. 
On one occasion she says, " The conduct of the troops is 
shocking, and latterly has become horrible in every de- 
gree of pillage, plunder, and cruelty, which of course 
makes us enemies all over the country, and gives more 
partisans to Napoleon than all his own powers could do." 

The work is very carefully edited. We cannot help 
wishing that Lady Rose Weigall had added a few more 
notes. This book will have many readers to whom the 
names that appear in its pages will awaken no historical 
associations whatever. 


We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written tbe name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

EASTON Cox. Sir Christopher Hales was appointed 
in 1532 one of the judges of assize, and in 1536 Master of 
the Holla, both appointments being in the reign of 
Henry VIII. Sir James Halea waa appointed judge in 
1549, in the reign of Edward VI. There were also Sir 
Bernard Hale, 1677-1729, and the famous Sir Matthew 
Hale, 1609-1676. See ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' Of an Admiral 
Hales we know nothing. 

HOLCOMBE INGLEBY ("Snakes in Norway "). Is it 
not a misquotation lor snakes in Iceland ? 

ERRATUM. P. 18, col. 1, 1. 6, for " Derbyshire" read 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8*8. V. JAN. 20, '94.] 





YOTES : London Street Tablets, 41 Agatha, 43 Sache- 
verell Controversy, 44 Christmas Folk-lore Dean Meri- 
vale 'Kemains of Saxon Pagandom,' 45 Syntax of 
Pronouns John and William Browne Lords Lieutenant, 
46" Carbonizer" Miss Jane Porter" Jut," 47. 

QUERIES : Atboll or Athole Scainte Flecher Udal 
Tenure" Level best," 47 Graffiti Prankard Portraits of 
Robert Lindley "To switch " Richard Jones The 
Sarum Missal "Way ver"- Portraits of Edward I. Pal- 
mer of Wingham " Milk-slop " George Cotes, 48 
Anthony Francis French Lyrics High Ercall Church- 
wardens' Accounts Charles Gibbes Capt. Kittoe Louis 
XVI. and Count O'Connell " Maluit esse," &c. Thomas 
Marten "Fendace"' The Gipsy Laddie' St. Oswyth 
Intended Knights of the Royal Oak, 49. 

REPLIES: "Seven Wonders of the World "" Tallet," 50 
Translations of ' Don Quixote,' 51 Motto of the Duke of 
Marlborough The Cardinal Virtues Norman Doorway, 
52 Copenhagen Count St. Martin de Front Plan for 
Arranging MSS. Kennedy : Henn, 53' Ode to Tobacco ' 
Vicar of Newcastle Moses's ' Designs of Costume,' 54 
John Listen Gunpowder Plot Browning's ' Too Late ' 
King's Oak in Epping Forest, 55 Waterloo in 1893-Lamb 
Bibliography Nicholas Breakespeare Buried in Fetters 
" Like a bolt from the blue," 56 Sappho ffhe Moat, Put- 
nam Palace Lamb's 'Dissertation on Roast Pig' "Spe- 
rate": "Desperate," 57 St. Clement's Day All Fools' 
Day" Tib's Kve ": " Latter Lammas " H. Foley Hall- 
Apothecaries' Show Bottles, 58 Sir Edward Frewen, 59. 

KOTES ON BOOKS : Warrender's 'Marchmont and the 
Humes of Polwarth ' Ferguson's ' Testamenta Karleo- 
lensia' Maxwell's 'Life and Times of W. H. Smith' 
Morley's ' English Writers,' Vol. X. 

ETotices to Correspondents. 



(Concluded from p. 3.) 

On the west side of Duke Street, Manchester 
Square, there is a cul-de-sac of some extent. The 
louses must have been originally built for well-to-do 
Deople, but seem to be now occupied by the very 
>oor ; they are called Gray's Buildings. The in- 
cription on a stone let into the wall, between the 
second-floor windows of the house at the end is 
Grays Buildings 1767." 

Above the second-floor windows of a modern 
louse, No. 20, Great Chapel Street, Westminster, 
here is a tablet inscribed "This is Chappeil 
Street 1656." This street was named after the 
'New Chapel," completed in 1636, on the site of 
which, or nearly so, Christ Church has been built. 
Peter Cunningham mentions a tablet which 
used to be on the front of a house in Great Peter 
Street, Westminster, facing Leg Court. It had 
'This is Sant Peter Street anno 1624" and a 
leart-sbaped mark. A similar mark is on No. 4, 
!"othill Street, Westminster, associated with the 
date 1671 and the initials ETA. 

On a house at the corner of Guilford Street, 
Cray's Inn Road (west side), is a stone inscribed 
4 Upper North Place 1796." 

High up on a modern house at the west side of 
lalf Moon Street, Piccadilly, is the inscription 
"Half Moon Street 1730." Mr. J. T. Smith says 

that its name was taken from the " Half Moon " 
public-house, which stood at the corner. 

On a house at the corner of Hans Road east is 
the inscription " Queen Street." 

On No. 4, Hanway Street, Oxford Street, near 
the Tottenham Court Road end, are the words, 
"Hanway Street 1721." At the Oxford Street 
end of Hanway Street there is in relief a copy of a 
winged Nineveh bull, and a hand with a rod 
directing people to the British Museum. It was 
placed here, perhaps, when this was really the 
most convenient route from the west, before the 
opening of New Oxford Street in 1847. 

Peter Cunningham tells us that Hemming's Row, 
which has been destroyed by the Charing Cross 
Road, had formerly the date 1680 on a wooden 
house at the west end. 

Above a centre ground-floor window of what is 
left of the old Tennis Court, James Street, Hay- 
market, there is a stone tablet with ornamental 
border, resting on a bracket, and having the in- 
scription " James Street 1673." The upper part 
of the Tennis Court was rebuilt in 1887, but as high 
as the tablet the original walls, though stuccoed 
over, remain. Mr. J. T. Smith, in his ' Streets of 
London,' mentions a tradition that Charles II. and 
his brother, then Duke of York, used to play tennis 
in this court. I believe there is no contemporary 
evidence of this. 

A tablet similar in style to the last, though of 
considerably later date, is above the first floor of 
No. 16, Great James Street, Bedford Row. It 
has on it " Great James Street 1721." 

On the north side of King's Road, Chelsea, 
about half way up, there is a little street which has 
on one of the corner houses a stone inscribed 
" Jubilee Place 1809 "; a record of the jubilee of 
King George III. 

On a house at the corner of Golden Square and 
Lower John Street is a tablet with the following, 
" This is Johns Street Ano Dom 1685." 

On a house at the corner of Great Marlborough 
Street and Foubert's Passage there is a stone 
having on it " Marlborough Street 1704." The 
word " Great " seems to have been cut out. 

Not far off, in Little Marlborough Street, is the 
inscription "Little Marlborough Street 1703." 

At the corner of Marquis Court, Drury Lane, a 
stone with ornamental border is inscribed " Mar- 
quis Court 1763." 

May's Buildings, on the east side of St. Martin's 
Lane, have on them the name and date " 1739." 
They were built by a Mr. May, who also orna- 
mented with pretty cut brick (still remaining) the 
front of No. 43, St, Martin's Lane, where he 

On each side of the entrance to Meard Street 
from Dean Street, Soho, are tablets with the 
inscriptions " Meards Street 1732." 

At the north end of Milman Street, Chelsea, on 


S.V.JAN. 20, '94. 

the east side, is " Millman Eow 1726." It derived 
its name from Sir William Mil man, who died in 

On the north side of Knightsbridge, running up 
towards the Park, are Mill's Buildings ; at the en- 
trance is a tablet inscribed "Mills Buildings 

Near the west end of Mount Pleasant, Gray's 
Inn Lane, between Nos. 65 and 56, there is a 
plain square stone with " Dorrington 1720 " in- 
cised in Roman capitals. It is in a brick frame 
with moulded hood. The builder of this street 
was one Thomas Dorrington, citizen and bricklayer 
of London. 

Further east, on No. 41, nearly opposite the site 
of Coldbath Fields Prison are two ether tablets ; 
one, similar to that just described, has "Baynes 
Street 1737." Over this is a more elaborate ex- 
ample of cut or moulded brick with a pediment 
It has the motto of the Tylers' and Bricklayers' 
Company, "In God is all our trust," what may 
be a rude representation of their crest, other marks 
or signs in relief (among them the letter P), and 
the date 1737. This is, strictly speaking, a house, 
not a street, tablet. I believe that it was put up 
by a member of the Tylers' and Bricklayers' Com- 
pany, not unlikely by Thomas Dorrington. The 
street was named after Mr. Walter Baynes, who 
owned much land in the neighbourhood, and in 
the year 1697 discovered the famous spring which 
supplied the Cold Bath. 

There is a tablet high up on the north side of 
Morning ton Crescent, Camden Town, inscribed 
"Southampton Street 1802." The name, which 
applied only to this part of Mornington Crescent, 
was changed in 1864. 

A stone tablet which has on it " Nassau Street 
in Whettens Buildings 1734 "is still to be seen at 
the south-west corner of Nassau Street, Soho. In 
Strype's map, of 1720, the ground here facing Ger- 
rard Street is occupied by a large mansion with a 
garden at the back, Nassau Street not being yet 

On a house at the corner of Neal Street, Long 
Acre, there is a stone which seems to have the 
date 1718. The name has disappeared. 

On a house in New Lisle Street, fronting Lei- 
cester Square, cut in large letters below a first- 
floor window, is *' New Lisle Street MDCCXCI." 
On the pediment are the words " Leicester House." 
On a tablet with decorated border at the west 
side of the entrance to New Turnstile from Hoi- 
born is a stone inscribed " New Turn Style 1 688.' 
A correspondent in ' N. & Q.' for June 9, 1883, 
mentions the pulling down of a house in a smal 
square or yard, on the south side of what was 
formerly called Princes Street, now Gate Street 
near the New Turnstile, Holborn, which had, lei 
into the front, a tablet inscribed " Princes Square 
1736." He adds that this was probably the only 

quare in London with but one house in it. How- 
ver, according to Kelly's ' Directory ' for 1885, 
'rince's Square, Finsbury, enjoyed the like dis- 

On a house in Old Quebec Street, Oxford Street, 
here is a stone with the inscription "Quebec 
Street 1760." 

Prince's Court, Westminster, has a decorated 
tablet of the seventeenth or early eighteenth cen- 
tury, with the name inscribed, but no date. In 
Strype's Stow (1720) this is described as " a very 
landsome open place with a free stone pavement, 
laving well built and inhabited houses." 

At the east corner of Portland Street and Ber- 
wick Street is a public- house with the arms of the 
Portland family before they had the Cavendish 
quarterings. Below is the inscription " Portland 
Street MDCCXXXV." 

On a house at the south-east corner of Rathbone 
Place and Oxford Street is a stone tablet with the 
'olio wing inscription, "Bathbones Place in Oxford 
Street 1718." The house was rebuilt in 1864. 

Let into the walls on each side of Richmond 
Buildings, Dean Street, Soho, are "Richmond^ 
Building 1732." 

Rose Street, Covent Garden is now to a great 
extent cleared away or absorbed by Garrick Street. 
A. house here had a tablet inscribed " This is Rose 
Streete 1623." 

A house on the east side of Sandys Street, 
Bishopsgate, has the inscription " Sandys Street 

There is an archway under one of the old houses 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields, which leads into Sardinia 
Street. Above the keystones on each side (one 
nearly obliterated) is the inscription " Duke 
Streete 1648." 

At the corner of Shelton Street, Drury Lane, 
is " King Street 1765." 

At the Guildhall Museum there is a stone which 
has on it " Skinner Street 1802." The site of this 
street, built through the exertions of Alderman 
Skinner, is now covered by the Holborn Viaduct. 

At the corner of Smith Street, King's Road. 
Chelsea, is " Smith Street 1794." It was built by 
a Mr. Thomas Smith. 

At the Guildhall Museum there is a stone in- 
scribed " Stewkesleys Street 1668." On a label 
attached it is stated that this is now Bull and 
Mouth Street, St. Martin's-le-Grand ; but I have 
failed to find any record of Stewkesley Street. 
Ell wood, in his 'Autobiography,' mentions a 
Quaker's meeting held at the Bull and Mouth, 
Oct. 26, 1662. 

At the corner of Strewan Place, Milman Street,. 
Chelsea, is "Strewan Place 1739." 

At the south-west end of Thomas Street, Ox- 
ford Street, is the inscription "Bird Street 1725." 
Bird Street originally extended on both sides oi 
Oxford Street, from Brook Street on the south 

. V. JAN. 20, '84.] 



Henrietta Street on the north. Mr. Wheatley 
aays that some time after 1831 the name of the 
southern portion was changed to Thomas Street. 

On the front of Tichbourne Court, Holborn, there 
were till lately the Tichbourne arms with the in- 
scription "Tichbourne Courte An D^ 1688." 

At the corner of Titchfield Street and Dean 
Street, Soho, is " Titchfield Street 1737." 

A stone embedded in the wall of a bouse at the 
aouth-west corner of Turk's Row, Chelsea, has on 
it "Garden Row anno 1733. " 

On a house on the west side of Vandon Street, 
late Little George Street, Westminster, which runs 
into James Street, opposite what is left of Emanuel 
Hospital, there is a stone, now defaced, with, 
apparently, the inscription "This is George Street 
1717." The date is legible. 

On the east side of Westminster Bridge Road, 
at the corner of Belvedere Road, is the inscription 
" Coades Row 1798." This refers to Coade, the 
manufacturer of artificial stone, whose showrooms 
were hard by. The factory was in a street called 
Narrow Wall, Lambeth. 

In the Guildhall Museum there is a stone tablet 

with "N R J Ruffords Buildings 1688," said to be 
from Upper Street, Islington ; and a similar in- 
scription is still to be seen on No. IA, Compton 
Street, Clerkenwell. There were two groups of 
houses thus named. They were built by Capt. 
Nicholas Rufford, churchwarden at Islington in 
1690, who died in 1711, aged seventy-one, and 
was buried in Islington parish churchyard. 

On Westmoreland Buildings, Aldersgate, there 
was in 1889 the inscription " Westmorland 
Buildings 1761." They mark the site of the 
London residence of the Nevilles, taken down 
circa 1760, after having been long divided into 
tenements. The inscription has now disappeared. 

On the keystone above a blank window over 
the door of a house in Windsor Street, Bishops- 
gate, is the inscription " This is Windsor Street 
Anno Dom 1734." 

Beneath the parapet of the house of Messrs. 
George Bell & Sons, formerly Mr. Bonn's, in York 
Street, Covent Garden, there is a tablet, placed 
high up, which has on it " York Street, 1636." 


(See 8th s. iv. 389, 473, 509.) 
SIR CHARLES KINO has received various sug- 
gestions in reply to his query who the mother o 
Edgar Atheling was, not one of which, however, is 
perhaps so near the truth as the information sup- 
plied by himself at the last reference. About two 
or three years ago I had an opportunity of seeing 
a letter written by a Mr. Felch, of Hartford, 
Conn., U.S., to the Secretary of the Hungarian 
Academy of Sciences at Budapest, in which the 

writer informed the Academy that he was at the 
time busily engaged collecting materials for a 
book which, among other things, was to include 
a life of Agatha. The writer stated that he had 
been unable to find any trustworthy information 
about the parentage of the lady in question, and 
asked for help, which, however, the Academy was 
unable to afford him, as the Hungarian chronicles 
record absolutely nothing about the Anglo-Saxon 
princes at the Court of St. Stephen or Agatha, and 
do not even mention their names. 

The late Prof. Freeman and Dr. Mackay, the 
biographer of St. Margaret, Queen of Scotland, 
in the ' Diet, of National Biography/ have also 
searched the Hungarian chronicles and made in- 
quiries on the subject at Budapest, but with the 
same negative result 

Mr. Felch seemed to have read up his subject 
well, but unfortunately gave no references. Whether 
his book has already been published or not I do not 
know. Most of the data supplied from the English 
chronicles by him and your correspondents can be 
found, with references, in Freeman's ' Norman Con- 
quest,' vol. ii., Appendix Y. But more informa- 
tion must be extant, as Mr. Felch found it stated 
somewhere that Agatha was a sister of Salamon, 
King of Hungary, or, according to another chronicle, 
" the daughter of Ladislaus by his wife Enguer- 
harde, who was daughter of Olaf, King of Norway "; 
yet another source of information " connected her 
in some way with Andrew I. of Hungary, who 
married Anastasia, daughter of laroslav, King of 
Russia, who was son of St. Vladimir." Probably 
Suhm, Karamsin, or Lappenberg will supply a clue 
to the original authorities for these statements. 

It must be remembered (1) that the mother of 
Andrew I. (1046-1060) was Premislava, a daughter 
of Vladimir, Grand Duke of Kiev ; (2) that Andrew 
married his cousin Anastasia, daughter of laroslav 
I. Vladimirovich (i. e., the eon of the above Vladi- 
mir and his successor on the grand-ducal throne) ; 
(3) that Salamon was the son of Andrew I., and 
married Sophia, daughter of the German Emperor 
Henry III. ; and (4) that laroslav's wife was 
Ingigerdis, daughter of Olaf, King of Norway. It 
seems to me, therefore, that the Ladislaus and 
Enguerharde mentioned by Mr. Felch are the 
same couple as the " laroslav I. , called Ladislas, 
or George, Duke of Russia," referred to by SIR 
CHARLES KINO, and Ingigerdi?, his wife ; and 
Agatha's relationship is quite clear. She was, 
namely, the granddaughter of Olaf, cousin and 
sister-in-law of Andrew I. of Hungary, the aunt 
of Salamon, and no relation, but only an aunt by 
marriage, to Henry III.'s daughter, Sophia. 

According to the English chronicles, the two 
sons of Ironside were sent to Hungary by Olaf ; 
but according to Adam of Bremen (ii. 51, quoted 
by Freeman) they were sent to Russia ("filii 
[Eadmundi] in Rnzziam exilio sunt damnati"). 



S. V, JAN. 20, '94. 

Probably this ia the true version of their history, 
as it is more reasonable to suppose that Olaf en- 
trusted them to the care of laroslavl. (1016-1017, 
and again from 1019 to 1054), who was his son-in- 
law, than to that of Stephen I., who apparently 
was a total stranger to him. As, however, it is 
beyond all doubt that Edgar Atheling and his 
family were in Hungary when Edward the Con- 
fessor invited them to return to England, it is 
evident that they had subsequently left Russia. 
Probably they had accompanied Anastasia, the 
sister of Agatha, to Hungary when she married 
Andrew I. 

I take this opportunity to correct a few slips 
made by your correspondents. The " sainted 
emperor " was Henry II,, and not King Stephen I. 
The latter died in 1058, not in 1058, and his wife 
was Gisla, not Gilla. Salamon was crowned in 
1058, in his father's lifetime, and again at his suc- 
cession in 1063 ; he lost his throne in 1074, and 
died circa 1087, according to Katona, and not 
about 1100. L. L. K. 


(Continued from p. 4.) 

Volume I. 

1. Henry Sacheverell, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxon. The Political Union. A Discourse 
showing the Dependance of Government on Religion in 
General ; and of the English Monarchy on the Church 
of England in particular. 1710. 

2. Henry Sacheverell. A Defence of Her Majesty's 
Title to the Crown, and a Justification of Her ent'ring 
into a War with France and Spain. Sermon before 
University of Oxford, 10th June, 1702. Second Edition, 
1710. The first edition of this Sermon, on 2 Chron. vi. 
34, 35, was printed at Oxford, in 4to., 1702. 

3. Henry Sacheverell. The Nature and Mischief of 
Prejudice and Partiality. Sermon, St. Mary's in Oxford 
at the Assizes, 9th March, 1703/4. Second Edition, 

4. Benjamin Hoadly, Rector of St. Peter's Poor. St. 
Paul's Behaviour towards the Civil Magistrate. Sermon 
at the Assizes at Hertford 26th July, 1708. 1708. 

5. Ofspring [Blackall], Bp. of Exon: The Divine 
Institution of Magistracy and the gracious Design of its 
Institution. Sermon before the Queen, 8th March, 
1708. Published by Her Majesty's special command. 

6. Benjamin Hoadly. Some Considerations humbly 
offered to the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Exe- 
ter, occasioned by his Lordship's Sermon preached before 
Her Majesty, 8th March, 1708. 1709. 

7. The Lord Bishop of Exeter's Answer to Mr. 
Hoadly's Letter. 1709. 

8. A Vindication of the Right Reverend the Lord 
Bishop of Exeter, occasioned by Mr. Benjamin Hoadly's 
Reflections on His Lordship's two Sermons of Govern- 
ment. 1709. 

9. Benjamin Hoadly. An Humble Reply to the Right 
Reverend the Lord Bishop of Exeter's Answer. 1709. 
The Second Edition corrected. 

10. A Submissive Answer to Mr. Hoadly's Humble 
Reply to my Lord Bishop of Exeter. By a Student 
at Oxford. 1709. 

11. A Letter of Advice presented to Mr. Hoadly with 
abundance of that Modera sort of Humility for which 

his own Writings are remarkable. Signed, Ignotus. 

12. The Best Answer ever was Made, and to which 
no Answer ever will be Made (not to be behind Mr. 
Hoadly in Assurance), in Answer to his Bill of Complaint 
exhibited against the Lord Bishop of Exeter for his 
Lordship's Sermon preached before Her Majesty, 8th 
March, 1708. By a Student of the Temple. 1709. 

13. A Modest Reply to the Unanswerable Answer to 
Mr. Hoadly with some Considerations on Dr. Sache- 
verell's Sermon before the Lord Mayor, 5th Novemb.. 
1709. 1709. 

14. Tom of Bedlam's Answer to his Brother Ben 
Hoadly, St Peter's Poor Parson, near the Exchange of 
Principles. 1709. 

15. Bess o' Bedlam's Love to her Brother Tom, with a 
Word in behalf of poor Brother Ben Hoadly. 1709. 

16. A Letter to a Noble Lord about his dispersing 
abroad Mr. Hoadly's Remarks upon the Bishop of Exe- 
ter's Sermon before the Queen. Humbly Recommend- 
ing to his Lordship's Perusal an Answer to it, entitul'd 
The Beat Answer ever was Made, &c. 1709. 

17. Best of all, being the Student's Thanks to Mr- 
Hoadly, wherein Mr. Hoadly's Second Part of his Mea- 
sures of Submission (which he Intends soon to Publish) 
is fully answered. If this does not stop it. And the 
Only Original of Government is fully Demonstrated. 
And that is a Law to all Ages. In a Letter to Himself* 
Which he is desir'd to send as an Eye-Salve to his Vnder- 
epur-Leather Mr. Stoughton, the State Haranguer in 
Ireland. 1709. 

18. Henry Sacheverell, D.D., Fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, and Chaplain of St. Saviour's, South- 
wark. The Communication of Sin. A Sermon preached 
at the Assizes held at Derby, 15th August, 1709. 1709. 

19. Henry Sacbeverell. The Perils of False Brethren 
both in Church and State. Sermon preached at St. Paul's 
Cathedral, before the Lord Mayor, &c., 5th November 
1709. 1709. 

20. The Cherubim with a Flaming Sword that ap- 
peared on the 5th November last in the Cathedral of St. 
Paul to the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, and 
many hundreds of people. Being a letter to my Lord 
M with Remarks upon Dr. S ll's Sermon. 1709. 

When Pulpit Drum Ecclesiastick 
Was beat with Fist instead of a Stick 
If the Church can't be pull'd down, it may be blown up. 
Sacheverell's Serm. at St. Paul's. 

21. Dr. Burgis's Answer to Dr. Sacheverell's High- 
Flown Sermon preached before the Lord Mayor at St. 
Paul's Church on the 5th November, 1709. N.d. 

22. The Peril of being Zealously Affected but not Well, 
or Reflections on Dr. Sacheverell's Sermon preached 
before the Lord Mayor, &c. 1709. 

23. The Priest turned Poet, or the Best Way of An- 
swering Dr. Sacheverell's Sermon, preached at St. Paul's, i 
5th November, 1709. N.d. 

24. A True answer to Dr. Sacheverell's Sermon before 
the Lord Mayor 5th November, 1709, in a letter to one 
of the Aldermen. 1709. The tract is ascribed to Deaa 
Kennett in contemporary handwriting. 

25. R. G. Dr. Sacheverell's Defence in a Letter to a 
Member of Parliament, or Remarks upon Two Famous 
Pamphlets, The One entituled, ' A true Answer to Dr. 
Sacheverell's Sermon, Novemb. 5, 1709,' The Other (a- 
Sham-Pamphlet) entitled 'Dr. Sacheverell's Recanta- 
tion. 5 1710. 

26. Samuel Johnson. An Answer to the History of 
Passive Obedience, just now reprinted under the Title of 
a Defence of Dr. Sacheverell. 1709. 

27. A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Henry Sacheverell. By 
Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire. With an Order from the 

8 th S. V. JAN. SO,'94.J 



said Isaac Bickerstaff relating to the Doctor, and an 
Advertisement to Ben. Hoadly. 1709. 

28. The Bull Baiting, or Sach 11 Dress'd up in Fire- 

Works, lately brought over from the Bear Garden in 
Southwark, and Exposed for the Diversion of the 
Citizens of London at Six-pence a-piece, 1709. By John 
Dunton. Bern/ Remarks on a Scandalous Sermon Bel- 
low'd out at St. Paul's on the Fifth of November last be- 
fore the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen by 

Dr. Sach 11. 

Volume II. 

29. The Answer of Henry Sacheverell, D.D., to the 
Articles of Impeachment Exhibited against him by the 
Honourable House of Commons, &c., for preaching Two 
Sermons. (1) At the Assizes held at Darby, August 
15th. (2) At the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, No- 
vember 5th, 1709, to which are prefixed The Articles of 
Impeachment translated from the Leiden Gazette of 
the llth of February, N.S. N.p. 1710. 

30. The Answer &c. Another Edition of the same date. 

31. A Full Reply to the Substantial Impeachment of 
Dr. Sacheverell in a Dialogue between an High-Church 
Captain, a Stanch'd Whigg, and a Coffee-Man: as the 
Matter of Fact was really transacted on Friday last in 
B 's Coffee House in Westminster Hall. 1710. 

32. The case of Dr. Sacheverell represented in a Letter 
to a Noble Lord. 1710. 

33. A Letter to the Right Reverend the Lord Arch- 
bishop of York [John Sharpe] occasioned by the Prose- 
cution of Dr. Henry Sacheverell. By a True Son of the 
Church of England. N.d. 

5J4. The Lord H 's [HavershamJ Speech in the 
House of Lords on the First Article of the Impeach- 
ment of Dr. Sacheverell. 1710. 

35. The Bishop of Oxford [William Talbot] His Speech 
in the House of Lords on the First Article of the Im- 
peachment of Dr. Henry Sacheverell. 1710. 

36. A Serioua Answer to the Lord Bishop of Oxford's 
Speech in the House of Lords on the First Article of the 
Impeachment of Dr. Henry Sacheverell. N.p. 1710. 

37. The Ld. Bishop of Oxford vindicated from the 
Abuse of a Speech lately published under His Lordship's 
Name. 1710. 

38. The Bishop of Salisbury [Gilbert Burnet] his 
Speech in the House of Lords on the First Article of the 
Impeachment. 1710. 

39. Some Considerations humbly offered to the Right 
Reverend the Ld Bp of Salisbury, occasioned by his 
Lordship's Speech on the First Article of the Impeach- 
ment, &c. 1710. By a Lay Hand. 

40. The Second Edition. 1710. 

1. A Vindication of the Bishop of Salisbury and 
Passive Obedience with some Remarks upon a Speech 
which goes under His Lordship's name. N.p. 1710. 

42 A True Answer to the Bishop of Salisbury's speech 
in the House of Lords. 1710. 

43. A Letter to the Bishop of Salisbury occasion'd by 
is Lordship's Speech on the First Article of Impeach- 
ment. N.p. 1711. 

44. The Bishop of Lincoln's [William Wake] and the 
Bp. of Norwich's [Charles Trimnell] Speeches in the 
House of Lords, 17th March, at the Opening of the 
Second Article of the Impeachment against Dr. Sache- 
verell. 1710. 

i. The Bishop of Norwich's Speech in the House of 
rds at the opening of the Second Article of the Im- 
peachment. 1710. 

46. An Impartial Examination of the Right Reverend 

e Lord Bishop of Lincoln's and Norwich's Speeches at 

Opening of the Second Article. Wherein a very 

Mistake committed by my Lord of Norwich is 

lustly reprehended. 1710 

47. The Speech of Henry Sacheverell, D.D., upon his 
Impeachment, at the Bar of the House of Lords ia 
Westminster Hall, 7th March, 1709/10. N.p. or d. 

48. Another Edition. 1710. 

49. Another Edition. 1710. 

50. Collections of Passages referred to by Dr. Henry 
Sacheverell in his Answer to the Articles of his Im- 
peachment under Four Heads. Second Edition. 1710. 
Also issued in folio, in the same year. 

51. Dr. Sacheverell's Speech upon his Impeachment 
at the Bar of the House of Lords in Westminster Hall, 
7th March, 1709/10, with Reflections thereupon, Para- 
graph by Paragraph. 1710. [Also issued in folio, 1710 ; 
a translation into Latin, in 8vo., 1710.1 To which are 
added, Her Present Majesty's Letter, when Princess, to 
the Queen, &c. 

52. A True Answer; or Remarks upon Dr. Sache- 
verell's Speech, 7th March, 1710, being a Modest and 
Reasonable Comparison betwixt his Sermon at St. Paul's 
and that at Westminster. N.d. 

(To be continued.) 

CHRISTMAS FOLK-LORE. I have just heard that 
the mild weather is causing no surprise in Berk- 
shire, because the field-mice have there built their 
nests towards the north ; whereas, had they con- 
structed their doors with a south aspect, another 
face of things would have been seen both by the 
mice and their superiors in intellect if not in 
instinct. In three months' time we shall be able 
to see whether a man's proverb (see 8 tfi S. iv. 505) 
or a beast's foresight is worthy of the more credit. 

8, Morrison Street, S.W. 

ROME.' The late Dean Merivale is, of course, 
best known as a writer by his celebrated history 
of the Roman Empire to the death of Aurelius. 
But his more concise ' General History of Rome ' 
is undoubtedly the best brief popular history in 
our language of the city which became the Mistress 
of the World. Perhaps it may at this time be of 
interest to point out an error or misprint on p. 355 
of that work, where the author, speaking of 
the Julian calendar, says that it was reformed by 
Pope Gregory XIII. "in the year 1652," the true 
date, I need hardly remark, being 1582. An ex- 
pression used by the late Dean on the previous 
page is sufficient to make all modern astronomers 
envious of the great Julius ; for we are told that 
he " had acquired a complete knowledge of astro- 
mony." Wonderful man, within whose purview, 
it would seem, not only all Gaul, but all astro- 
nomy came ! The latter, however, contains some- 
what more than three parts. W. T. LYNN. 


Akerman's work with this title a bronze patera 
and bucket are figured, plates 10 and 13 re- 
spectively, the former found at Wingham, near 
Sandwich, by the late Lord Londesborough, in 



[8* S. V. JAN. 20, '94. 

1843, and mentioned as showing the influence of 
Roman art notwithstanding the clumsiness and 
want of proportion of the handles ; the latter found 
at Cuddeston, and described as being nine inches 
high, with an inside diameter at top of seven 
and seven-eighths inches. Dr. Koehl, of Worms, 
reports that exact replicas of these two vessels have 
been lately found near that place, and that they 
are marked on the underside with a square cross, 
correspondence in which respect he is anxious to 
ascertain. I have been unable to discover where 
either of the English specimens now is. One or 
both of them may have passed into a dealer's hands 
as part of a lot, and, failing to receive recognition, 
have been destroyed. They may have found a 
home in a collection the owner or curator of 
which would be interested in Dr. Koehl's reported 
discovery. KILLIGREW. 

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS. An article in the 
Daily Chronicle of Nov. 30, 1893, headed 'The 
Strange Adventures of a Pronoun/ discusses the 
question whether Mr. Francis Thompson's line- 
Did God make replicas of such as she- 
is correctly constructed with the pronoun in the 
nominative case rather than the dative. I have no 
intention now to do more than avow my conviction 
that Mr. Thompson's English is correct. In the 
words of Cardinal Manning a propos of a similar 
construction with the masculine pronoun, "any 
schoolboy should know that it ought to be such as 
[a]ta." The other construction, it is true, has had 
a defender in Mr. Matthew Arnold, though his 
judgment was nulli6ed by his purblind appeal to 
the French analogue id que lui (see the B.C. 
article). There can, however, be no difference of 
opinion as to the impropriety of the phrase exem- 
plified in the following quotation from Longman's 
Magazine for the present month of January 
(p. 328) :- 

"Perhaps the heroine need not have been so very 
proud and stiff at first, like she who persecuted La Cote 
Mai Taillee in the Arthurian tale." 

With Matthew Arnold affirming the correctness 
of the phrase " such as him," and Andrew Lang 
authorizing " like she " in the foregoing quotation 
for it is his penwork to say nothing of the 
every-day instances of other pronominal miscon- 
structions, it seems to me little to be deprecated 
if our pronouns went the way of nouns in the 
matter of case-inflexion. It is inexpedient to 
retain in circulation two coins of different values 
when one is continually mistaken for the other. 
Abolish one of the case-forms, whichever you 
please, and by-and-by " him is " would be as sweet 
to the ear as Mr. Arnold's " such as him," or (C go 
to she n would as little horrify the hearer as Mr. 
Lang's " like she." 

Mr. Lang probably will not admit that such a 
reform of the language is desirable. He has not 

fought for his phrase, and is not, I opine, likely to 
do so. He will, of course, plead that he was nod- 
ding, like the bonus Homerus he is, when the 
word slipped from his pen ; but inferiors will per- 
haps follow his example without the nodding. 


&c. (See 7 th S. iv. 506 ; v. 151 ; 8 th S. iv. 134, 232.) 
The confusion referred to with respect to this 
subject will, I venture to think, not be lessened 
by the notes which have appeared on the subject 
from and including the first reference. It seems 
strange that, with Somerset House copies of wills, 
such differences can exist. The following, I hope, 
will confirm and strengthen the statement under 
the last reference, and possibly help to throw a 
little light on the subject. 

Sir John Browne was Mayor in 1480. Sir 
William Hariot was Mayor in 1481. 

Sir William Brown, Mayor in 1507. It was 
Sir Stephen Jenings who was Mayor in 1508. 

Sir William Brown, Mayor in 1513; Sir George 
Monoux, Mayor in 1514. All of which is confirmed 
by Heylyn's ' Help to English History,' which 
contains a complete list of the Mayors of London, 
with their arms (London, 1773), and agrees with 
a list of Mayors in ' A New View of London ' 
(1708), but not as to the title of the Mayor in 
1507. I may mention that these lists agree 
generally with 'The Chronicles of the Mayors,' 
&c. (1188 to 1274), and ' The French Chronicle of 
London 1 (1259 to 1343), by H. T. Kiley, M.A. 
(London, 1863). In the ' New View of London 1 
I find Brown's tomb bore the date 1507. A note 
with regard to the knighting of Mayors states, 
"after the year 1390 the Mayors were commonly 
Knighted except during the Troubles and Usurpa- 

In Baker's ' Chronicles ' Sir J. Browne is named 
as being Mayor in the twentieth year of the reign 
of Edward IV. The ancient name of Montacute 
passed in 1461 to John Nevil, grandchild of 
Thomas, Earl of Shrewsbury, who married Isabel, 
daughter of Sir Edmund Engoldsthorp. It then 
passed to H. Pole, great-grandchild of Richard 
Nevil, elder brother of John ; from Pole it went 
to Sir Anthony Brown, who was descended from a 
daughter of John Nevil, before named, and who be- 
came Marquis in 1470. Sir A. Brown died 1592 ; 
and Anthony- Maria Brown, grandson, succeeded ; 
he died in 1629, to be followed by Francis Brown, 
Viscount Montacute, died 1682, &c. 


Fairfield, Poundfald, near Swansea. 

LORDS LIEUTENANT. Most of your readers are 
aware that for some time past the souls of ardent 
politicians have been exercised as to the manner 
in which justices of the peace are appointed. It 
has been assumed (I shall not pause to consider 

8 th 8. V. JAN. 20, '94.J 



whether rightly or wrongly) that the Lords 
Lieutenant of the various counties send in the 
names of future justices to the Lord Chancellor, 
and that then the favoured individuals appear in 
the commission as a matter of course. 

Newspapers of all shades of political opinion 
have been discussing this and related questions, 
and all of them, Radical, Unionist, Conservative, 
and Tory, have taken it for granted that the func- 
tionary who designates future justices is the Lord 
Lieutenant. Is this so? I think not. My im- 
pression is that the Lords Lieutenant, as such, 
have not now, and never have had, anything to do 
with the matter. Theirs is a military appointment. 
The confusion seems to have arisen thus. For a 
long time back certainly from the period of the 
Restoration it has been the habit to unite in one 
person the distinct offices of Lord Lieutenant and 
Gustos Rotulorum. The holder of the latter 
dignity is the head magistrate of his county, and 
I believe that it is he, not the Lord Lieutenant, 
who has been in the habit of making suggestions 
to the Lord Chancellor as to magisterial appoint- 
ments. If I am right in this, the matter should 
be made plain ; if I am wrong, some one will, I 
trust, correct me. A JUSTICE OF PEACE. 

" CARBONIZER," A NEW WORD. Dr. W. Lefroy, 
Dean of Norwich, in a paper recently read by him 
in that city on the non-observance of Sunday, uses 
this word, which I do not find in the * N. E. D.' 
Speaking of the hundreds of thousands who in 
various ways are engaged in Sunday labour, he 
enumerates "barmen, barmaids, drivers, con- 
ductors, ostlers, carbonizers, stokers," &c. Who 
these carbonizers are, or how distinguished from 
stokers, does not appear. Those who heard the 
paper read could but guess that the Dean meant 
those who have to feed the fires with coals in the 
museums or picture galleries now thrown open to 
the public on Sundays. H. T. GRIFFITH. 

Miss JANE PORTER (1776-1850), ROMANCIST. 
An inscription on a tombstone in St. Oswald's 
Churchyard, Durham, records the death, on Sept. 8, 
1779, in his forty-fifth year, of her father, William 
Porter, for twenty- three years surgeon to the 
Inniskilling Regiment of Dragoons. His widow, 
Jane Porter, daughter of Peter Blenkinsopp, "a 
member of Durham Cathedral for sixty-five years," 
and mother of Wm. Ogilive Porter, M.D. (1774- 
1850), surgeon in the Royal Navy, of Sir Robert 
Ker Porter (1777-1842) and of Jane and Anna 
Maria Porter (1780-1832), died on June 18, 
1831, aged eighty-six, and lies interred in Esher 
Churchyard, co. Surrey. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

JCT." Public Advertiser, Aug. 17, 1776 : 

"The presiding Officer of Justice is unwearied in 

discovering the real Jut of the Case." 

H. H. S. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

ATHOLL OR ATHOLE. The Weekly Sun of 
September 17, 1893, has the following paragraph : 

" Hie Grace of Athole has altered the spelling of his 
name to ' Atholl.' Likely enough the Duke baa been 
hunting up the family archives and found that the 
earliest spelling of the title included two Fa. Seeing 
however, that the Duke's ancestors had been content 
with a single letter for so many centuries, it might have 
been wiser for him to have clung to the old spelling." 

But is it a fact that Athole has been the usual 
spelling for " many centuries"? If so, and if the 
change has taken place only this year, it is singular 
that the only spelling of the various titles attached 
to this name given in Mr. Edward Solly's pains- 
taking and valuable ' Index of Hereditary Titles of 
Honour' (published by the Index Society in 1880), 
from the twelfth century down to and including 
the present and sole dukedom, is Atholl. The 
dukedom was created in 1703 ; and the earldom 
from which it grew dated only from 1629, at which 
date all previous titles of Atholl would seem to 
have been extinct. JOHN W. BONE, F.S.A. 

SCAINTE FLECHER. Amongst the deeds of C. 
Baldwyn Childe, of Kyne Park, Worcestershire, 
are two, dated respectively 1577 and 1579, the 
purport of which is as follows : 

"1577. James Pytt and William Oliver 10 

one parcell of land with the appurtency lyeng and 
being in the Parish of Stoke Bliss in the co. of Here- 
ford called and known by the name of Scainte Flecher'8 
chappell churche yard, alias chappell close." 

" 1579. Francis Downes of Hyde to James Pytt of 
Stoke Bliss Bargain and Sale of the chapel called 
Scainte Flecher's Chappell and 1 Acre of land and half 
a virgate of land belonging to the said late cbappell 
situate in Stoke Bliss, Hereford, in the tenure of John 
Pytt as amply as John Herbert and Andrew Palmer 
lately had the premises of the ground of Queen Eliza- 
beth by letters patent of 22 d Sep. in her 17 th year to 
hold of the Queen in soceage. Downes gave possession 
by cutting a terf and hawthorn twig." 
Can any of your readers give any information of 
Scainte Flecher 1 W. PHILLIPS. 


UDAL TENURE. Can any of your readers give 
me any information about the udl tenure of land 
referred to in Sir Walter Scott's novel, 'The 
Pirate '? Was it different from the feudal tenure? 


"LEVEL BEST." What is the origin of this 
expression, of which journalists are so fond, and 
which appears so frequently in accounts of football 
and cricket matches? It does not appear to be 
noticed in the 'New English Dictionary,' a. "best." 
I suppose that the expression is American, and not 



V. JAN. 20, '94. 

the English of some past century. Why has the 
. epithet level been introduced ? Surely to do one's 
best meets all the requirements of the case ; better 
than one's best one cannot do. Bartlett, in his 
'Dictionary of Americanisms,' gives a quotation 
for the use of the phrase from the Hartford 
Courant, Oct. 4, 1869. 


of the parentage and occupation of Graffin Prank- 
ard, of the town of Somerton, in the county of 
Somerset, and of the city of Bristol, from 1680 to 
1720 ; also of James Peters, of the city of Bristol, 
of about the same period, would much oblige. 

W. G. N. 

CELLIST. I am puzzled by two portraits of Lindley, 
one of which appeared in the Illustrated London 
News at the time of his death, the other in last 
September's Strad. As they are both at about the 
same time of life, and there is not the least re- 
semblance between them, perhaps some corre- 
spondent can say which is correct. T. S. 


" To SWILCH." I wonder if any of your readers 
can tell me if there ia such a verb in the English 
language as swilch. I cannot find it in any dic- 
tionary. Yet somehow it forces itself upon my 
memory in connexion with the sound of water 
washing over shingle. Am I at fault, or not 1 


Authors' Club, Whitehall Court, S.W. 


' On Monday ee'nnight, died at Usk, in Monmouth- 
shire, Richard Jones, Esq., generally known by the name 
of Happy Dick, under which title he was the subject of a 
1769 h ai \ I 5 ired ld Bon g-" <Annual Register,' August, 

Is this song still to be found in some collection ? 

W. P. 

THE SARUM MISSAL. I saw it stated the 
other day that when Cardinal Pole restored the 
Latin Offices of the Church he did not restore 
the old Sarum Offices, but introduced the Roman. 
I had always been under the impression that the 
Roman Missal was introduced into England by the 
Fathers from Douai in 1570. Which is right ? 

" WAY VER." Will some one supply the deri- 
vation of this word, thus and otherwise spelt, and 
used in the sense of a pond ? W. C. W. 

PORTRAITS OF EDWARD I. Can any reader of 
* N. & Q. ' give me information as to what authen- 
tic likenesses of this king still survive ? The author 
of the * Greatest of the Plantagenets ' gives us a 
noble portrait of Edward, taken, as he tells us, from 
a drawing of a statue at Cameron Castle by Vertue, 

which was made before the statue was so defaced 
as it is now. This picture, whether authentic or 
not and it shows the peculiar droop of the left 
eyelid which Edward inherited from his father at 
all events remarkably corresponds with one's idea 
of what the king should have been like. There is, 
I believe, a statue at York Minster on the screen 
there, but I do not know when or by whom this 
was erected. The representation of Edward I.'s head 
upon his coins makes him beardless, with rather a 
narrow, triangular face. How he appears upon his 
seals I do not know. The statue for (or now on) 
Blackfriars Bridge is, so far as the face goes, a 
coarse, vulgar, and quite impossible representation- 
worse, if possible, than the dream-face evolved out 
of his inner consciousness by the poet William 
Blake. Lastly, a MS. in possession of Mr. Bernard 
Quaritch, written at Venice in 1330, by Guido of 
Colonna, is supposed to contain a portrait of the 
king taken when on his way to or from his crusade. 
The identification rests on very doubtful grounds. 
Mr. Quaritch describes it as follows : 

"A dark bearded warrior with a red surcoat over hia 
mail ; his sword held aloft in his right hand, his left 
hand supporting a shield which bears the letter E." 



PALMER OF WINGHAM. Can any one refer me 
to any books that give particulars of the various 
members of this family to whom Wingham College 
was given ? I have the names given on their tombs 
in this church, and by Hasted and other writers 
on Kent. Their arms were, "Or, two bars gules, 
each charged with three trefoils of the field ; in 
chief a greyhound currant, sable." 


Wingeham, near Dover. 

"MILK-SLOP." In a recent note on 'Slop- 
seller' (8 th S. iv. 193) I quoted in part a passage 
from Robert of Brunne's * Handlyng Synne ' in 
which occurs "melk slope" (1. 514), with "slope" 
(525, 526) and " sloppe " (537), designating a 
leather bag for holding milk. I find, however, in 
the ' Promptorium Parvulorum/ " mylke stop, or 
payle," and " stoppe, vessel for mylkynge." Sloppe 
in the Northumbrian dialect meant a robe, as 
shown in the 'Yorkshire Plays'; and as there is 
no analogy between a robe and a vessel for holding 
milk, a " melk sloppe " is unintelligible. Can it 
be that the scribe went wrong, and wrote sloppe or 
slope for stoppe ? F. ADAMS. 

BISHOP OF CHESTER. Can any one acquaint 
me with the birthplace of Bishop Cotes, whose 
name is unaccountably omitted in the ' Diet. Nat. 
Biog.' ? He was Master of Balliol from 1539 to 
1545, and Bishop of Chester from 1554 till his 
death in the following year. The Rev. W. D. 

S. V. JiH. 20, 'S4.] 



Macray has informed me that, as Cotes was at on 
time a Fellow of Magdalene, without having pre 
viously been a demy, he must been a Yorkshir 
fellow. Perhaps some Yorkshire genealogist wil 
be able to help me. F. SANDERS. 

Hoylake Vicarage. 

ABOUT 1570. I should be much obliged if any 
correspondent would furnish me privately with 
particulars about this personage, or inform me 
where I could obtain any. J. LANGHORNE. 

Vicarage, Lamberhurst. 

FRENCH LYRICS. Is there any satisfactory 
anthology of the shorter lyrics of the modern 
French poets, the men of to-day and yesterday ? 
If so, in what form did it appear, and by whom 
was it published ? B. L. R. C. 

ACCOUNTS. I should be much obliged for any 
comments on, or explanations of, the following 
words and phrases: Lewn, Lettall (apparently 
always = 3*. 4d.). 

1687. Pd. to Mr. Attkisa for his Advice and Assistance 
upon the Account of the Red Coate and Dorothy Sea- 
man. 00. 05. 00. 

1690 (and annually to 1709). Pd. for the Goale, House 
of Correction, and Maimed Soldiers, 06. 14. 00. 
1722. Pd. for levelling the Crumble, 00. 01. 00. 
1741. Pd. for my journey to Wem and Expences on 
the Canner'a account, 00. 02. 06. 

1744. Pd. a memed Solder that was memed at 
Catteriana, 00. 00. 06. 

1744. Pd. for 2^ yards of Ores for the Dearment, 
vU. 02. 06. 

1768. Pd. for thatching Springles and watering Straw 
the school, 00. 08. 00. 

High Ercall Vicarage, Wellington, Salop. 

CHARLES GIBBES. Who was the father o 
Charles Gibbes, the sugar-baker, of Thames Street 
London, who married Ann, daughter of Rober 
Jennings, of Courteenhall (died 1774), Deputy 
Auditor of the Exchequer ? 


CAPT. KITTOE, R.N. I should be glad if any 
>f your correspondents could give me information 
I to the ancestry of Capt. Edward Kittoe, R.N., 
Sholden, near Deal. I do not know the date 
his birth or death, but his widow died at Chad- 
Mary, March 9, 1850, so he must have 
d prior to this date. There was a Capt. W. 
iugh Kittoe, R.N., who died at Lyme Regis 
. 13, 1820. Was he the father of Capt. Edward 

Maurice O'Connell, of Darimane, dated London, 
Dec. 11, 1793. He writes, a propog of joining 
Lord Moira as aide-de-camp "on his expedition 
to the coast of France," 

" My only certain prospect would he the guillotine, if 
unhappily taken prisoner, even if I had a British Com- 
mission, as I am on the list of the Outlawed Persons, 
some letters of mine to the Late King of France having 
been found amidst many others in his papers, and 
having been printed in the collection of said papers by 
order of the Convention." 

When were these papers printed; under what 
title ; and where can a copy be seen ? 


is this quotation ? GILBERT H. F. VANE. 

High Ercall Vicarage, Wellington, Salop. 

Any information as to the Kittoe family 
will be of value. M. C. OWEN. 

1, Mount Street, Albert Square, Mancheeter. 

Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade,' vol. ii. p. 121, 
a a letter from Count O'Connell to his brother 

THOMAS MARTEN. What was the office once 
held by Thomas Marten, of Rousham, termed on 
bis tombstone "Clerk to y e papers to y e Wood 
Street Compter " ? The said Thomas Marten was 
afterwards secretary to the Commissioners of For- 
feited Estates following the Old Pretender's 
rebellion, and lastly secretary to the South Sea 
Bubble Settlement. Any particulars about him 
would be acceptable, as the renewed tombstone of 
1860 contains manifest errors in the dates. 


"FENDACE." What is the authority for this word, 
riven in the glossary to Fairholt's ' Costume ' and 
n some English dictionaries, with the explanation, 
' a protection for the throat, afterwards replaced 
by the gorget " ? The Old French fendace means 
simply " slit " or " chink. " In the absence of any 
evidence to the contrary, it is natural to suspect 
that the gloss above quoted is due to a misunder- 
standing of some passage in which a person is said 
to have received a wound in the neck through a 
fendace in his armour. But I know of no English 
example of the word in any sense. 

6, Worcester Gardens, Clapham Common, S.W. 

'THE GIPSY LADDIE.' Where can I find the 
old ballad with the above title, which narrates the 
story of the intrigue of Johnnie Faa, the gips 
monarch, with Jean, Countess of Cassilis ? 


ST. OSWYTH. Sir Wm. Sawtri, burnt in 1402, 
was, it is said, Rector of St. Oswyth, in the City 
of London. Where was this church situate? I 
lave consulted Stow's 'Survey,' &c., and cannot 
find it. G. A. BROWNE. 

Montcalm, Dagmar Road, Camberwel), 8.E. 

here a complete list of these extant ? If so, where 
s it to be found ? W. D. PINK, 



[8 th S. V. JAN. 20, *P4. 

(8* S. iv. 407.) 

I remember giving an authority for this term, 
with an intimation that it might possibly be the 
original source of its appearance in writing, in 
*N. & Q.,' 6 tb S. viii. 198, from an ancient writer, 
Anonymus, ( De Incredibilibus/ which was first 
published by Leo AHatius from a MS. in the 
Vatican, Romoe, 1641. See the preface, sign. 5 
vers.j to * Opuscula Mythologica, Physica et 
Ethica,' Amst., 1688. The chapter, with the 
Greek as Ta 'Erra Gca/Aara, Lat. " Septem 
Miracula," is at pp. 85, 86. Of this last work 
an earlier notice in respect of publication, but 
in reality much later, is that given by Beyerlinck 
in the * Theatrum,' t. iv. L. 1049 C. : 

"Do septem orbia Miraculis, inquit Caelius, lib. '23, 
c. 6 A.L. Inter septem orbia miracula aunumerantur, 
Dianae in primia Epbesise templum : inde Mausolaeum, 
hoc eat, Mauaoli aepulchrum : Colossus eolis apud Rbo- 
dioa : Jovis Olympic! simulachrum, quod Phidias fecit 
ex ebore : muri Babylonia, quos excitavit regina Semi- 
ramis : Pyraraidea in ^Egypto : Obeliscus Semiramidia 
Babylone CL. pedum longitudine, latitudine vero xxiv. 
Ex veteribua tamen non omnea eadem aensere : nam ex iia 
quoa recenauimua, aliquo ex puncto, aunt qui C>-ri regia 
arcbivum substituant, quod arte prodiga Memnon sit 
confabricatus illigatia auro lapidibus, eicuti Cassiodorua 
scribit. Inveni qui urbia Romas Capitolium hisce inae- 
rerent miraculis, cujua excellentiam mire effert Arn- 
mianua Marcellinua, ubi ait : Serapeum Alexandria 
atriis et columnis amplissimis, ac spirantibua eignorum 
figmentia, et reliqua operum multitudine ita eat exorna- 
tum, ut post Capitolium, quo ee Roma in aeternum 
attollit, nihil orbia terrarum cernat ambitioaius. Erat 
tamen in urbe vetus Capitolium et novum : et hoc quidem 
regione eexta, octava illud. In Capitolio praeterea deorum 
omnium aimulachra celebrabantur. Sed et pensilea 
Babylonia hortos in hanc censuram plerique admittunt." 

The above is from the ' Lectiones Antiques ' of 
Cselius Rhodiginus (fl. 1450-1525), fol. in 1599. 


MR. WALLER'S list of these differs slightly from 
any that I remember to have seen. It includes 
the walls of Babylon, and omits the Pharos of 
Alexandria. The list, thus amended, is said by 
Chambers (' Encyclopaedia ') to be given by Philo 
of Byzantium in a special work on the subject 
which has been edited by Orelli (1816). Dr. 
Brewer (' Diet, of Phrase and Fable ') gives the 
same list, adding that perhaps the palace of Cyrus 
should take the place of the Pharos. He also 
gives a list of seven wonders of the Middle Ages, 
in which are some of those MR. WALLER mentions 
as worthy of a place among the first seven. 

To the other sevens mentioned by MR. WALLER 
may be added the Seven Joys of the Virgin and 
her Seven Sorrows, the Seven Churches of Asia, 
the Seven Sleepers, the Seven Wise Masters, the 
Seven Sisters, the Seven Bodies of Alchemy, the 

Seven Senses, and others too sacred to be included 
in such a general list. It would, perhaps, be con- 
sidering too curiously to insist upon such purely 
historical instances as the Seven Years' War, the 
Seven Bishops, the Seven Weeks' War, &c., as 
illustrating the mystical virtue of this number a 
virtue first attributed to it on astronomical or 
astrological grounds. See Chambers, or the dic- 
tionary of Dr. Brewer already referred to. 

C. C. B. 

A correspondent asks, concerning this phrase, 
how old it is, and who made the selection. The 
number was proverbial at the Christian era, and 
probably long before. The elder Pliny, in the 
latter half of the first century (' N. H. ,' xxxvi. 4, 9), 
speaks of the Septem miracula^ and describes the 
architects of the Mausoleum five hundred years- 
before as doing their best that their work might 
be counted in that number. Similar is the lan- 
guage of Strabo (p. 652), writing two generations 
before Pliny. He says the Colossus at Rhodes, 
dating from about 300 B.C., was confessed in his 
time to be one of the Seven Wonders. 

The earliest description of the chiefest seven I 
have met with is by Philon, in a tract of five 
pages, as printed by Didot, in the same volume 
with Relian. Philon is commonly said to have 
flourished at Byzantium two centuries before our 
era. But whatever his date, he talks of the 
Septem orbis spectacula as a well-known phrase in 
his day, no less than it appears in Strabo and 

The wonders named by Philon are the same 
with those mentioned by your correspondent as 
most approved in our days. He has an interesting 
paragraph about each of the seven, save the 
Mausoleum, and he mentions the site of that as 
in Halicarnassus of Caria. His first words are 
that the seven were known to everybody by report, 
but to few by sight, inasmuch as it was the labour 
of a lifetime to visit them all. The selection was 
probably made by Alexandrine scholars as soon as 
the Rhodian Colossus was completed, 


"L'Escurial, commend par Juan Bautista, termind 
par Herrera, eat aaaurement, aprea lea pyramidea 
d'Ejfype, lea plua grand taa de granit qui existe sur la 
terre ; on le nomme en Eapagne la huitieme merveille 
du monde : cbaque paya a sa huitieme merveille, ce qui 
fait au moii) a trente huitieraes merveillea du monde." 
Theophile Gautier, ' Voyage en Espagne,' ed. 1845, ch. x. 


246, 376, 398 ; 8 th S. iv. 450, 495). In confirma- 
tion of MR. MATHEW'S view that this word has 
been borrowed from Welsh at a comparatively late 
period, it is of interest to note that in the modern 
colloquial Welsh of to-day this word is pronounced 
towlod, without any vestige of the v sound before 

8">S. V.JAN. 20/94.] 



the I, as in the literary taflod or taflawd, quoted 
by your correspondent. The dropping of this / 
seems to be the usual form, whether followed by 
another consonant or not, and is precisely analo- 
gous to our Somerset grawl as the usual dialectal 
form of gravel, and also to the dowl for devil of 
the ' Exrnoor Scolding.' I am credibly informed 
that the Welsh literary dyfod, i. e. coming, is pro- 
nounced colloquially dwad about Aberystwitb, 
while further south, in Carmarthen, the same word 
is shortened almost to a monosyllable, du'd. 

The reason the word tallet has spread so quickly 
all over the south-west of England is that we have 
no other to express precisely the same meaning, 
which implies a distinct connexion with the roof. 
Our nearest approach to it is cock-laff (cock-loft) ; 
but tallet implies much larger space in fact, the 
whole of the area covered by a roof above the 
walls ; while cock-loft would only express the part 
above the upper tie beams under the apex of the 
roof ; so that there is often a coclc'loft included in 
the tallet. It is curious, too, that while we have 
borrowed our word from Welsh, they in turn have 
adopted loft, which I am informed is good Welsh, 
from us. The above remarks only go to show 
once more the variety of words necessary to convey 
the slightest shade in meaning or description of 
the acts and things of the peasant's every-day life, 
and help to prove how infinitely larger is his 
vocabularly than Prof. Max Miiller would have 
us believe. F. T. ELWORTHT. 

Is not this west-country word, signifying " a hay- 
loft over a stable or an uncoiled space next the 
roof," simply a corruption of the word talus ? Talus, 
according to Bailey, is derived from the French, 
and is the name for " anything that goes sloping." 
He also says that in fortification a talus is " the 
slope given to the rampart or wall that it may 
stand faster"; and "in masonry, the talus of a 
wall is when its thickness is lessened by degrees." 
I would suggest, therefore, that tallet, as a corrupt 
form of talus, really means a sloping roof, and has 
gradually been applied to the space inside the 
slope of the roof, or the hayloft. 


I do not see anything "very remarkable" in a 
Welsh word being borrowed by Herefordshire, 
lying as this does upon three Welsh-speaking 
counties, Radnor, Brecknock, and Monmouth ; or 
that the same word should be adopted by Devon, 
Somerset, Wilts, Gloucester, and Dorset, lying as 
they do between or adjacent to Monmouth and the 
Welsh kingdom of Cornwall ; and seeing that there 
are so many words completely absorbed in the 
English language, that a Welshman scarcely sus- 
pects that they are his own for instance, basket, 
coracle, travel and its other form travail, bastard, 
&c. What does seem " very remarkable " to me is 
the statement that taflod was " borrowed by the 

Welsh from late Latin," "probably a mediaeval 
borrowing, perhaps from monkish Latin," " or it 
may be due to the Latin description of property in 
wills." This is all very vague, and unsupported by 
a shadow of reason or the least historical reference. 
I think your readers are entitled to both, for the 
word is so thoroughly Welsh, in both primitive 
and suffix, that it bears no trace whatever of 
foreign derivation. The primitive tafl is fre- 
quently used in compound Welsh words for 
instance, tofl-an = balance or scale, tafl-iadur= 
projectile, tufl-odiad= interjection, tafl-odi = inter- 
ject, tafl-rwyd= casting-net, ff<m-dafl=& sling. 
From the English equivalents your readers will be 
prepared for the statement that the idea imbedded 
in the word tafi is that of something thrown, cast, 
or pitched. Then, as regards the suffix awd, or its 
variant od, it always implies action, and, according 
to the Rev. M. Rowlands, the word to which it is 
affixed becomes a verbal noun for instance, dar- 
lien = read , dar lien - awd = a reading, gordd = a 
beetle or mall, gordd-od=a, blow from a beetle. 

Then the analogue in English of taflod would be 
pitching. The phrase " pitch of a roof " is a good 
architectural term ; and what more appropriate 
name could be giving to the space between the 
lines of inclination of a roof than " the pitching " ? 
y taflod = the pitching and that was the name 
given it by the old British nation, from the 
resources of their own language, I believe, before 
the advent of any monk and without the aid of 
" monkish Latin." It is most probable that it 
was the mode of filling the rack with the fodder 
that first suggested the name taflod, for instead of 
its being pushed up from below, it was pitched 
into the rack from the taflod above. 

I doubt very much the statement that " taflod 
means roof." I have never heard it used in con- 
nexion with the outside of a roof, and with the 
inside only metonymically. JNO. HUQHBS. 

17, Upper Warwick Street, Liverpool. 

For tabulata we need not go to Da Cange. 
Virgil uses it for rows above rows, or storys above 
storys, in ' Georg.,' ii. 361 : 

Viribus eniti quarum et contemnere ventoa 
Assueecant, sum masque sequi tabulata per ulmos. 

Compare './En./ ii. 464, and xii. 672. 


402). Allow me to refer your correspondent to a 
note of mine on this subject, mentioning an edition 
of ' Don Quixote ' in my library, profusely illus- 
trated by Sir John Gilbert and others, and pub- 
lished by H. G. Bohn in 1842 (5 th S. xii. 489). It 
is a large octavo, closely printed in double columns, 

p. 507. A preface is supplied, but the author 
oes not give his name. In answer to this MR. 
A. J. DUFFIELD sent an interesting reply (6" S. 



. V. JAN. 20, '94. 

i. 22), and said in reference to the book that it was 
" the work of one acquainted with the Spanish 
tongue, but not much impressed with the genius of 

The translation of 'Don Quixote ' by Smollett 
makes it appear a vulgar and coarse book, which 
it never was intended to be, and it is just such a 
translation as might be expected from the author 
of 'Roderick Random' and 'Peregrine Pickle.' 
There has been always some difference of opinion 
as to the style and objects of this remarkable work, 
and certainly it can be best appreciated by those 
who understand the Spanish language, as its 
beauties can be merely faintly reflected through 
the medium of translations. 

Charles Kingsley once told me that " he con- 
sidered ' Don Quixote ' one of the saddest books 
ever written," and Lord Byron has the following 
criticism upon it in ' Don Juan ': 

Cervantes smiled Spain's Chivalry away; 

A single laugh demolished the right arm 
Of hia own country ; seldom since that day 

Haa Spain had heroes. While Romance could charm, 
The world gave ground before her bright array : 

And therefore have his volumes done such harm, 
That all their glory, as a composition, 
Was dearly purchased by his land's perdition. 

Canto xiii. stanza xi. 

It seems to me that never was there a portrait 
drawn of one to whom " the grand old name of 
gentleman n might be more fitly applied than to 
the hero, as so much courtesy, so much proper 
feeling is shown by him. The book contains 
passages of indelicacy, but not on the part or from 
the lips of the hero. In the edition of which I 
have been speaking the story found at the inn is 
called the " Novel of the Curious Impertinent," 
whilst Smollett styles it the "Novel of the Im- 
pertinent Curiosity"; and Don Quixote is styled 
the "Knight of the Sorrowful Figure," and by 
Smollett the "Knight of the Rueful Countenance." 
Scenes in the work have formed the subject of 
innumerable paintings by celebrated artists, and it 
has several times been adapted to the stage. Even 
at the present day, the "new grand ballet" of 
' Don Quixote ' is being represented at the Alham- 
bra (Jan. 9). We have preserved also up to the 
present time in the language the terms quixotic, 
quixotry, and quixotism. The name Rozinante is 
still bestowed on a poor, lean horse, and Dapple 
on an ass. 

Smollett's translation of 'Don Quixote' was 
originally published in 1755 ; and some years 
later he issued 'Sir Launcelot Greaves,' a poor 
travesty on the immortal work of Cervantes, and 
one unworthy of Smollett. Ten years later, the 
Rev. R. Graves wrote that curious book 'The 
Spiritual Quixote/ and other imitations followed, 
as 'The Amicable Quixote 1 and 'The Female 
Quixote.' JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I have a translation which I do not identify 
on MR. WATTS'S list : 

" The History of the Renowned Don Quixote, &c., &c. 
Translated from the Original Spanish by Charles Henry 
Wilmot, Esq., 2 vols. London, printed for J. Cooke at 
Shakeepear's Head in Paternoster Row. 1774." 

I do not, of course, suppose it is unknown to 
MR. WATTS ; doubtless for some reason it was not 
worth inserting. But I should be glad to hear 
what is known of its history, if MR. WATTS would 
give a few more minutes to his subject. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

S. iv. 388, 497). With a view to upholding the 
high standard of accuracy maintained by ' N. & Q.,' 
may I be permitted to point out some errors which 
have crept into MR. STILWELL'S brief reference to 
this subject. 

The literal translation of " Fiel pero desdichado" 
is "Faithful but unfortunate" (or more strictly 
still, perhaps, " unhappy "). 

Pero, in Spanish, is not accented on either 
syllable, although per 6, in Italian (with, however, 
a different meaning), has the accent on the last 

The Spanish for disinherited is desheredado (not 
"disheredado"), pp. of desheredar, not " desheri- 

I cannot refer to Baretti's Spanish Dictionary 
(1807), but desheredar is correctly spelt in the 
eleventh edition of Neuman and Baretti'a Dic- 
tionary, and, of course, in the Dictionary of the 

19, Tite Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

THE CARDINAL VIRTUES (8 th S. iii. 385). The 
quotations from the 'Ad Herennium' are here 
given as from Cicero. The book is usually 
printed with Cicero's works, but its author is 
uncertain. Smith's * Classical Dictionary ' says 
(under " Cicero Rhetorical Works") that "it 
was certainly not written by Cicero." It has been 
conjectured that the book was written by Corni- 
ficius the younger, mentioned by Quinctilian 
(' Inst. Orat./ iii. 1). It is asserted by some com- 
mentators that it was written by Cornificius the 
elder, to whom Cicero wrote 'Epist. Fam.,' xii. 
17-30. It has also been attributed to Cicero and 

NORMAN DOORWAY (8 th S. iv. 409,491). Talk- 
ing of "Puginite freaks," there is another such to 
be seen in the very modern (circa 1860) Norman 
doorway of the little church of Hampton Gay, in 
Oxfordshire. It stands close to the line, on the 
right coming from Oxford, between the stations 
known formerly as Woodstock Road and Kirt- 
lington, but now described as Kidlington and 
Bletchington, and near it occurred the fearful 

8S. V.JiN. 20, '94.] 



railway accident of Christmas Eve, 1874. Many 
enthusiasts must have longed to jump out of the 
train and examine its dog-tooth moulding. 

E. H. M. 

I wish the querist would fix precisely the locality 
of this, as it seems not to refer to London. Th 

* London Directory ' has three " York Koads," th 

* North Suburban Directory ' has three, and th 

* South Suburbs ' four. Not one of these ten has 
any Ann Street connected. E. L. G. 

COPENHAGEN, THE HORSE (8 th S. iv. 447, 489) 
Undoubtedly this famous steed was of a brighl 
bay colour, rather slender in his contours, anc 
with an animated expression and action. Witness 
the capital portrait painted of him by James 
Ward, which is now at Alnwick, the Duke of 
Northumberland'?, where it is preserved as the 
companion to a portrait of Napoleon's white stal- 
lion, Marengo, an equally famous charger, upon 
which the Emperor is represented in Yernet's well- 
known and often engraved portrait, called in Eng- 
land "Napoleon Crossing the Alps." As to the 
Duke of Wellington's estimate ot Ward's picture, 
see ' Memoirs of B. R. Haydon,' 1853, iii. 127. 

F. G. S. 

* Croker's Correspondence and Diaries,' London, 
Murray, 3 vols., 1884, may be consulted for inter- 
esting matter about the Duke and his favourite 
charger, taken down from his Grace's lips. 

W. J. F. 


COUNT ST. MARTIN DE FRONT (8 th S. iv. 487). 
In the Monthly Magazine for Dec. 1, 1804, 
under 'Marriages in and near London,' is the 
following, relating to this gentleman : 

"His Excellency Count St. Martin de Front [erro- 
neously printed Pont], many years ambassador from the 
King of Sardinia to the Court of London to Lady Fleet- 
wood, widow of the late Sir Thomas Fleetwood, Bart. 
The ceremony wag performed by a clergyman of the 
Catholic Church, a dispensation having been previously 
obtained from the Biahop of London." 

Lady Fleetwood was Mary Winifred, eldest 
daughter of Richard Bostock, of Queen's Square, 
London, and married Thomas Fleetwood, Nov. 2, 
1771. After the death of the Count de Front she 
was married to Thomas Wright. 




!8). In reply to ASTARTE, the notes should be 
written on separate sheets of paper, all of one size; 
the title or subject should be written clearly at 
the top, preferably in red ink. For a small number 
>f notes the index files such as are used in most 
places of business for letters and invoices are most 
convenient. These files give a separate division 
for each letter, and they are very cheap. For 

facility of reference, if the number of notes is very 
large, it might be well to have six of these files, 
lettered respectively A, E, I, 0, U, Y. Each note 
could then be indexed under its first letter and its 
first vowel. For example, a note headed " Adam " 
would go into the A division of the A file ; " Bea- 
con" into the B division of the E file; "Cider" 
into the C division of the I file, and so forth. Or 
separate files could be kept for different subjects. 
But if ASTARTB'S friend does not mind the expense, 
he would find a set of pigeon-holes more con- 
venient. These may be subdivided for the vowel 
spaces. D. L. CAMERON. 

KENNEDY : HENN (8 th S. iv. 488). Your corre- 
spondent may perhaps find in the following the 
information concerning the Henn family which 
she seeks : 

"I have not had the good fortune to see the Stewart 
Exhibition in London, nor did I, until quite lately, see 
the Graphic of Saturday, June 15, which has for me and 
the various members of my family the following inter- 
esting statement 'That amongst the Stewart relics 
belonging to the Duke of Portland, and now in the 
Stewart Exhibition in London, is a silver chalice from 
which King Charles I. received the Holy Communion 
before execution, and which contains an inscription to 
that effect, with the arms of Sir Henry Hene, of Wink- 
field, County Berks, engraven upon it.' The surname 
which is given in the Graphic of this baronet, whose 
baronetcy was created in 1642, immediately before the 
king raised his standard in Nottingham, is misleading. 
Not only is my family of the same lineage as Sir Henry's, 
but his true name, no common one, is the same as our 
own ; and as the fate of Charles I., whether he was 
judicially murdered and a martyr, as I believe he wag, 
or whether he was a despot who trampled upon the 
liberties of his country, must, at all events, be for ever 
a landmark in English history, every fact connected 
with it having a peculiar and abiding interest, I cannot 
but think that the historic value attaching to this chalice 
justifies me in alleging, and proving, the connexion of 
our family with its owner and donor, and by whose 
hands, probably, it was placed in the hands of Biahop 
Juxon on the fatal morning of January 30. Proofs 
both of name and lineage are of the clearest and simplest 
nature. In the 'State Papers (Domestic), Charles I., 
from 1629 to 1631,' is an entry of June 6, 1630, West- 
minster, of ' a grant to Henry Henn, Serjeant of hia 
Majesty's carriage, of the Park of Follyjohn, belonging 
to the Castle and Honor of Windsor, County Berks, with 
the wood and deer, on payment of 3,400/. and a yearly 
rent of 10J. to the Crown.' In ' State Papers (Domes- 
tic), Chas. I., 1639 to 1640,' is an entry, Jan. 21, 1640, 
of a letter to ' William Earl of Derby and James Lord 
Strange, Chamberlain of Chester, to admit Henry Henn, 
is Majesty's servant, into the office of bailiff itinerant 
ithin the County Palatine of Chester, to whom hia 
Majesty granted the reversion when he was Prince of 
Wales.' In the Church of Paul's Walden, Hertfordshire, 
a a monument erected ' by Henry Henn, Esq., to the 
memory of Henry Stapleford and Dorothy, his wife, the 
aid Henry and Dorothy having issue then and yet living, 
)orothy, married to the said Henry Henn.' 

That Henry Henn, who erected this monument, was 
he donor of the silver chalice the Sir Henry Hene 
mentioned in the Graphic there is absolute demon- 
tration in Sir Bernard Burke's Extinct and Dormant 


[8 th S. V. JAN. 20, '94 

Baronetcies,' where it is stated, under the erroneous 
heading, ' Hene, of Wink field,' that ' the manor of Foli- 
john was granted in 1630 to Sir Henry Hene, who was 
created a baronet in 1642. He married Dorothy, 
daughter of Henry Stapleford, Esq., of Paul's Walden, 
Herts.' Clearer proof of the man and his true surname 
there cannot be than what is afforded by these extracts. 
But I have myself handwriting-evidence that Hene was 
not only not the correct name of our family, but that it 
was repudiated by an important member of it. Henry 
Henn, who was created Lord Chief Baron in 1679, had 
been previously serjeant-at-law and commissioner of 
forfeited estates for the counties of Clare and Galway ; 
and 1 happen to have a writ amongst my papers directed 
to him as such commissioner, in which he is named 
Henry Hene, Esq., but in the return to this writ 
which is sealed with his seal, having the same coat of 
arms upon it as the coat of arms upon the chalice he 
takes care to sign himself Henry Henn. 

" Then as to our lineage. My great-grandfather, the 
Hon. William Henn, was made a judge of the King's 
Bench in 1768. I inherit his law library, and in a large 
folio volume of reports, tempore Chas. II., there is a 
note by him to a case there reported of Sir Henry Henn 
v. Sir Henry Conisby, to the effect that if his nephew, 
William Henn, of Paradise, chose to assert his title to 
this baronetcy (it had become dormant on the death of 
the third baronet in the early part of the last century), 
there ought not to be any difficulty in proving it. From 
this evidence it plainly appears that the Irish branch of 
the Henn family belongs to that of the Sir Henry Hene 
mentioned in the Graphic, and that his true surname is 
the same as our own ; and, though proof of title to this 
ancient English baronetcy is, I fear, now impossible, I 
confess to a feeling of pride which, I hope, is not un- 
pardonable in being of the same name and lineage as 
that of this loyal servant of the Crown, whose loyalty 
and devotion to his beloved master is attested by the 
touching donation of the silver chalice, and was doubt- 
less recognized by the King in the supreme moments 
of his unhappy life. THOMAS RICE HENN." Daily 

H. T. 

'ODE TO TOBACCO' (8 tb S. iv. 528). MR. 
WALTER HAMILTON is sadly at sea. He asks 
" Why Bacon," in the last line of Calverley's ' Ode 
to Tobacco,' and not " Raleigh, or Hawkins, or 
Drake " ? The answer is, Because none of the last- 
named Elizabethan heroes kept a tobacconist's 
shop at Cambridge when Oalverley was in residence ; 
and Bacon did. In the same volume, ' Verses and 
Translations' (fourth edition), will be found 
C. S. C.'s 'Carmen Soeculare,' which also com- 
memorates Bacon's tobacco-shop (p. 141) in Latin 
verse : 

At juyenis (sed cruda yiro viridisque juventus) 
Quaerit bacciferas, tunica pendente, tabernas : 
Pervigil ecce Baco furva depromit ab area 
Splendidius quiddam solito, plenumque saporem 
Laudat, et antiqua jurat de stirpe Jamaica?. 
O fumose puer, nimium ne credo Baconi : 
Manillas vocat ; hoc praetexit nomine caules. 



" Here 's to thee, Bacon ! " refers to the well- 
known Cambridge tobacconist, whose shop was 
(twenty-five years ago) on the Market Hill, at the 

corner of Rose Crescent. The same firm is re- 
ferred to in ' Hie vir, hie est " : 
By degrees my education 

Grew, and I became as others ; 

Learned to court delirium tremens 

By the aid of Bacon, Brothers. 

(A. sentiment, by the way, which every true 
smoker will warmly repudiate.) Some day 'Verses 
and Translations' will have to be issued with 
explanatory notes, for there are allusions which 
can be understood only by Cambridge men of a 
former generation. My copy has a few notes 
dating from my Cambridge days, but I wish they 
were more full ; and I regret that I trusted to 
my memory to record the good stories then current 
about Calverley, though as I recall them now they 
are excellent ; but how many have I forgotten ? 
St. Thomas, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

I would have answered this query sooner had I 
not feared to be one of a multitude of answerers. 
Bacon was, of course, the name of a chief, if not 
the chief, tobacconist of Cambridge, temp. C. S. C. 
His name may be over the same shop-door now for 
anything I know ; but I should think it is un- 
likely. MR. WALTER HAMILTON ought to know 
the excellent passage in the ' Carmen Sneculare ' of 
the same author : 

Pervigil ecce Baco furva depromit ab area 
Splendidius quiddam solito, plenumque saporem 
Laudat, et antiqua jurat de stirpe Jamaica?. 
O fumose puer, nimium ne crede Baconi : 
Manillas vocat ; hoc praetexit nomine caules. 


|~ Very numerous replies to the same effect are acknow- 

VICAR OF NEWCASTLE (8 th S. v. 8). The refer- 
ence in Foote's play is to ' An Estimate of the 
Manners of the Times,' published in 1757, by the 
Rev. John Brown, D.D., who, three years later, 
was promoted from the rectory of Great Horkesley, 
near Colchester, to the vicarage of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. The book was a strong philippic upon 
national vices, and created a great clamour. 
Cowper, in the ' Table Talk,' says that it " rose 
like a paper kite and charmed the town." Seven 
editions in little more than a year marked the 
height of its success. A second volume followed, 
but failed to attract the same amount of attention, 
and an ' Explanatory Defence of the Estimate, &c.,' 
which the author put forth later, exhausted public 
interest in the subject. Dr. Brown's literary 
career and its tragic ending are described in all 
good collections of biography, and copies of ' The 
Estimate ' are easily procurable. 


348). In the list of works by Thomas Hope, 
' The Dictionary of English Literature,' &c., by 

8> S. V. JAN. 20, ! 94.] 



S. Austin Allibone (1877), gives "(4) Designs o 
Modern Costumes, 1812, fol., by Henry Moses.' 
H. G. Bohn's ' Catalogue of Books' (1848), p. 151, 
<( Moses, Series of Designs of Modern Costume, 
4to., 30 plates of Domestic Scenes and Com- 
positions, engraved in outline, 1823." 


JOHN LISTON (8 th S. iii. 143, 216, 252, 374, 
418). So far from any confirmatory evidence 
existing of Liston's parentage and birth as set 
forth in the account quoted by MR. HIPWELL, the 
passages in question form part of a sham biograp" 
of the actor, written by Charles Lamb, which will 
be found reprinted in the ' Essays of Elia.' See also 
his ' Autobiography of Munden,' in the same vein. 
Some thirty years ago a memoir of Listen appeared 
in a magazine edited by Mr. Edmund Yates 
{Temple Bar, I think), the writer of which started 
with Lamb's burlesque account of Liston's early 
days, and tacked on to it a genuine account of the 
later incidents of his career. WM. DOUGLAS. 

1, Brixton Road. 

GUNPOWDER PLOT (8 th S. iv. 408, 497). On 
the evening of this day, a custom, termed babbling, 
was at one time observed in South Holderness, 
chiefly at Otteringham and Keyingham. The boys 
of the village formed themselves into a band as 
evening fell, each armed with a bag containing a 
few stones. The apprentices of the shoemaker and 
blacksmith folded their leathern aprons, putting 
the babbles therein, and by tying the leathern 
strings round formed a bag which they could use 
without fearing its bursting. Using their weighted 
bags as weapons of offence, they beat the doors 
and window shutters of the houses, crying, 

Fift' o' November 

We '11 mak' yo' remember. 

They got more curses than halfpence ; and thankful, 
indeed, might they be if they escaped the clutches 
of the irate rustics ; but the risk added the neces- 
sary flavour to a more perfect enjoyment. 

50, Berkeley Street, Hull. 

I have heard a story, that a certain village clerk 
at a fifth of November service gave out what he 
called " a hymn of my own composing," the first 
verse of which ran as follows : 

This is the day as was the night, 

When wicked folks they did conspire, 
To blow up the Houses of Parliam#e 

With gun-pe-ou-de-ire. 

I believe this was actually sung to the old tune 
called " Cambridge," in which the last line of each 
verse is four times repeated. C. S. JERRAM. 

Forty years ago, more or less, the village boys 
at Harrow- on- the- Hill used to chant some lines 
which I have never recognized in any other version 

of the fifth of November doggrel. I can only 
recall two of them a variant, evidently, of the 
demand for fuel for a bonfire. Instead of 

A stick and a stake 

For [Victoria's] sake, 
they shouted 

A stick and a stump 

For old Oliver's Rump, 

as their fathers had probably done before them 
since the early days of the Commonwealth. 


I remember hearing, some forty years ago, the 
lines quoted by MR. WARREN or something very 
like them. They were not, however, associated 
with the guy-boys, but with a clerk in a country 
church, who, accustomed to give out the hymns to 
be sung, delivered himself one fifth of November 
Sunday to this effect, " Let us sing to the praise, 
&c., a hymn of my own composing": 
A set of d d papistic dogs 

Together did conspire, 
Two blow up King and Parliament 
With gunny-powder fire. 

I never heard of more than this one verse. 

0. M. P. 

[There is another version, which runs thus : 
God confound them Papishes, 

Who cruelly did conspire, 
To burn the King and Parliament, 
With gunny-powder fire.] 

BROWNING'S { Too LATE ' (8 th S. iv. 524). The 
last word in my note at the above reference makes 
me seem to attribute to Mr. Symons's estimate much 
greater critical influence than I intended. I wrote 
that " but for Mr. Symons's note of admiration, one 
might never have detected the flaw " in Browning's 
rhyme. The remark was intended to indicate that 
we are notoriously slovenly in our reading of verse, 
and frequently attend to structure only after special 
invitation to do so. The printer, with undoubtedly 
ample reason on his side, turned flaw into " plan," 
thereby passing on a large compliment to Mr. 
Symons, and furnishing students of Browning 
with material for a considerable grievance. This 
explanation, it is to be hoped, will bring all con- 
cerned to normal points of view. 


Helensburgh, N,B. 

KINO'S OAK IN EPPING FOREST (8 th S. iv. 446* 
518). The copy of Locke's ' Essay ' from which I 
quoted bears on its title-page : '* Twenty-fifth 

dition, with the author's last additions and cor- 
rections," " London : printed for Thomas Tegg, 
73, Cheapside ; R. Milliken, Dublin ; Griffin & 
Co., Glasgow ; and M. Baudry, Paris, 1825," and 

ras printed by Thomas Davison, Whitefriars. 

t is not unusual for different booksellers, heedless 

f each other, to issue "trade" editions of old 



[8 th S. V. JAN. 20, T4. 

stock books, and thus to get wrong in the number- 
ing. I write this in vindication of my reference, 
which is quite right. I am sorry that I cannot 
help W. 0. W. to the authorities he desires. 

W. 0. B. 

WATERLOO IN 1893 (8 th S. iv. 263, 430, 490 ; 
v. 14). In reference to MR. PICKFORD'S note, I 
would suggest that the source of much of Thacke- 
ray's inspiration when writing his account of 
Brussels during the Waterloo campaign is to be 
found in a " Narrative of a Residence in Belgium 
during the Campaign of 1815, by an English- 
woman, London, 8vo., 1817." Many of Thacke- 
ray's scenes look like brilliantly-coloured copies of 
Mrs. Eaton's plain and truthful sketches. 


LAMB BIBLIOGRAPHY (8 th S. iv. 488). I may 
say that the bibliography of Lamb mentioned in 
the * Young Collector,' ' The Library Manual,' and 
other books of a similar kind, written by myself, 
refers to the list of that author's books given by Mr. 
Ireland, in his 'List of the Writings of Wm. 
Hazlitt and Leigh Hunt.' I may be mistaken, 
but I do not think there is any complete biblio- 
graphy of Lamb. J. H. SLATER. 

NICHOLAS BREAKESPEARE (7 tb S. i. 329, 393, 
492 ; ii. 58 ; v. 272). The Athenceum of Dec. 30, 
1893, contains a valuable addition to the present 
but little-known life of the only Englishman who 
ever attained the chair of St. Peter. The docu- 
ment was discovered in the Muniment Boom at 
Westminster Abbey, by Mr. Edward Scott, the 
Keeper of Manuscripts, British Museum, and may 
be of interest to your correspondents, particularly as 
it supplements the information given in the ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography.' 


BURIED IN FETTERS (8 th S. iv. 505). It is pro- 
bable that your corresponndent may be right in his 
surmise that the fetters found in the churchyard of 
St. Andrew's, Newcastle, had been buried with 
some poor criminal ; but this does not follow quite 
as a matter of course. Fleury tells us that St. 
Babylus, Bishop of Antioch, desired to be buried 
in his chains. See Herbert's * Trans, of Eccl. Hist.,' 
i. 369. 

Bishop Forbes, in his 'Kalendars of Scottish 
Saints,' 331, says that Edmund, son of Malcolm 
Canmore and St. Margaret, lived and died as a 
saint in the Cluniac Monastery of Montague, in 
Somersetshire, and that he desired to be buried in 
chains. For this statement he refers to Will. 
Malmesbury's < De Gestis Reg. Angl.,' lib. v. 
p. 628, and * Camerarius,' p. 178. 

Dr. Charles Creighton, in his valuable c Hist, of 
Epidemics in Britain,' says that 
"when John Howard visited the Oxford Gaol in 1779, 
in the course of his humane labours on behalf of the 

prisoners, he was told by the gaoler that, Borne years 
before, wanting to build a little house, and digging up 
stones for the purpose from the ruins of the court, which 
was formerly in the castle, he found under them a com- 
plete skeleton with light chains on the legs, the links 
very small. * These/ says Howard, ' were probably the 
bones of a malefactor, who died in court of the distemper 
at the Black Assize.' "P. 377. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 


345, 457 ; iv. 175, 290, 455). Oar ignorance of 
what electricity really is makes it difficult to ex- 
plain some of the phenomena of lightning. On 
the breaking up of the polarities, the flash is of so 
high a temperature, that in passing through sand 
it fuses it into those wonderful tubes known as 
fulgurites. It does not remove my difficulty to 
be told that heat vibrations take the place of 
electrical vibrations. How do we know 1 ? The 
spark from the prime conductor represents in 
miniature some of the heating effects of lightning. 
As to the action of lightning upon a tree, I quote 
the following, with abridgments, from my treatise 
on the * Thunderstorm' (S.P.C.K., third edition, 
1877, p. 123). After comparing some of the effects 
of the lightning strokes with the known fusing 
points of some of the metals, M. Arago's ingenious 
theory is introduced. He supposes that when a 
badly conducting solid is struck by lightning, the 
moisture contained in it becomes suddenly con- 
verted into high pressure steam, the elastic force 
of which rends it to pieces, and scatters it in all 
directions. The singular tearing into shredar which 
wood undergoes when it has been penetrated by 
lightning certainly indicates the presence of some 
powerfully expansive force. In 1676 a flash of 
lightning struck the Abbey of St. Me'dard de 
Soissons, and its effects on some of the rafters of 
the roof were thus described they were found to 
be divided from top to bottom to the depth of 
three feet into the form of very thin laths ; others 
of the same dimensions were broken up into long 
and fine matches ; and some were divided into such 
delicate fibres that they almost resembled a worn- 
out besom. Next, as to the effects of lightning 
upon green wood. On June 27, 1756, at the abbey 
of Val, near the island Adam, the lightning struck 
a large solitary oak, 52ft. high, and somewhat 
more than 4 ft. in diameter at its base. The trunk 
was entirely stripped of its bark, which was found 
dispersed in email fragments all round the tree to 
the distance of thirty or forty paces. The trunk 
to within about two yards of the ground was 
cleft into portions almost as thin as laths. The 
branches were still connected with the trunk, but 
they, too, were deprived of their bark, and had 
been subjected to a most remarkable slicing. The 
trunk, branches, leaves, and bark did not exhibit 
any trace of combustion, only they appeared to be 
completely dried up and withered. On comparing 

8- h S. V. JAN. 20, '24.] 


a number of such cases important differences 
occur, but the pages of 'N. & Q.' are hardly 
adapted to the discussion of BO large a subject. In 
a case related by Mr. Jesse on the effects of light 
ning on a large oak in Richmond Park, all the 
main branches were carried away, one large limb 
to a distance of sixty paces ; the tree itself, which 
might have contained from two to three loads o 
timber, was split in two, and the bark so completely 
stripped from it that on removing the turf that 
surrounded the butt of the tree, the bark had dis- 
appeared even below the surface of the ground. 
Not one of the email shoots or branches could be 
found, but the ground was strewn with a quantity 
of a black brittle substance, which pulverized in 
the hand on being taken up, and was probably 
carbon, the result of combustion. An intelligent 
person who witnessed the disaster stated that the 
noise and crash were tremendous, and that the 
destruction of the tree was the work of an instant. 
Peltier (' Des Trombes,' Paris, 1840) describes 
a similar case. A magnificent oak was struck, 
and u la foudre produisit une mort instantane'e," 
and left some marks of burning. In fact, before 
the main discharge takes place, feelers are sent 
down to prepare the line of least resistance for the 
disruptive discharge ; in other words, to search for 
conducting matter. This may be furnished in 
various ways, such as the steamy atmosphere 
ascending from a flock of sheep huddled together, 
or it may be the sap of a huge tree, or the soot of 
a chimney, or the iron clamps and bars that bind 
masonry. In all such cases the lightning commits 
havoc which is especially conspicuous in the last- 
named case. For example, on August 1, 1846, 
lightning struck the spire of St. George's Church, 
Leicester, and destroyed it. Large blocks of stone 
were hurled in all directions, one of considerable 
size being thrown against the window of a house 
three hundred feet distant, and it was computed 
that one hundred tons of stone were hurled to a 
distance of thirty feet in three seconds. 

Higbgate, N. 

SAPPHO (8* S. iv. 507). In case MR. HARDY 
has not met with it, he may like to know of Mr. 

. T. Wharton'a " Memoir, Text, Selected Render- 
ings, and Literal Translation of Sappho, 1885." 

THE MOAT, FULHAM PALACE (8 th S. iv. 248, 
69, 476). I must apologize for my tardiness in 
responding to MR. FERET'S very courteous notice 
of my communication regarding the occupation of 
Fulham by the Danes. Other engagements have 
prevented my looking into the matter again, till 
now. With regard to the date of this occupation, 
: is true that the text of the so-called 'Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle ' gives 879 as the year in which 
the Danes entrenched themselves at Fulham, and 

880 as the year in which they left it. But in Prof. 
Earle's translation (Rolls Series, vol. ii.) the dates 
are doubled, first those of the text 879, 880, and 
then, within brackets, the corrected dates [880], 
[881]. These may be shown to be the true dates by 
the test proposed by MR. FERET. That invaluable 
storehouse of chronological information ' L'Art do 
Verifier les Dates' furnishes tables of eclipses, 
from which it will be seen that in 879 there was 
but one very small eclipse of the sun, visible only 
in the north of Scotland, but that in 880, on 
March 14, there was a central eclipse, visible 
through the whole of the west of Europe. On 
September 8, in the same year, there was a second 
eclipse, but it was a very small one, and only 
visible in the west of Africa. We may, therefore, 
regard it as pretty certain that 880, not 879, is 
the true date of the Danish occupation of Fulham. 
I regret to be unable to supply any early refer- 
ences to the Fulham moat. Has MR. FERET con- 
sulted the late Mr. Faulkner's publications ? 


iv. 349, 417). In reading this article in ' N. & Q.' 
I have had recalled to mind that very many years 
ago the following, in Porphyry, ' De Abstinentia,' 
made me think that it was the probable source 
from which Lamb may have derived some 
of the leading features of the above-named 
Dissertation. 7 I do not suppose that he took 
them directly from Porphyry ; but in his multi- 
arious reading of old English books he may have 
met the story. 

In showing the origin of the use of animal food 
n various places, Porphyry quotes Asclepiades, the 
Cyprian, as telling the following in his work on 
Cyprus and Phosnicia : 

"At first no living thing was sacrificed to the gods, but 
here was no law respecting this, as it had been hindered 
>y natural law. But on certain occasions that required 
ife for life they are said (pvQvovTai, fabled) to have 
first slain a sacrifice ; then, when that was done, to have 
consumed entirely by fire the victim slain. But after- 
wards, once on a time, while the sacrifice was in burning, 
lesh fell on the ground which the priest took up, and 
>eing burned, without deliberation, applied his fingers to 
us mouth to relieve the burning. And having tasted, he 
coveted the savour, and did not abstain, but even gave 
ome to his wife. Pygmalion having learned this, threw 
>oth himself and his wife down precipices, and committed 
he priesthood to another. Before long he happened to 
perform the same sacrifice, and because he eat of the 
same flesh, he fell into the like calamities as the former. 
Jut as the practice proceeded farther, and people used 
he sacrifice, and from appetite did not abstain but laid 
hands on the flesh, he ceased at last from inflicting 


"SPERATE": "DESPERATE" (8 th S. iii. 167, 
233). These words are of frequent occurrence in 
old accounts, and debts are usually arranged under 
one head or the other. In an inventory of the 


[8"i S. V. JAN. 20, '94. 

College of Lingfield, Surrey, dated 1524 (' Surrey 
Archaeological Collections,' vol. vii. p. 234), is a 
column headed " Sperat detts," and another 
"Desperat detts." 

Both Evelyn and Pepys use the word " despe- 
rate " in the sense of not to be hoped for. The 
former, under date 1664, July 7, writes, "To 
Court where I subscribed to Sir Arthur Slingsby's 
lottery, a ' desperate ' debt owing me long since 
in Paris." The latter, writing Nov. 2, 1669, of 
his wife's sickness, says, " She hath layn under a 
fever so severe as at this hour to render her 
recoverie ' desperate.' " G. L. G. 

ST. CLEMENT'S DAY (8 th S. iv. 507). Within 
the last twenty years the day was observed as more 
or less of a festival here, at Messrs. Alderton & 
Shrewsbury's foundry. It is curious that in 
Sussex, the county of iron works, one church only, 
St. Clement's, Hastings (with its daughter chapel 
of St. Clement's, Halton) is certainly dedicated to 
this saint. West Tarring is a disputed dedication 
(see 'Suss. Arch. Colls., 1 xii. 111). Dickens, in 
4 Great Expectations,' has not forgotten that " Old 
Clem " is connected with the forge. 



ALL FOOLS' DAT (8 th S. iv. 428, 498). Noah 
Teleased the dove and other birds forty days after 
grounding, and his grounding was on the 17th of 
Abib, afterwards notable as the day Moses crossed 
the Red Sea, and finally the day Christ rose from 
the grave. The first release of birds, therefore, was 
in April or May, but could not be the first of a 
Hebrew month. It was the 27th of Yiar. It 
must also have been that of Christ's Ascension, 
according to St. Luke ; and a week later was the 
Pentecost, when " the fiftieth day was fully come," 
which I take to mean most naturally fiftieth from 
the Crucifixion fiftieth of those days whereof he 
rose " on the third." E. L. GARBETT. 

"TiB's EVE": " LATTER LAMMAS" (8 th S. iv. 
507). See Dr. Brewer's 'Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable,' to which I am indebted for the follow- 
ing : " St. Tib's Eve is never. It is a corruption 
of St. Ube's, a corruption again of Setuval." 

I have seen it in print that St. Tib's Eve falls 
on the Greek Kalends, neither before Christmas 
Day nor after it. A contributor to the Newcastle 
Weekly Chronicle (supplement, p. 3), December 23, 
1893, in reply to a query, says : 

" There is no such saint in the calender as St. Tib. 
Similar expressions to 'Tib's Eve' are 'At Latter 
Lammas,' and ' When two Sundays meet,' the time in 
each case being never." 


Wolsingham, co. Durham. 

St. Tib's Eve is an Irish way of designating a 
day which would never come. My great-uncle, an 

[rishman, used to say it was "the day neither 
aefore nor after Christmas Day." ALICE. 

H. FOLET HALL (8 th S. iv. 469). There 
appeared in the Chicago Inter- Ocean, some time in 
1889, quite a lengthy article in answer to a query 
as to the authorship of 'Ever of Thee.' In it a 
James Lawson was said to be the author, and the 
Following given as the circumstances of its being 
" brought out": 

" One cold day in January, 1850, a tramp entered the 
music store of Mr. Turner, in the Poultry, London, and 
said he had business with the proprietor. The visitor 

was unclean and ragged beyond description He was 

taken to Mr. Turner, the publisher. He offered the 
music publisher a composition which he unearthed from 
his rags. When asked who wrote it, he replied that he 
did, and then played it upon the piano for the publisher. 
His listeners were electrified when they heard the piano 
almost speak at the touch of that bundle of rags and 
filth Then he eanga stanza of the song, and the pub- 
lisher was assured it would be a success with the public." 

Then is given what purports to be the story of 
Lawson's life, as told by him to Mr. Turner. It is 
a tale of reckless dissipation, and loss of position 
in society following disappointment in a love affair; 
but is strangely lacking in details, the only one 
given being that the girl lived in Brighton. 

Mr. Turner, after fitting Lawson out in respect- 
able attire, paid him 

" ten English shillings, and said that if the unfortunate 
and gifted composer kept sober he would be paid a good 
royalty, but that if he spent the money in drink he would 

receive none. Lawson did not make his appearance 

for five days. Then he was in a condition almost as woe- 
begone as before Mr. Turner gave him a half-crown 

piece and informed the clerk that Lawson must not be 
allowed to return. The unfortunate man left imme- 
diately, and went out into the darkness of despair while 
the song has sung itself into hundreds of thousands of 
hearts, and probably no more popular or profitable one 
was ever written." 

The writer in the Inter- Ocean gives no authority ; 
but the article, though poorly written, is so ex 
cathedra in tone that there must have been some 
foundation to the story. E. P. KEHOB. 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 

The following extract from a small volume en- 
titled 'Quiet Old Glasgow,' by a Burgess of 
Glasgow, published last year, may be of interest to 
readers of N. & Q.' The description relates to a 
date about fifty years ago : 

" Passing along to the west on the north side of Argyle 
Street, to the foot of Buchanan Street, on the west side 
stood the residence of Thomas Lightbody, surgeon, on 
the second floor, which was reached by an outside stone 
stair, projecting on the pavement. There were not 
many passengers, and it was not felt to be an incon- 
venience. The surgery was in an apartment fronting 
Argyle Street, in the window of which were a number of 
glass jars and bottles of all sizes, containing reptiles of 
various kinds, from a worm to a spiral serpent crushed 
into the largest bottle. In the centre was a large glass 




clobe filled with a liquid of a light green colour, I does a family chronicle possess so much that is interest- 
behind which a lamp was kept burning, indicating the ing and stimulating. We should be surprised at owing 
doctor's residence and casting a brilliant light across the a book of this class to a girl had we not known that 
street It was often a guide to passengers, as the streets Mies Wairender comes of a strain of which, as was said 
and lanes were then very dimly lighted with oil lamps, of the Lucases, all the sons were brave and all the 
which during stormy winter evenings were often blown daughters virtuous and, in this case, heroic. Perhaps 
out leaving the streets gloomy and dark." the most distinguished member of the family is that 

J. M. MACKINLAY. I Lady Grizel Baillie, who _ when _her_f a ther,_suspected of 


complicity in the Bye House Plot, was hiding in a vault 
in the church, used to abstract what food she could from 
her own meals without attracting attention and steal 

more disturbing influence of night fears was twelve 


We must not forget that * The Purple Jar ' 
Miss Edgeworth is the locus classicus in which t< 

find literary mention of these window ornaments ^^ ^ _^ 

Were they not designed at once for show and for I ^^ o7d"andno more. S~he was then Miss Hume, her 
the saving of more perishable stock in days when father's title of Earl of Marchmont not having been 
window dressing had not become a fine art ? Per- granted until some years subsequently, after the accea- 
haps, also the'y served the purpose of the red Uof JUliam ^^^^^iSS^il&S 
lamp, which, in some places at least, is not now ^*. with Qeorge Baillie> of Jervi8wood> subsequently to 
thought professional in the higher ranks of the | become her husband, into the lives of the Earls of 
healing faculty. 



SIR EDWARD FREWEN (8 th S. iv. 307, 412, 514). 

-Since writing on the above (8 th S. iv. 514) I can , that of the {hird in 8ome of hlg be8t . know n nne8; whi ie 
partially answer my own query. I have come W alpole, Lord Marchmont's arch enemy, bore splendid, 
across a deed at the Ecclesiastical Commission, if reluctant, testimony to his ability and honesty. Misa 
dated March 22, 1640, wherein the Bishop of Warrender's book, which is dedicated to her grand- 
London leaves to John Wolverstoce eight and a father, Sir Hugh Hume Campbell, Bart., of Marchmont, 
half acres of land at Little Hurlingham. On *j- J f b ^^^^ 

Thomas Frewen's marriage with Edith, daughter three thou8and acres> i ving at the ot of the La mm er- 
and heiress of John Wolverstone, this estate, by | m uirs, and for a spot so thinly peopled making a great 
an indenture dated October 14, 1661, passed to 
him. CHAS. JAS. F 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

MR. PINK is right in stating that Sir Edward 
Frewen was not M.P. for Rye. To MR. RAD- 
CLIFFE'S reply might be added that Sir Edward 
Frewen was one of the canopy bearers sent by Rye Humes the still existing barony of Polwarth. Sir 

Marchmont there is no temptation to enter. These be- 
long to history, and are conspicuous in the most interest- 
ing memoirs of the time. The Marchmont papers are 
accessible, and throw a valuable light upon the times. 
If, as is the case, Macaulay is unjust to the first Lord 
Marchmont, Pope made compensation by crystallizing 
rd in 

name for itself in poetry. At Polwart-on-the-Greea 
we know, on the authority of Allan Ramsay, that 

lasses do convene 

To dance about the thorn. 

Many subsequent and some preceding poets have sung 
the praises of Polwarth, which assigned to the Humes 
and to the Scotts of Hardon, who intermarried with the 

to King James's coronation, 
was 1662. 

The year of his birth 

Patrick Hume, subsequently first Earl of Marchmont, 
was eighth Baron of Polwarth. Much of interest to 
antiquaries is said concerning the frightening bell, rung 
at a funeral in front of the coffin to scare away the evil 
spirits. A story is told by Miss Warrender of another 
Miss Hume, not less heroic than Lady Gii-ell, who 
alao saved her father's life by disguising herself as a 
highwayman and robbing of the death-warrant the mes- 
senger entrusted with its conveyance. Pope, it is known, 
appointed the last Lord Marchmont one of his executors. 
The story of these and other lives is delightfully told by 
Miss Warrender, and a genealogical record of much im- 
portance and interest is supplied. Her volume, which 
is attractive and remunerative in the highest degree, is 
richly illustrated. There are portraits of the earls, one 
of Hugh, the third earl, coloured, and of their wives 
from the family collection. One of Elizabeth, Lady 
Polwarth, the first wife of Patrick, first earl, presents a 

Marchmont and Vie Humes of Polwarth. By One of 

their Descendants. (Blackwood & Sons.) 
In the splendidly picturesque and diversified family his- 
tory ot Scotland which puts to shame most Southern 
annals, the great family of Hume, or Home, holds a 
prominent place. Their hightst honours were obtained 
in periods subsequent to the Reformation, when the 
turbulence and rapacity of the nobles had toned down, 

and the most illustrious members of the family with I from the family collection, 
whom Mies Warrender deals are distinguished by their Polwarth, the first wife of P 

defence of liberty and privilege, and their resistance to face of singular sweetness and loveliness. There are 
the illegal exercise of authority. Miss Warrender's de- also views of the family seats, and a very striking pic- 
lightful book is practically a history of three successive ture of Hugh and Alexander Hume, twins, the sons of 
Earls of Marchmont. Incidentally it is a great deal the second earl. The resemblance between these is so 
more. 1 1 supplies the genealogy of many distinguished strong as to defy detection. There are also some illus- 
and noble houses, it recapitulates deeds of supreme trations of existing antiquities, and an appendix of great 
heroism, it furnishes an inexhaustible stock of folk-lore, value. Miss Warrender has, indeed, written an esti- 
and it gives pleasant glimpses into London life in the mable English volume, which will be valued by the 
period of Bolingbroke and Pope. Seldom, indeed, is historian, the antiquary, the genealogist, and not least 
erudition eo charmingly conveyed, and still more seldom [ by the lover of literature. 



[8-h S. V. JAN. 20, '94. 

Testamenta Karleolensia. The Series of Wills from the 
Prse- Reformation Registers of the Bishops of Carlisle, 
1353-1386. By R. S. Ferguson, M.A., LL.M., P.S.A., 
Chancellor of Carlisle. (Kendal, Wilson; Carlisle, 
Thurnara & Sons ; London, Stock.) 
THIS valuable little volume forms a very suitable com- 
panion to the other publications in the " Extra Series " 
of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archaeological Society, in which it appears. Four out 
of the previous eight works so issued have been edited 
by the President of the Society, Chancellor Ferguson, 
to whose untiring zeal we owe the present volume. The 
early wills which form its subject are of great interest 
to the student of media val genealogy as well as of 
mediaeval manners and customs. They are, of course, 
full of bequests for " superstitious uses," such as obits 
and trentals, the latter being by some testators, as, e. g., 
by Thomas de Sandforth, dat. Decollation of St. John 
Baptist, 1380, directed to be celebrated as quickly after 
testator's death as conveniently might be. 

In his glossary Chancellor Ferguson seems to cater, 
under some headings, for readers very unacquainted 
with ecclesiastical Latin, as when he translates for 
them the terms "missa," "missale," "monialis," 
" tunica," and the like, which we should have thought 
hardly needed explanation for the kind of persons who 
are likely to own the learned Chancellor as their Presi- 

Some of the Christian names and surnames here re- 
corded are of interest in various ways. Thus the old 
Scandinavian name Orm, familiar to many through the 
Great and Little Orme's Heads in North Wales, appears 
in these pages as part of the surname Ormyaheved or 
Ormesheved, i. e., Orm s head, an exact reproduction of 
the name of the headlands near Llandudno, from whose 
neighbourhood the Ormshead family of the ' Test. Karl.' 
may possibly have come. The rather crude form " Agid " 
as a female Christian name, on p. 187, in the will of Thomas 
de Ariandale, Rector of Askeby, should, we can scarcely 
doubt, be Agidia, for JEgidia. The rector's own sur- 
name ia evidently from beyond Solway, one of a certain 
number of Scottish names which are represented in the 
' Test. Karl.,' just as they are in the Yorkshire Fines ' 
and other Northern English records of the Middle Ages. 
To this category, we apprehend, belonged Walter de 
Corry, mentioned on p. 53, n. 1, circa 1332, as having 
sided with the Scots and so forfeited his lands in Kirk- 
linton ; and Thomas Olifant, p. 29, a legatee of William 
kelson (or rather, as he calls himself, De Appilby), Vicar 
of Doncaster, 1360. Some quaint and rare early forms of 
surnames may be noted, such as Prestmanwyf, Preston- 
son, le Paraonman, the first named having, we presume, 
originally been the wife of the priest's manservant, the 
second the priest's son, an English parallel of the 
Scottish Macpherson. 

Life and Times of the Right Hon. William Henry 
Smith, M.P. By Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P. 
2 vole. (Blackwood & Sons.) 

WE mean no disrespect to the eminent man whose life 
Sir Herbert Maxwell has written in these two pleaaant 
volumes when we confess that in reading them our 
thoughts have sometimes recurred to that Industrious 
Apprentice of Hogarth's who by homely and common- 
place virtues rose from a humble calling to the highest 
civic dignities. Mr. Smith was a bourgeois John Bull of 
the best type, endowed with such sterling qualities as 
enforced respect even from those who differed from him. 
He was essentially the plain man whom Englishmen 
understand and delight to honour. Though not pos- 
sessed of the gifts of brilliancy and oratory, he had in 
a high degree what is in the long run infinitely more 
influential character. No one ever doubted his sincerity 

and conscientiousness. His watchword in things great 
or small was " duty." He was genuinely and unaffectedly 
religious. His simplicity and integrity were set off by 
a winning courtesy and tact. He was singularly free 
from ambition and self-seeking, so that greatness was 
rather thrust upon him than courted. Here are all the 
elements of a noble character. When it is added that 
in all the relations of life as a son, a husband, an em- 
ployer, a churchman, and a statesman he seems to have 
been equally faultless, it will be seen that such a life 
was well worth writing. It would have afforded an ideal 
theme to Dr. Smiles, but it has not suffered in the hands 
of his actual biographer, who has treated his subject 
with perfect sympathy and good taste. It is a book, 
indeed, for pur rising young men to ponder and assi- 
milate. It is well to be thus reminded that integrity 
and high principle are still more potent factors in public 
life than a shifty opportunism and versatility however 
brilliant. To be critical : it looks like etymological 
affectation when the writer chooses to render Mr. 
Smith's characteristic motto, " Deo non fortuna fretus," 
by the certainly not obvious English, "Freighted not by 
fortune but by God " (i. 84) ; and the same may be said 
of "roister" (i. 88) for roster. The Bishop of Col- 
chester's initial is not "F." (i. 106), but A.; and 
" Lefarrin " (ii. 58) we take on internal evidence to be 
a misprint for Lefanu. It is curious, too, that Arch- 
bishop Trench is here no more than a dean (i. 60). 

English Writers. By Henry Morley, LL.D. Vol. 

Shakespeare and his Time : Under Elizabeth. (Cassell 

& Co.) 

THE first volume of this laborious and conscientious 
"attempt towards a history of English literature" was 
published in 1887. Though ten volumes have now ap- 
peared, Prof. Morley has still a long story to tell, espe- 
cially if he still keeps to his original idea of including in 
his work notes of the literature of all the offshoots of 
the English race. The tenth volume commences with 
an interesting account of Shakspeare's earlier years. 
Besides Shakspeare, space is found for notices of Lodge, 
Peele, Greene, Marlowe, Drayton, Daniel, and of many 
other less-known worthies in the literary world. We 
feel confident that all readers of 'N. & Q.' will join us in 
wishing Prof. Morley health and strength that he may 
bring his herculean task to a successful issue. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

E. T. (" Catholic Revival "). We do not care for 
theological discussions in our columns. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8* h S.V. JAN. 27, '94.] 





NOTES: Parish Councils and Parochial Records, 61 
Shakspeariana, 63 Forshaw Bibliography, 64 Poems by 
Arthur Hal lam " Turncoat," 65 T. Martyn Stout= 
Healthy Charles Lamb Platform " Partake," 66. 

QUERIES : Matthews St. Petersburg Charles J. Fox- 
Pope and Cock-fighting Cumnor Mr. Ward Pigott : 
Burgoyne Shakspeare Queries Rev. Abraham Colfe, 67 
Earl of Cornwall ' History of England' The Music of 
Sweden and Norway Bust of Charles I. Lady Randal 
Beresford Badge " Tangerine " Thomas Coates 
Francois Quesnay London Bridge, 68 Sinclair Burial 
in Point Lace York Prison ' Remains of Pagan Saxon- 
dom,' 69. 

REPLIES : The Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, 69 
Little Chelsea " The stone that loveth iron," 70 Strachey 
Family Sunset Prujean Square, 71 J. J. Smith 
O'Brien : Strangways, T2 ' Notes on the Four Gospels' 
Sir Hugh Myddeltbn, 73 Theobald Wolfe Tone" Tem- 
pora mutantur," &c. Waterloo Pepysian Folk-lore 
Pepys's "Book of Stories "" Nuder, 74 Blanche of 
Lancaster St. James's Square Inscription on Stone 
Peacocks' Feathers, 75" To quarrel "Slang Names for 
Coins Pepin le Bref Hawke Lincoln's Inn Fields Troy 
Town Sir J. Moore Miss=Mi8tress, 76 H. W. King 
Boultbee Bangor English and Netherlandish Inversion 
Knights of the Royal Oak J. Liston Carlisle Museum 
Catalogue Sedan - chair University Graces, 77 St. 
Oswyth Gould King Charles and the 1642 Prayer Book 
Jews, Christians, and George III.. 78 Grants of Arms 
W. H. Oxbery Author and Date of Hymn, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Hardy's 4 Handwriting of the Kings 
and Queens of England ' Yeats's Blake's Poems 'Owen's 
4 Catullus ' Willert's ' Henry of Navarre ' Adams's 
Poets' Praise ' Arkwrighfs Tye's Mass.' 


Mr. Sidney Lee's letters to the Times on parish 
registers have so special interest to very many 
readers of ' N. & Q.' that their preservation in its 
columns seems expedient : 

The Parish Councils Bill (Clause 16, subsection 6) 
transfers to the custody of the officers of parish councils 
' all documents " which are " now required to be de- 
posited with the parish clerk of a rural parish." The 
records which this subsection is intended to touch are 
not specified. The clergy assume that the Government 
intend to deprive incumbents and parish clerks of the 
full control which the; have hitherto exercised over the 
archives of parish churches. Accordingly Convocation 
adopted, by way of amendment to this subsection, a 
resolution to the effect "that the custody of books, 
papers, and other documents relating to the affairs of 
the church should remains as at present." 

Students of past history and literature have a direct 
interest in the adoption of the best possible means for 
the preservation of parochial records, which include the 
church registers of baptisms, deaths, and marriages. 
These registers were inaugurated by an injunction issued 
by Thomas Cromwell in 1538, and between 1538 and 
837 they formed almost the sole depositories of the dates 
and genealogical particulars which are the groundwork 
>f much biography and local history falling within those 
99 years. {Since 1837 parish registers have been super- 
seded by the official returns compulsorily made to the 
Registrar-General and preserved at Somerset House. 
But, as fur as the three preceding centuries are con- 
cerned, it is to the parish records that the biographer 
or local historian must have reasonable means of access 
n his work is to be exact and exhaustive. 

To meet the requirements of the student of history 
or literature it is therefore necessary, in the first place, 
that every precaution should be taken to safeguard the 
parish books from material injury ; and in the second, 
that they should be reasonably easy of access. The in- 
cumbents and parish clerks in whose custody the parish 
books are now vested desire, from a very natural senti- 
ment, to retain the charge. Before any change be 
adopted it is only fair to consider how these custodians 
have fulfilled their trust. 

It is very doubtful whether the care bestowed on the 
registers by the clergy has been altogether adequate. 
Less than eight per cent, of the parishes of England can 
show an unbroken series of registers between 1538 and 
1837. Fire and damp have wrought much havoc. Some 
of the parochial archives have been dispersed among 
private owners. A few have been destroyed as waste 
paper. Prom some the leaves have been deliberately 
torn. In others the entries have been imperfectly made. 
The harm done is irreparable, but it must be allowed it 
was wrought by hands long since at rest, and the majority 
of clergy of to-day make what efforts they can to protect 
their parochial archives from depredation. Despite the 
best intentions, however, danger is not always absent. 

To turn to the second point, Are the parochial archives 
as accessible as is desirable to serious students 1 It has 
been laid down in the Law Courts that the registers are, 
41 for certain purposes, public books," and that persons 
interested in their contents have a right to inspect them 
and take copies of such parts as are relevant to their 
inquiries. (Phillimore's 'Ecclesiastical Law,' vol. i. 
p. 659.) Judges have even held that incumbents can 
be forced to produce their registers for inspection when 
a demand has been refused. These decisions justify the 
assumption that a stringent obligation rests on the cus- 
todians to give applicants access to the parish registers 
whenever reasonable cause is shown. Long experience 
has proved to me that this obligation is, although widely, 
not universally recognized by incumbents and their 

In this connexion another point deserves attention. 
Custom has long permitted the incumbent or clerk to 
make a charge to those who seek information from the 
registers, whether the incumbent or clerk make the 
search personally or merely hand the volume to the 
inquirer so that the latter may do the work for himself, 
The exact amount of these fees has not been fixed, as 
far as I can learn, by statute. In the Registrar-General's 
Department at Somerset House, on the other hand, a 
statutory scale of fees is in operation. The applicant 
has to pay Is. for each search, and, if he need a certified 
extract, 2s. 6d. besides. Among the clergy the fees, 
although they vaguely approximate to this tariff, often 
seem to vary from pence to pounds with the personal 
disposition of incumbent or clerk. It may be urged that 
the clergy, many of whom are unhappily without "a 
living wage," are justified by prescription in demanding 
the largest fees that custom allows for access to their 
archives. Even so, a strictly uniform basis of calcula- 
tion is clearly desirable. 

At the same time it seems fair that students making 
researches, which are rarely remunerative to them, should 
be placed on a more favourable footing in the matter of 
fees than lawyers and professional genealogists, whose 
researches are undertaken with an immediate view to 
private gain. The principle is accepted at the Probate 
Registry at Somerset House, where literary searchers 
are admitted free and receive courteous attention. The 
Bishop of London last year wrote to me on this subject : 
' I think the clergy ought to treat those who make 
searches for literary purposes only on a different footing 
from those who make searches either from curiosity or 



S. V. JAN. 27, '94. 

from some personal object." Moreover, very many the 
majority of the clergy practically recognize this dis- 
tinction, and waive all claim to remuneration when they 
know that the application is made by a genuine student. 
But there exists a very stubborn minority whose mem- 
bers decline to give any information to auy inquirer 
until they are actually in receipt, not only of a pre- 
liminary search fee often to be followed by later 
charges but also of the price of a stamped certificate 
a formal document usually quite needless in a matter of 
historical or literary research. 

Example is better tban precept, and I should like to 
illustrate by concrete facts the diversity of practice 
current among the present custodians of parochial 
records in meeting applications for access to the re- 
gisters. I have before me a record of 121 recent appli- 
cations made to incumbents in the interests of literary 
or historical research connected with the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography.' Most of the inquiries related to 
the seventeenth century. The applications were accom- 
panied by a stamped and directed envelope or postcard 
for reply. The object of the inquiry was stated as 
clearly as possible, with a view to saving time and 

The majority acted with commendable promptness and 
generosity. In eighty instances the replies were punctu- 
ally forwarded, and no fees were asked. Some of the 
incumbents were in charge of large urban parishes, with 
numberless calls upon their time, which might have 
excused delay. In nearly half of these cases, it is true, 
the registers were missing or destroyed, or failed to 
supply the needful information, but the sympathetic 
spirit in which the inquiries were met proves that these 
eighty clergymen satisfactorily recognized their obliga- 
tions to the public as custodians of parochial records. 

Of the remaining forty-one applications a less satis- 
factory report must be rendered. 

In sixteen cases no notice whatever was taken of the 
inquiry, often in spite of a second and third application. 
These sixteen custodians were for the most part in charge 
of small rural parishes. Pressure of business can hardly 
account for their silence, and one hardly knows what 
valid plea could be urged in behalf of their inaction. 
Many of the rural clergy doubtless live remote from such 
influences as keep alive a sympathetic regard for learn- 
ing or scholarship, and, attaching no value themselves 
to historical or literary study, perhaps resent the student's 
inquiry as a purposeless or frivolous intrusion on their 
privacy. But the disclosure of their registers on reason- 
able grounds is a part of their public duty, neglect of 
which cannot be readily pardoned. 

The remaining twenty-five cases illustrate the general 
haziness of view characteristic of an important minority 
among the clergy respecting the public right of access 
to the records in. their custody. 

In these cases a fee which varied from 1*. to 79*. 6d. 
was demanded. Where the sums exceeded 3*. 6d , the 
principle underlying the charge was difficult of discern- 
ment. The amounts often seemed to differ, though the 
services rendered appeared identical. Five cases are 
worth giving in some detail. The first is a common 

Case 1. An application to an incumbent, with the 
usual directed postcard for reply, met with noreponse. 
A fortnight later a second application was made. After 
another week's delay three weeks in all the following 
answer was received from the incumbent : " I regret that 
I cannot give the information required except on receipt 
of Is. for the search and 2s. 6d. for the information 
t. e., 3s. 6d. in all." The concluding sentence dwelt on 
the number of such applications and the trouble they 

Case 2. I applied to a London incumbent for the entry 
of burial of a well-known writer which I knew to be in 
ris parish register, although previous authorities had 
5een divided in opinion as to which of two consecutive 
years could claim the distinction of being the date of the 
author's death. I received no reply. A second applica- 
tion brought an intimation that if I visited the church 
on a certain morning the incumbent would discuss with 
me the question of fees. On my arrival I restated the 
object of my inquiry, the register was produced, and I 
soon arrived at the entry I sought. The absence of 
writing materials prevented me from making a copy. 
The incumbent made no offer to supply the omission, 
but with scant courtesy demanded 5s. 

Case 3. I asked a vicar to confirm a statement respect- 
ing the dates of a seventeenth-century predecessor's 
tenure of his benefice. He replied that to the best of 
his belief I was correct, but excused himself from ex- 
amining his register on account of his failing eyesight 
and the infirmities of age. After some expostulation on 
my part, he caused the register to be consulted, with 
satisfactory results and without charge. 

Case 4. The curate, to whom the inquiry was referred 
by the incumbent, insisted on receiving 2s. Id. before 
sending the date of marriage for which he was asked. 
Subsequently he claimed the sum of 3. 19s. 6d. for 
making the search, but offered to compound for three 
guineas. The lady who was conducting the inquiry, after a 
very disagreeable correspondence, paid him 11. Is. 6d. in 
addition to the 2*. Id. previously forwarded. 

Case 5. An incumbent returned the letter of applica- 
tion with the curt and hardly deserved remark that it 
was illegible. A very plain copy was then forwarded, 
and drew the reply, " Time with me is too valuable for 
profitless occupation." The application was finally 
handed to the parish clerk, who made the search for 5s. 

Taking these 121 cases as roughly representative, I 
concluded that sixty-six per cent, of the present cus- 
todians of parochial records freely render all the assist- 
ance they can to students desirous of consulting the 
registers or vestry books; that twenty per cent, inter- 
pose obstacles, either in the shape of fees of varying 
dimensions, or by means of long delay in answering 
inquiries, or by offering petty discourtesies; and that 
fourteen per cent., by declining to notice applications from 
searchers, seriously impede historical and literary study. 

Thus some thirty-four per cent, of the incumbents of 
the National Church prove more or less refractory in the 
matter of granting public access to the parish records. 
This fact, coupled with the inadequacy of the provisions 
that it is possible in many instances to take for their 
physical safety in their present -whereabouts, fully 
justifies some change in the existing system. Such of the 
clergy as are deaf to all entreaties certainly wield a power 
of obstruction which it seems contrary to public policy 
to continue in their bauds. But it would be only fair to 
the virtuous majority to consult their views before 
definite action be taken. Possibly the incumbents in 
their corporate capacity might best atone for the acts 
of destruction or obstruction wrought by recalcitrant 
members of their order by voluntarily adopting some 
arrangement like that contemplated by the Bill intro- 
duced into the House of Commons in 1882. Under the 
provisions of that Bill all early parochial records were 
to be collected in one central building, that should be 
proof against fire and damp and be open under fitting 
restrictions to the public. Or, if that be regarded as a 
measure too neglectful of local sentiment, consideration 
might be extended to an earlier proposal to locate the 
archives in diocesan record offices, which should be 
erected on the best structural principles and controlled 
by competent officials. 

S. V. JAN. 27, T4.] 



To transfer the archives summarily to the clerks of ; 
pariah councils is not likely to benefit the student. His 
position would certainly be much worse than at present, 
if any new regulation did not distinctly define his right 
of access, fix on reasonable principles the scale of fees, 
and formally prescribe methods for the preservation of 
the documents from accidental injury. Should the sub- 
section already quoted from the Bill now before Parlia- 
ment be riyhtly interpreted to affect parish registers, it 
fails in its present meagre form to satisfy any of the 
conditions which the student deems essential to satis- 
factory legislation on the subject. From his point of 
view it neglects the essential issues, and it is to be 
hoped either that it will be withdrawn or that the his* 
torical parish records will be specifically excluded from 
its scope. 

In the mean time public discussion might help to form 
* healthy public opinion on the topic among both clergy 
and laity. An instructed public opinion might possibly 
rouse the refractory clergy to a sense of the obligations 
that lie upon them, ami an amicable settlement might 
be reached, on which effective legislation might be based 
hereafter. SIDNEY LEE. Times, Nov. 28, 1893. 

H. T. 
(To It continued.) 

i have but this to say, 
That he is not only plagued for her sin, 
But Ood hath made her sin and her the plague 
On this removed issue, plagued for her 
And with her plague ; her sin his injury, 
Her injury the beadle to her sin, 
All punish'd in the person of this child, 
And all for her ; a plague upon her ! 
The foregoing is the reading in the Globe edition, 
differing from that in the First Folio only in the 
punctuation of the fifth line, which in the Folio is : 
And with her plague her sin : his injury 
Her injury. 

If I present the following reading with some 
confidence, I do so only after long and careful study 
of the passage. Whether I shall satisfy others I 
know not ; I know only that I have not easily 
satisfied myself: 

I have but this to say, 
That he is not only plagued for her sins (1), 
But God hath made her son (2) and her the plague 
On this removed issue, plagued for her 
And with. (3) her plague, her son (4) (his injury 
Her injury), the Beadle to her sins (5), 
All punish'd in the person of this child, 
And punish'd (6) all for her ; a plague upon her ! 

1. Sins. In this emendation I follow Prof. 
Vaughan, who assigns as his reason for making it 
that, as Constance had already said, " Thy sins are 
visited in thia poor child," and as it is fairly clear 
that the second line is intended as a repetition of 
tjomething already said by her, to which she now 
proposes to make an addition, it would be but 
natural and likely that the repetition should be 
made in the same language as before. 

2. Son. Who can believe Shakspeare capable 
of the wretched tautology, " He is not only plagued 

for her sin, but God hath made her sin a plague on 
lim"? Regarding " sin " as a misprint for son, we 
get the quite intelligible and appropriate sense 
;hat not only did Arthur suffer for the sins of his 
grandmother, but that it was through her son's 
and her own maltreatment of him that his suffer- 

:by, as elsewhere in Sbakspeare, 

ings came. 

3. With here 

g., ' Wintet's Tale,' V. ii. 66, " He was torn to 
pieces with a bear." 

4. Son. That we have here a repetition of the mis- 
print " sin " for son is demonstrated by the " his" 
which follows. John is called his mother's plague 
to Arthur, because it was through his usurpation 
of Arthur's rights that her sins were visited in 
Arthur. The words which I regard as parenthetical 
(his injury her injury) are a comment on the words 
" her plague, her son." John's injury to Arthur 
was Elinor's injury to Arthur, because her sins 
were the procuring, while John was merely the 
instrumental cause of the suffering to which he 
was subjected. Hence John is further called " the 
Beadle to her sins," the sins being punished 
vicariously in the person of her innocent descend- 

5. Sins. The " all " which follows proves sins, 
not " sin," to be the proper reading. 

6. Punish'd. For the insertion of this word, 
necessary to complete the verse, I am indebted to 
Prof. Vaughan, who, with his usual acumen, says: 

" It would not he unlikely that a transcriber who did 
not fully appreciate the passage should omit the second 
'punished,' being the repetition of a word occurring in 
the line above, and occurring in the same foot as in thia 


Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

As You LIKE IT,' II. vii. 53. 
He that a fool doth very wisely hit 
Doth very foolishly, although he smart, 
Seem senseless of the bob : if not, 
The wise man's folly is anatomized 
Even by the squandering glances of the fool. 

Having just finished the examination of a public 
school in this play, my attention has more than 
ever been directed to the inappropriateness of Theo- 
bald's emendation, " Not to seem seemlees," &c., 
which has been unaccountably adopted by nearly 
the whole fraternity of editors. In my opinion, as 
it was my father's before me, the passage is thereby 
rendered unintelligible, if the whole of the speech 
be carefully perused. For what is Jaques about 
to explain ? What is his text ? It is, " They that 
are most galled by the fool's folly, they most must 
laugh." " Why 1 " aaks he. Why, " it is as plain 
as the road to the parish church." And then he 
proceeds to explain, the critics would have us 
believe, that the man who is stung by the fool's 
wit must on no account appear to notice it ; which 
is the exact opposite of what he has just been re- 



.V.JAN. 27, '94. 

But, naturally enough, there is nothing of this I There is nothing amiss in this passage. MB. 
in Shakespeare. On the contrary, Jaques pro- MOUNT'S perplexity arises from an error of parsing, 
ceeds to expound his text, as we should anticipate, The particle but is not, as he takes it to be, a con- 

f < .1 1 1 ^ . 1 f t , 4 * I * _ _ 1. * __ . If ' . 1_ M 1_ _ 1. _ 1 1 

in a perfectly logical manner ; and the fact that 
there is a lame spot in the argument by no means 
prevents us from arriving at a satisfactory con- 
clusion. " He that a fool hits smartly," he says, 
" is very foolish to pretend not to notice it ; for if 
he does so pretend, his folly is shown up by the 
glances the fool scatters round on the rest of the 
company." I have italicized the words <f if he does 
so pretend, "because that marks the spot where the 
real crux lies. Up to that point the passage runs 
smoothly and sensibly enough. What we seem to 
require in place of " if not," both for sense and 
metre, is some such phrase as "if he do so." But 
the point I wish to make is that the argument is 

I junction, meaning " except," but an adverb, mean- 
ing "only." " But for our honour " means " only 
because of our honour." For=" because of "hardly 
needs a reference, but an example is at hand in 
4 Macbeth,' III. i. 121: 

I could 

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight 
And bid my will avouch it, yet I must not, 
For certain friends that are both his and mine. 


Polyxenes is full of admiration for Perdita. He 
exclaims, "You are not only well worthy of a 
herdsman ; you are worthy even of this young 
prince, who, by his present course of unfilial con- 
perfectly clear, and that the editors, by "persisting I duct, shows himself to be unworthy of your beauty 
in Theobald's emendation, are making Jaques except for our honour centred in him. " Perhaps 
talk permanent nonsense. The difficulty is there, I am not sufficiently clear sighted, but I cannot 
but it is not got over by perverting the whole see any difficulty. Polyxenes tells the girl that she 
sense of the speech, which stands out as clear as | is not only too good for a herdsman, but a bride 

for a prince. Nay, she is too good for such a 
deceitful young rascal as this prince is. But his 
honour is concerned, and that is enough. As for 
Mn. MOUNT'S question, In what possible sense was 
he (Florizel) making himself unworthy 1 &c. Can 

daylight in spite of the difficulty. 


1 1 HENRY IV.,' II. iv. 541. 

" Never call a true piece of gold a counterfeit 


art essentially made, without seeming so." 

In FalstafPs use of the word make in IV. ii. 8, it 
seems to carry a sense of coined (in a base sense), 
so, perhaps, made here is equivalent to counterfeit 
or false. " Do not call me counterfeit ; as for you, 
you are really counterfeit without seeming so." If 
this interpretation is not satisfactory, and the 
usually accepted emendation mad correct, it looks 
as if Falstaff was defending himself in the first 

one not see the gathering wrath in the old father a 
few lines before ; the indignation in the words, 

By my white beard, 
You offer him, if this be so, a wrong 
Something unfilial 1 


Surely the passage quoted by MR. MOUNT 
requires no note. Polixenes, admitting the en- 

, chanting sweetness of Perdita, allows her to be 
part of his speech and then on seeing a sign given worth * one of her own ition and indeed 

f" il-?*"? il !A^ ted ' h6 began t0 blame I ev en worthy him who by his base filial conduct 

has made himself unworthy her ; but, not to give 
himself away, he interpolates the saving clause of 

his own honour, which puts the balance against 

the prince for his rashness. 
IV. i. 98. 

All plum'd like ostriches that with the wind. 
The emendation wing for " with " makes a very I her. 
good reading, though some critics object to it on 
the ground that the ostrich does not fly. The 
bird's speed in running, as well as its feathers, may I BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHARLES F. FORSHAW, LL.D. 
be alluded to in the simile, and as " wing the (See 8 th S. iv. 489.) 

wind " does not call up in the mind the idea of 
swiftness, I would suggest that cutte, which might 
easily be misread with, would suit the passage 
better. Elsewhere in the plays there are such 
phrases as " fish cut the silver stream," " quickly 
cut the Ionian sea," and " swift dragons cut the 
clouds," in all of which there is the idea of rapidity 

In answer to DR. ROBERT CLARK, I have pleasure 
in submitting the following list of my works : 

of motion. 


4 WINTER'S TALE,' IV. iii. (iv. 445, Globe ed.), 
(8> S. iv. 443). 

And you, enchantment 
Worthy enough a herdsman, yea, him too, 
That makes himself, but for our honour therein, 
Unworthy thee. 

The Teeth and how to Save Them. 64 pp., royal 16mo. 
John Woodhead, Bradford. 1885. 

Wanderings of Imagery : Original Poems. 72 pp., 
post 8vo. John Woodhead, Bradford. 1886. 

Thoughts in the Gloaming : a Volume of Poems. 80 pp., 
post 8vo. T. Brown, Bradford. 1887. 

The Wild Boar of Cliffe Wood ; or, How Bradford got 
its Crest. 8 pp., post 8vo. John Woodhead, Bradford. 

A Short History of Tobacco, with its Effect on the 
General Health and its Influence on the Teeth. 20 pp, 
crown 8vo. Clegg & Tetley, Bradford. 1887. 

The second, third, fourth, and fifth editions of 

8 th S. V. JAN. 27, J &4.] 



the above were published by J. W. Birdsall, 
Stanningley, in the same year. 

Alcohol : How Made ; its Influence on Body and 
Mind. 16 pp. crown 8vo. J. W. Birdsall, Stan- 
ningley. 1887. 

Second edition issued by Thornton & Pearson, 
Bradford, 1892 ; third edition issued by Thomas 
Brown, Bradford, 1893. 

Stammering, its Causes and ita Cure. 12 pp., crown 
8vo. J. W. Birdsall, Stanningley. 1887. 

History of Hannah Dale, the Staffordshire Giantess. 
10 pp., crown 8vo. J. Woodhead, Bradford. 1887. 

The Village Wedding, a Poem. 12 pp., post 8vo. T. 
Brown, Bradford. 1888. 

Yorkshire Poets, Past and Present. Vol. i. 200 pp. 
T. Brown, Bradford, 1888. Vol. ii., 200 pp., 1889; 
vol. Hi., 200 pp., 1890; vol. iv., 200 pp., 1891. 

Yorkshire Sonneteers. Vol. i. 80 pp., fcap. 4to. T. 
Brown, Bradford. 1888. 

Poems. 304pp., crown 8vo. TrUbner & Co., London. 

Hints to Parents on the Management of their 
Children's Teeth. 12 pp., post 8?o. J. Woodhead, 
Bradford. 1889. 

My Little Romance. 16 pp., post 8?o. W. Harrison, 
Bingley. 1890. 

The Poets of Keighley, Bingley, Howarth, and Dis- 
trict. 200 pp., crown 8vo. Thornton & Pearson, Brad- 
ford. 1891. 

Second edition issued in 1893, 208 pp., crown 
8vo. (W. W. Morgan, London). 

St. Bees, and Other Poems. 256 pp., crown 8vo. 
G. B. Russell, Bradford. 1891. 

A Poem to Prof. R. B. Winder, M.D., D.D.S. No 
imprint. 10 pp., crown 8vo. 

The Poets of the Spen Valley. 200 pp., crown 8vo. 
Thornton & Pearson, Bradford. 1892. 

The Poetical Works of the Rev. Thomas Garratt, M.A. 
352 pp. crown 8vo. John Heywood, London. 1892. 

Holroyd's Collection of Yorkshire Ballads. 320 pp. 
crown 8vo. G. Bell & Sons, London. 1892. 

Ten Days in Lakeland. 32 pp. crown 8?o. W. Mor- 
gan, London. 1892. 

Sonnets of Lakeland. 26 pp., crown 8vo. 'Kendal 
and County News ' Co., Kendal. 1892. 

Lays of Yuletide. 12 pp., royal 16mo. Claye, Brown 
& Claye, Macclesfield. 1892. 

Second edition issued by Thornton & Pearson, 
Bradford, in 1893. 

Cocaine for Teeth Extraction. 8 pp.. crown 8vo. 
T. Brown, Bradford. 1892. 

Special-Constableship in Bradford. 16 pp., crown 
8vo. Thornton & Pearson, Bradford. 1889. 

leaside Sonnets. 16 pp., crown 8vo. Thornton & 
Pearson, Bradford. 1893. 

Memories of Manxland. 32 pp., crown 8vo. W. 
Morgan, London. 1893. 

Freemasonry: a Centenary Ode. 6 pp. demy 8vo. 
Claye, Brown & Claye, Macclesfield. 1893; 

Winder House, Bradford. 

52.) At this reference I gave a short account of 
an interesting volume in my possession, which 
formerly belonged to Mr. W. B. Donne, the late 

Examiner of Plays, and contained Tennyson's 
'Lyrical Poems' of 1830, and Arthur Hallam's 
privately printed collection of the same year. In 
a catalogue of books and manuscripts to be sold at 
Sotheby's on Dec. 12 and 13, 1893, of which I have 
just received a copy, lot 559 consists of Tennyson's 
volume of 1830, to which the following note is 
appended by the cataloguer : 

" This volume possesses great and lasting interest, as it 
was the first work to which Tennyson put his name, and 
the interest is very much intensified by the original in- 
tention it should be a joint publication containing also 
the * Poems of Arthur Hallam ' a memorial of friend- 
ship similar to the * Lyrical Ballads ' of Wordsworth and 
Coleridge. This idea was given up at the suggestion of 
Hallam's father, and no copy of the complete book has 
hitherto occurred for sale. In the present copy, how- 
ever, Hallam's ' Poems ' are included, and on the title- 
page has been added in MS. after Tennyson's name, 
' and Arthur Hallam,' while on p. 1 of the second part 
has been written 'Poems by Arthur Hallam, Esqre.' 
In a note to ' Timbuctoo,' Hallam refers to Tennyson's 
Prize Poem of the same name, and concludes it by 
saying, ' which most justly, in my opinion, adjudged the 
prize to the poem of my friend whose name is prefixed 
with mine to this volume.' Some partially erased pencil 
notes, indicating the persons to whom certain poems 
were addressed Sir F. H. Doyle, J. Milnes Gaskell, 
Richard Milnes, &c., render it probable that the volume 
is a unique proof copy belonging to Hallam himself." 

The statement that no copy of the complete book 
has hitherto occurred for sale is hardly correct, as 
my own copy, which was purchased at the sale of 
Mr. Donne's books ten or eleven years ago, is 
quite complete, Hallam's poems having in it the 
precedence in place. A correspondent of 'N. & Q./ 
on seeing my former note, was good enough to in- 
form me that a copy of Hallam's ' Poems,' which 
had been presented by the author to Mr. W. King- 
lake, was advertised in one of Messrs. Reeves & 
Turner's catalogues a few years ago, at the price 
of 251. In Mr. Le Gallienne's recently published 
edition of Hallam's 'Poems' no mention, I be- 
lieve, is made of this rare volume. 

Ajmir, Rajputana. 

" TURNCOAT." Some entries in the newly pub- 
lished volumeof the 'Domestic Papersof Henry VIII.' 
(xiii. 2) make me doubt the origin of the word 
turncoat as given in ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. ii. 86. It is 
there ascribed to a humorous Duke of Savoy, 
Emmanuel, surnamed the Turncoat," who is said 
to have worn a coat blue on one side and white 
on the other, according as the Spanish or French 
party happened to be dominant. Which Emmanuel 
was this? The 'Biographie Ge"ne>ale' says of 
Emmanuel Philibert (born 1528, died 1580) that 
he was called " Tete de Fer, ou le Prince a Cent 
Yeux." His son and successor, Charles Emmanuel I. 
(born 1562, died 1630), was called "Le Grand." 
And to either of these the name " Turncoat" was in- 
applicable, especially to the father. Now "Turncoat" 
was used by Shakespeare, and the English people 



. V. JAN. 27, '94. 

did not follow very closely the policy of these two 
Dukes of Savoy. What I am interested to learn 
is whether the word existed before the final Disso- 
lution of the Monasteries ; if not, the following 
entries are very suggestive : 

Thos. Chapman, Warden of the Friars Minors, 
London, to Master Newell, Steward of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury: "All the house would 

gladly change their coats We all long to 

change our coats." P. 251. 

Dr. John Loudon to Cromwell: " I have taken 
a surrender of the friars in Eeading, and this day 
they shall change their coate." P. 346. 


THOMAS MARTYN, civilian and controversialist, 
died 1597. To the notice of this worthy in the 
* Dictionary of National Biography ' add that he 
was probably the Thomas Marty n who sat as M.P. 
for Saltash in 1553 ; Hindoo, 1554 and 1555 ; 
Ludgershall, 1558 ; and Dorchester, 1563-67. I 
do not find him included in the list of the Masters 
in Chancery, the succession to which office is very 
imperfect about this date. He may have been one 
of the six clerks with whom the mastership is often 
confused. W. D. PINK. 

STOUT = HEALTHY. In the Scottish provinces 
at the present time " stout " is regularly used as 
an equivalent for "robust," without the least 
reference to corpulence. " An' are ye keepin' 
braw au' stoot ? " is a form of interrogation by 
which the querist indicates the hope that his 
friend is in perfect health. The literary use of the 
word with the same reference is becoming rare. 
It is interesting to find a perfect example in Scott's 
4 Familiar Letters,' i. 303. When in England, in 
August, 1813, Scott had intended paying a visit to 
Morritt at Rokeby, but forbore on learning that 
Mrs. Morritt was ill. He hope?, however, that a 
meeting will be possible in the course of the fol- 
lowing year, and continues thus : 

" When we hear that she is getting stout we will talk 
of taking amends for our little tour, either on our return 
from London, if we go there next spring, or by your 
coming to Abbotsford next autumn, for my cottage, 
though very email, has room for Mrs. Morritt and you." 

"Stout," as used here, is not yet entered in 
Jamieson's l Scottish Dictionary,' but it seems not 
unlikely that the next edition may contain it. 


Heleneburgh, X.B. 

CHARLES LAMB. (See 8 th S, iv. 523). Permit 
me to add the following reference to Lamb to those 
adduced from the letters of Keats by MR. COVING- 
TON. It is from an unpublished and characteristic 
letter of Leigh Hunt, dated July 13, 1826, ad- 
dressed to B. W. Procter : 

"Be it known to you then, that here is a golden 
opportunity for you to behave like a humane Christian, 
and heap coals of fire on my head vindictive charity- 

unappeasable forgiveness. Charles Lamb and his sister 
come to drink tea with me to-morrow afternoon at five, 
dinner being prohibited him by that ' second conscience* 
of bis, aa he calls her. Well, to meet and be beatified 
with the sight of Charles Lamb, comes Mr. Atberstone, 
author of some poems which you have most probably 
heard of ; and as poets, like lovers, can never have one 
beatific vision but they desire another, I no sooner men- 
tion your name than he begs me for God's sake to let 
him have a sight of you. Pray gratify us all if you 
can. Hazlitt has gone to France, and is to write a life 
of Bonaparte." 


PLATFORM. (See ' American Use of the Word,' 
8 th S. v. 26.) This word is used by Hobbes, and 
I think also by many Elizabethan writers, in the 
modern political sense. D. 

" PARTAKE." Our English partake is supposed 
to be a hybrid, composed of the French part and the 
Scandinavian take (Skeat). This theory is only 
borne out by tradition. Perhaps the word pains- 
taking may be mentioned as a parallel. Partake 
is New English, though Wyclif appears to have 
used it. Our Bible uses the noun partaker some 
thirty times, and the verb but once ; then it is 
used with the preposition o/, as if to betray the 
derivation from a noun. Of course Shakespeare 
used the verb as a transitive, and even as a factitive : 
" Your exultation partake to every one " (' W. T.,' 
V. iii. 131). But the poet has his own imperial 
law, and may overrule the common law. What 
occasion was there to create the odd hybrid 1 It 
was not needed to fill a want, and new words 
usually have a meaning not conveyed by any other. 
The term under discussion appears to have come in 
as a noun, then to have turned into a verb not 
fully naturalized as a plain transitive. As now 
used the word is superfluous, there being others to 
express all its meanings ; yet when first intro- 
duced it must have had a special meaning. 

Is it a mere coincidence that Luther uses the 
noun parteke with a certain preference ? Is it 
simply an accident that the English verb and the 
German noun have the same sound and so much 
meaning in common 1 Both words denote a share, 
and exclude every idea of purchase. Luther uses 
the term preferentially of the bread and apples 
poor students used to sing for. Littre" mentions a 
Walloon parteg. 

One turns naturally to the mediae v&l partagium ; 
but that would make an English partage, and 
hardly the German parteke. Now both the Eng- 
lish and the German words were peculiar to the 
Reformers, not to say to university or Latin-school 
men. Might it be that they thought of the New 
Testament term paratheke ? That term (1 Tim. 
vi. 20 ; 2 Tim. i. 12, 14) would be known in Latin 
schools ; and the Vulgate, equally known, trans- 
lated it by depositum, while our Bible explains it 
as a gift " committed " to us. This tallies with 
Luther's parteke, and tends to explain the English 

y. JAN. 27, '94.] 


partaker, not only in the sense of one who shares, 
but also in the unfavourable sense of accomplice. 
Of course the derivation from the Greek is not 
demonstrated ; neither is it wholly unobjection 
able, as it may call for an English partheke rather 
than partake. But Greek and Latin introduced 
by Latin-school boys might fare worse. Mean- 
while, it looks as if the Latin-school boys of Eng- 
land and Germany had introduced the words, 
mixing up Greek and Latin. The English term 
was saved by folk etymology, while Luther's 
favourite word perished. What is much wanted 
is the earliest quotations, as they are apt to tell the 
paternity of our hybrid. The German parteJce may 
be looked up in Grimm's ' Worterbuch,' where a 
great scholar suggests a great leap in the etymology 
of the word as if Latin ever took Low German 
endings. But is the hitching together of French 
and Scandinavian much better ? 

Boston, Mass. 

We must request correspondents deairing information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Is anything known of the life of this man, the 
author of a famous text-book on whist, called 
' Advice to the Young Whist Player'; and can any 
one supply a copy of the title-page of the first 
edition of his treatise ? The copies at the British 
Museum are of very late issues the ninth and the 
sixteenth. In the former his name is Matthews, 
and in the latter it is Mathews. W. P. 0. 

Reform Club. 

ST. PETERSBURG. A friend in Home sends me 
the following, which, being unable to answer, I 
venture to send to ' N. & Q.': 

" Will you write to Notes and Queries and ask which is 
correct to say, St. Petersburg, or Petersburg, in speak- 
ing of the capital of Russia? i have lately heard a 
clever discussion on that point. Those who are for 
Petersburg say, and with truth, that the city was named 

Jr its founder, the Czar Peter, who certainly was no 
saint. And yet in all maps, and in most books, it is called 
at. Petersburg." 

I feel tolerably sure that this point has been 
wsed ; but being at sea, in both senses of that 
expression, I venture to expose my ignorance. 

K.M.S. Ophir, Lat. 47.4 N.; Long. 7.13 W. 

in the first volume of Sir Walter Scott's ' Letters ' 
(p. 176, note) that an article in the first number of 
the Quarterly (Nov., 1809) on Charles James Fox 
is ascribed to Allan Maconochie, afterwards Lord 
Meadowbank. If I mistake not, this same article 

is attributed to Mr. Robert Grant in Murray's 
1 A Publisher and his Times.' I have not the 
book at hand to refer to, and shall be grateful if 
any of your readers can either set me right or 
solve the difficulty. LOUISA M. KNIGHTLEY. 

POPE AND COCK-FIGHTING. Dr. Trusler, in his 
4 Description of the Works of William Hogarth,' 
quotes Tyers as stating that Pope was said, when a 
youth, to have spent money in buying fighting- 
cocks. A most improbable story, considering Pope's 
circumstances. In which of Tyers'a writings is 
this statement to be found ? JAYDEE. 

CDMNOR. Could any of your readers inform me 
whether Sir Walter Scott ever personally visited 
Cumnor before writing ' Kenilworth '; and, if so, is 
the fact recorded anywhere 1 I should also be glad 
to know the whereabouts of any old engravings of 

MR. WARD. Can any of your readers inform 
me who the Mr. Ward was who was associated 
with Mr. Yates, of St. Andrews, Norwich, in the 
attack on Montagu, which drew from the latter 
his 'Appello Csssarem '? PAUL BIERLEY. 

PIGOTT : BURGOYNE. Can any correspondent 
of ' N. & Q.' say when and where Constantia, 
daughter of Sir Roger Burgoyne, Bart., was 
married to Capt. John Pigott ? P. W. 

SHAKSPEARE QUERIES. I shall be obliged 
if any one will kindly explain the meaning of 
"Leave thy damnable faces and begin," in the 
following paragraph : " Begin, murderer ; leave thy 
damnable faces, and begin. Come : the croaking 
raven doth bellow for revenge " (' Hamlet,' III. ii. 
224-227. And also what does " Would not this, 
Sir," in the following passage, refer to ? " Would 
not this, Sir, and a forest of feathers (if the rest of 
my fortunes turn Turk with me), with two Provencal 
roses on my razed shoes, get me a fellowship in a 
cry of players, Sir ? " (' Hamlet,' III. ii.) 


[Both passages seem simple. In the first, Hamlet 
bids the actor quit the grimace with which the tragic 
actor is wont to charge his face and come to the 
action. In the second, he asks whether his perform- 
ance, when he frightens away the king with the costume 
worn in Italian tragedy, would not secure him a share in 
some company of actors.] 

gentleman is described on a memorial tablet, still 
;o be seen outside St. Mary's, Lewisham, as "late 
pastor of this parish," and his death given as 1658. 
in the inscription on the almshouses he founded 
he title is "late Vicar of this Parish" (1664). 
What I should be glad if any correspondent would 
cindly inform me of is this. As Mr. Colfe must, 
rom his tenure of office, have been a Church of 
England divine when appointed, on what con- 



[8 th S. V.JAN. 27, '94. 

ditions did he retain his benefice in the times of 
the Commonwealth } Did he give up the use of 
the Prayer Book and conform to the Directory 
of the Assembly at Westminster ? Incidentally, it 
would be interesting to know whether during this 
period many Church clergymen retained their 
livings, and on what conditions. What would 
have been their " status " on the restoration of 
Charles II. ? D. H. C. 

EARL OF CORNWALL. Did not Keginald de 
Dunstanvill, Earl of Cornwall (natural son of 
Henry I.), marry a second wife ? What was the 
name of his widow ? W. B. T. 

In Lord Macaulay's voluminous political mani- 
festo there is (in the fourth or fifth volume ?) some- 
where an account of a Jacobite gentleman in con- 
finement on a charge of high treason, pressed to 
save his life by revealing the names of his con- 
federates, who in the morning wavered, hesitated, 
and seemed inclined to yield to the temptation, 
but in the evening, after he had primed himself 
well with claret, was firm, bold, obstinate, resolute 
never to betray his friends. My faulty memory 
supplied the name of Sir John Fenwick ; but after 
a careful perusal of his case in the pages of the 
great historian, I can find no allusion of the kind 
I have referred to. Can any reader of * N. & Q.' 
furnish me with the name of the accused, and a 
reference to the volume and chapter of Lord 
Macaulay's work where the description may be 
found ? NEMO. 


some one give me a list (through the medium of 
' N. & Q.') of books, in English, with their price 
and names of publishers, and of magazine articles 
(biographical or otherwise), which would aid me 
in preparing a short paper on the ' Music of Nor- 
way and Sweden/ with musical illustrations for 
voice and piano? The paper is to be read to 
general students. PASTOR. 

BUST OF CHARLES I. Some sixteen years ago 
a bust of Charles I. was dug up in the grounds of 
Miss Horsley Palmer, at Hurlingham, Fulham. 
It was afterwards sold at an auction, and even- 
tually (so I am told) found its way to the British 
Museum. I am anxious to ascertain particulars 
as to how it was found and how it got to the 
British Museum. Any information as to the 
name of the artist, the present condition, &c., of 
the bust, would be of value. The above parti- 
culars are gathered from a Mrs. Downs, who is 
now in South America, but whose address I do 
not know. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

Burke that Sir Kandal Beresford, M.P., married 

Catherine, daughter of Viscount Valentia, and 
" niece maternally " of Philip, first Earl of Chester- 
field. As a descendant of the lady I have named, 
permit me to say that I should be obliged by in- 
formation respecting the parentage of the great- 
grandmother of Lady Randal Beresford. 

Clapham Common, S.W. 

BADGE. Can any reader give me a hint as to 
the owner of the following badge, a wheatsheaf 
supported by two arms in sleeves ? The date of 
the MS. is the middle of the fifteenth century. 


Modern School, Bedford. 

Has any reader of < N. & Q.' ever heard " Tan- 
gerine " employed as a term of reproach, used to a 
rebellious child or obstreperous person in the same 
sense as " Turk " ? In my young days, more than 
sixty years ago, I have often heard it at Launces- 
ton ; and I take it that the word was a survival 
from the time when pirates captured off the Cornish 
coast were imprisoned there. Records exist among 
the State Papers of " the Turks " taken on board 
a u Sallee ship " having been detained in Laun- 
ceston Castle early in the reign of Charles I. ; and 
in 'N. & Q.' (7" S. xi. 128) is given an account of 
a charge against Sir John Berkeley (afterwards 
Lord Berkeley of Stratton) of having released 
some Algerine pirates from Launceston Gaol in 
consideration of their enlisting in the Royalist 
army during the struggle between King and Par- 
liament. Algerines having been there, Tangerines 
may well have been ; but I should be glad to have 
any light upon it. R. ROBBINS. 

THOMAS COATES. Information is sought con- 
cerning Thomas Coates, of Yorkshire, who is men- 
tioned in Besse's ' Sufferings ' (of Quakers) as having 
been imprisoned at Knaresborough Sessions in 1682, 
and whose goods were distrained the same year. 


46, Great Coram Street, Russell Square, W.C. 

FRANQOIS QUESNAY. I shall feel obliged if any 
of your readers can refer me to an authority for 
attributing the following book to Quesnay : ' Prin- 
cipes de Chirurgie/ Paris, 1746. On the title-page 
of the copy in the Library of the Royal College of 
Surgeons is written " Par M. Quesnay." I do not 
see the book in any list of Quesnay's writings, nor 
is it referred to in any biography I have been able 
to consult. On p. 345, in the chapter " Des effets 
de la Saigne"e," there is a foot-note," Voyez la-dessus 
les savans Traite's de Messieurs Sylva et Quesnay." 
This seems to be rather against Quesnay being the 
author of the ' Principes.' J. B. B. 

LONDON BRIDGE. I should be greatly obliged 
if MR. BORRAJO could inform me of the date when 

8 g. v. JAN. 27, : 94.] 



Mr. Jones was chairman of the London Bridge 
Committee ; or, better, in what year it was that 
" several young men and women, and children ol 
both sexes, from ten to twenty years of age, were 
brought before the Lord Mayor, on Thursday, 
charged with having planted a regular colony 
under some of the dry arches on the eastern side 
of London-bridge." The incident occurred after 
1831, during the early years of Mr. Samuel Wil- 
son's aldermanship. ' F. ADAMS. 

SINCLAIR. What has become of the genealogical 
collection of the late Alexander Sinclair, of Edin 
burgh ? He was at one time in hopes of tracing 
the ancestry of Sinclair of Holy Hill, through 
James Sinclair of Weston Brims, third son of 
James Sinclair of Thura, 1659, to the second Earl 
of Caithness; but I never heard whether he was 
successful. Having gone to reside on the Con- 
tinent, my correspondence with tyim ceased, I am 
sorry to say. Y. S. M. 

BURIAL IN POINT LACE. Is it worth while 
noting the following curious death-bed directions 
in our own time ? The late well-known Miss Jane 
Clarke, of Regent Street, dealer in antique lace, 
historic fans, &c., desired in her will that she 
should be buried in old point. One is curious to 
know if her eccentric command was carried out to 
the letter. Again, when Jenny Lind was dying, 
she left directions that the Indian shawl given her 
by the Queen, and a quilt, the gift of some school 
children, should be buried with her. 

[Pope's lines on Mra. Oldfield are, of course, recalled.] 

YORK PRISON. Can any of your readers supply 
some information as to books, &c., relating to York 
Prison, and to the persons taken at Marston 
Moor? K. WELPLT. 

I was too late to make an addition to my note 
(ante, p. 45), in the heading of which I seem inad- 
vertently to have transposed "Pagan" and "Saxon." 
I should be glad of the first opportunity to add 
that the Wingham bowl has found a secure and 
appropriate home in the British and Mediaeval De- 
partment of the British Museum, and that I con- 
sequently have been so fortunate as to receive the 
fullest information on that part of my quest, and 
all that could throw light upon it, rendered in the 
kindest manner. On the bottom of the bowl there 
is a decusaation, opinion of the resemblance of 
which to a Greek or other "cross" must depend 
very much on what the inquirer wants to find 
t.W "Quierit sua dogmata quisque." The 


Cuddesden bucket seems to have been sold with 
other of Bishop Wilberforce's effects at his death. 
Can any reader of < N. & Q.' say if it is still in 
existence ? KILLIOREW. 


(8 th S. iv. 501.) 

In May, 1893, the Chapel Royal was handed over 
to the Lord Chamberlain's department in order 
that the necessary arrangements might be made 
for the coming wedding, and the church ser- 
vices were, from that time until the end of the 
season in August, held in the German Chapel. 
This building stands on a portion of the 
grounds of Marlborough House, but has its public 
entrance in the thoroughfare known as Marl- 
borough Gate. The doorway is nearly opposite to 
the quadrangle of St. James's Palace, where the 
colours are trooped every morning at eleven o'clock, 
while a selection of music is being played by one 
of the regimental bands. 

After the marriage of the Duke of York and the 
Princess May, on July 6, 1893, it was thought 
that during the restoration of the Palace Chapel 
a favourable opportunity occurred for some im- 
provements being made. The position of the 
choir was, therefore, changed from the centre of 
the building to the east and west sides of the altar, 
and the altar itself was reduced in size. Two cumber- 
some reading-desks and the pulpit were entirely 
taken away, and a reading-desk and a pulpit con- 
structed on the level of the altar-step at the ends 
of the new choir seats. In the space gained 
additional seating was provided, and the general 
effect of the change gives an appearance of greater 
size to the chapel and an actual increase of accom- 
modation. Two large pieces of tapestry, put on 
the walls east and west of the altar as decorations 
for the wedding ceremony, have been allowed to 
remain, and add much to the ornamentation of the 

On the recommencement of the services in Octo- 
ber, after the vacation, it was settled that, as a 
matter of convenience, the ten o'clock services 
should continue to be held in the German Chapel, 
while the twelve o'clock and the half- past five 
services should take place in the Chapel Royal, an 
arrangement which still continues. It does not 
seem to be generally known that the ten o'clock 
and the half-past five services are always open to 
the public, and that even the twelve o'clock ser- 
vices, for which tickets are required during the 
season and the parliamentary session, are also at 
other times free. 

Among the better known persons who have 
been attendants at the early services in the Chapel 
Royal during the past few years have been the late 
Earl Granville, the late Baron Stratheden and 
Campbell, Bishop Ellicott, General Sir Claud 
Alexander, the Marquess of Waterford, the late 
Sir Christopher Charles Teesdale, Baron Alcester, 
the Earl of Ellesmere, the Right Hon. W. E. Glad- 



[8 th S. V. JAN. 27, *P4. 

atone, and Mr. William Henry Gladstone, a well- 
known musician, some of whose compositions are 
included in the anthem book used in the chapel. 

With respect to the ten young gentlemen of the 
Chapel Royal previously mentioned, it may be 
stated that they are kept, clothed, and educated 
and taught music so as to be able to read it at 
sight. When a boy's voice breaks and he is no 
longer of any use in the choir, he receives a sum of 
money to help him to some employment. Oc- 
casionally a boy when he grows up proves to have 
a good voice, and he may possibly return as a 
chorister ; but as a rule, I believe, few of the boys 
on reaching manhood are found to have sufficiently 
strong voices to fit them for singing in chapels or 
other large buildings. Sir Arthur Seymour Sulli- 
van, the composer of so many popular operas, was 
for some time a chorister in the Chapel Royal, 
where he was instructed in music by the late Rev. 
Thomas Helmore, who then had the charge of the 
musical education of the young gentlemen. 

The Sub-Dean, the Rev. James Edgar Sheppard, 
I hear, has now in the press, and almost ready for 
publication, a work in two volumes about St. 
James's Palace. No doubt when it appears it will 
be found to contain full details respecting the Chapel 
Royal and its ancient and modern history. 

36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.VV. 

LITTLE CHELSEA (8 th S. v. 29). The village on 
the Fulham Road near the St. George's work- 
house was so called when I was a child, and the 
name survives in the titles of several local institu- 
tions. D. 

The Right Hon. Sir Charles W. Dilke, Bart., 
delivered a lecture in the Town Hall, Chelsea, on 
January 11, 1888, when he said : 

" You muat remember that in early times there were 
two local Chelseas, both of them in our parish, Little 
Chelsea, upon the Fulham Road, a tiny village amidst 
some large country houses, and Great Chelsea, which 
lay round the Laurence Manor House and the Old 

Church At Little Chelsea lived Robert Boyle, the 

great chemist, whom Evelyn went to see, as he tells us 
in his ' Diary.' The spot that he inhabited had been 
part of the land of Sir Thomas More, when it was known 
as the Sand-hills." 

Peter Cunningham, in his ' Handbook of Lon- 
don,' says that the house in Little Qhelsea now an 
additional workhouse to the parish of St. George's, 
Hanover Square, was inhabited by the Earl of 
Shaftesbury from 1699 to 1710. 

These extracts will enable your correspondent to 
define the boundary of Little Chelsea. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

When I first became acquainted with this locality 
the village occupied a part of the Fulham Road 
that may be roughly described as extending from 

what is now the [western 'extremity of the Elm 
Park estate to the'western end of the infirmary of 
St. George's, Hanover Square. At the eastern 
extremity, on the south side of the road, was the 
park, then occupied by a Lady Wilson, on which 
the Elm Park estate has been built. On a part of 
the ground now occupied by the infirmary was a 
mansion, standing back from the road, with garden 
in front, that was, I believe, occupied as a school ; 
but whether it was the one inquired for by your 
correspondent I cannot say. On the north side of 
the road, at the corner of what is now Redcliffe 
Street, stood the Brompton Manor House. The 
orchard of this house extended back to the rear of 
the gardens in Tregunter Road, then (1844) only 
partly built. The village of Little Chelsea was at 
that time about as poor a locality as any near 
London. Some of the shops, few in number, had 
a descent of two or three steps from the street 
level, and their broken glass was often repaired 
with paper. The redeeming feature was the 
delightfully rural character of the vicinity, with 
its market gardens, orchards, and private gardens. 

B. H. L. 

This hamlet, divided by the Fulham Road, wa& 
partly in the south-western portion of Kensington 
parish and partly in the north-western corner of 
Chelsea. The Military Academy of Loche"e, who 
resided at Stanley House, was, according to Faulk- 
ner, near "the Hollywood Brewery, now carried 
on by Messrs. Newton and Davis." For more- 
exact details the duel is mentioned p. 146 con- 
sult Faulkner's 'History of Chelsea' (vol. i. 
pp. 138-40), and refer to the old map which he 
has given. Mr. Loftie, in his * History of Ken- 
sington/ supplies a map (southern portion) from a 
survey in 1837, which shows the part of Little 
Chelsea included in that parish, and from pp. 216 
to 220 tells what of interest he has to record about 
the Kensington portion. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

W. P. will find the information that he requires 
in ' Old and New London,' vol. v. p. 88. 

[Very numerous replies are acknowledged.] 


(8 th S. iv. 221, 310, 515). I am sorry that, by the 
accidental omission of a limiting clause, I have 
called forth from PROF. TOMLINSON such an ungra- 
duated denunciation of Paracelsus. I meant what 
I said of him to apply only to his account of the 
virtues of the loadstone; but though I did not intend 
to do so, it is no more than justice to give it a 
much wider application. I base this statement 
upon my knowledge of the work from which I 
quoted, a translation from Paracelsus, entitled 
'Paracelsus, his Dispensatory and Chirurgery,' 
London, 1656. I am not unaware of the man's 

8 8. V. Jm. 27, '94.] 



faults. He was boastful and arrogant, he was per- 
haps something of a charlatan, and he undoubtedly 
drank heavily ; but what then ? He had other 
qualities than these. His contempt for authority 
may have been excessive, but his attempt to base 
his practice upon observation .of nature was alto 
gether admirable. He was certainly not a mere 
* ' boastful q uack." As his English translator says : 

" Basil, which is one of the most famous Universities of 
the world, would never have chosen him to be their Pub- 
lique Professor of Physick, if he had been a mountebank 
or a weak man." 

It it not necessary to go further than the article 
in 'Cbambers's Encyclopaedia* (1891) to see that 
PROF. TOMLINSON has been led to take a one- 
sided and unjust view of him. Or if it is, a refer- 
ence to the monographs of M. B. Leasing, Marx, 
and Mook, upon which that article is chiefly based, 
will probably be sufficient to induce the Professor 
to revise his opinion. These monographs I have 

the right use of words, but the right way of dis- 
posing sentences so as to draw from them correct 

No doubt grammar is purely arbitrary. If some 
nations choose to call certain nouns masculine or 
feminine, to contravene this usage is bad grammar ; 
but no sort of convention can make a bad argu- 
ment good logic. 

PROF. SKEAT says " Seltan is the causal form 
of sittan." This conveys no very distinct idea. 
Bos worth says one of the meanings of the verb 
sdtan is " to cause to sit," i. e. , to cause some one 
or something to take a seat ; but how can this 
apply to the sun ? The sun rises in the east and 
causes to sit (or take a seat) in the west, is non- 
sense. No doubt " settles in the west " is better, 
and may possibly solve the blunder. 

The remark referred to was originally called 
forth by one of the correspondents of * N. & Q.' 
trying to exact a strictly scientific use of words. 

to whom, as Mr. Hedderwick says, in his work on 
the Faust legend, great injustice has hitherto 
been done. C. 0. B. 

not seen, but it is evident that they agree in the an d objecting to such terms as " thunder-bolt," 
main with the more favourable view of Paracelsus, | "thunder-struck," and "a bolt from the blue," 

because they convey an incorrect idea. Of the 
same character is the phrase " The sun sets in the 
west," meaning "settles in the west." I do not 
say we can change the word, but I do say it is in- 

STRACHEY FAMILY (8 th S. ii. 508 ; iii. 14, 134, correct ; and sits, after all, is a better correlative 
256 ; iv. 388; v. 13). In addition to the members of rises, than settles is. " Sol sedet," I fancy,, 
of the Keyes family named there was a grant of is good Latin, though " no one ever said the sun 
arms to Roger Keys and his brother Thomas in sits," and "Sol occidit " may be preferable, 
reign of Henrv VI. (see ' Excerpta Historica,' by Precisely the same is said of lie and lay as of rit 
Bentley, pub. 1831, p. 45) in recognition of the and set. Bosworth says of settan, "to cause to sit" 
services rendered by Roger Keys in connexion with (i. e., to take a seat); and of lecgan, " to cause to 
the building of St. Mary's College, Eton. The grant lie down " (i. e., to take a recumbent position). But 

states : 
" We ennoble, and make and create noble, the Fame 

to blunder between lie and lay is bad "grammar"; 
and when Byron says, " There let him lay," not 

Roger and Thomas as well deserving and acceptable to I even his great name can give it the stamp of merit, 
i al 8 o the children and descendants of the said I Wnen I was a boy, at the beginning of this cen- 
tury, it was usual to say, " The hen sets on her 
eggs," or " is setting "; but the phrase is never now 
heard in educated families. Every one knows the 
anecdote about the judge and barrister, " Set, set, 
brother," said the judge; " hens set." In summing 
up the evidence the judge used the word lay for 
lie, when the barrister modestly rejoined, " Lay, 
lay, my lord ; hens lay.' 


Thomas. And in sign of this nobility, we give and grant 
for ever the arms and ensign of arms depicted in these 
our letters, with the liberties, immunities, privileges, 
franchises, right?, and other distinctions to noblemen due 
and accustomed." 

In my communication at p. 14 the year should 
be 1570, not " 1750." HARDRIC MORPHTN. 
Sandgate, Kent. 

In the 'Tablette Book of Lady Mary Keyes 
e invariably calls her husband Martin, and not 
.nomas. He died in 1573, at the house of her 
grandam," where Martin had been in hiding. The 
house appears to have been in the Minories. Lady 
Mary dates her ' Tablette Book ' " from my Howse 
in the Minories," 1577. GEORGE ANGUS. 

8t Andrews, N.B. 

SUNSET (8* S. iv. 521). PROF. SKEAT says 
e right use of words has nothing to do with 
grammar, but belongs to the region of logic. I 
t agree to this dictum. Phraseology and the 

PRUJEAN SQUARE (8 th S. v. 28). 

" Prujean Square, Old Bailey, on the west side, a few 
doors from Ludgata Hill, so named from the residence 
here of Sir Francis Prujean, an eminent physician, who 
waa President of the College of Physicians, 1650-1654. 
In the latter year, when Harvey declined the office on 
account of age and infirmity, Prujean was on his advice 
chosen for the fifth time. In Strype's map it ia called 
Prideaux Court. Dodsley calls it Prujean Court." 

So far, we are indebted to Mr. Henry B. 
Wheatley's valuable 'London, Past and Present.' 
A notice of Sir Francis will be found in Dr. 

_ A | ,. OJ JWAW v^a VU J. *CU\*I0 TT All WO ftWIMBW 1 LI -J-' I * 

Jlection of words are certainly parts of Munk's'Roll of the Royal College of Physicians 
w; and the right province of logic is not of London,' vol. i. pp. 173-175. Born in Essex 


[8 th S. V. JAN. 27, '94. 

educated at Cains College, Cambridge, knighted 
by Charles II. in 1661, he died " pridie D. 
Baptist, 1666," and was buried at Hornchurch, in 
his native county. 

On August 9, 1661, Sir Francis received a 
visit from Evelyn, to whom he played "on the 
polythore, an instrument having something of the 
harp, lute, and theorbo, by none known in Eng- 
land, nor described by any author, nor used but 
by this skilful and learned doctor." His skill 
carried Queen Catharine through a severe attack 
of spotted fever. His only son, Thomas Prujean, 
was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians 
in 1 657. The * Dictionary of Music and Musicians ' 
does not include the polythore amongst the musical 
instruments which it describes unless, indeed, it 
may be found under some other name. 


This place was named after Sir Francis Prujean, 
M.D., an eminent physician, who was elected 
President of the Royal College of Physicians five 
years in succession viz., in 1650, 1651, 1652, 
1653, and 1654. Pepys refers in his * Diary' 
several times to Prujean, more particularly to his 
treatment of Queen Catharine in a severe attack of 
spotted fever. Evelyn visited the physician in 
August, 1661, and refers in his 'Diary' to the 
laboratory and workshop in the doctor's house, 
which was situated in the Old Bailey. 

H. B. W. 

This question and three replies thereto will be 
found in ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. ix. 348, 397. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

JOSHUA JONATHAN SMITH (8 th S. iv. 308, 497). 
The widow of this gentleman was in 1845 
residing in Park Road, Twickenham. A year or 
two after Alderman Smith was Lord Mayor of 
London he personally made loans of money to 
Lady Hamilton to extricate her from her extreme 
monetary troubles. So involved had she become 
that she was detained in the King's Bench prison 
for debt. The intervention of the alderman pro- 
cured for her some relaxation in the prison rules, 
and by his assistance she escaped from England, 
crossing over to Calais in an open boat, being 
three days on the passage. This was in 1814. 
Lady Hamilton died in January, 1815, and so low 
were her finances that arrangements were already 
made to inter her in pauper ground, when the 
good alderman sent a messenger with instructions 
to defray the expenses of a decent funeral. Mr. 
Alfred Morrison has among his valuable auto- 
graphs the receipts for the funeral, made out on 
behalf of Joshua J. Smith, amounting to 281. 10. 
Thus did the worthy alderman save the English 
people from the stigma of passively allowing this 
degradation to the remains of so notable a woman 

who, no matter what her failings, had certainly 
played a prominent part in the wars of Europe to 
the interest of her country. 

In return for moneys advanced Lady Hamilton 
had assigned to the alderman the whole of her 
furniture, plate, linen, china, &c., for absolute 
sale, giving him a list of the said property. In 
1844 it came to the knowledge of Sir N. Harris 
Nicolas that the widow of Alderman Smith had in 
her possession, among these effects, the coat worn 
by Nelson when he received his death wound. 
Lady Hamilton had methodically noted the con- 
tents of each crate, and, guided by her list, in crate 
No. 3 was found the coat, carefully folded in 
damask, with layers of damask between each fold 
to preserve it from moths. The right sleeve was 
looped up, and had remained so ever since it was 
taken off the dying hero. Sir Harris was wishful 
to raise a subscription to purchase the coat and 
waistcoat, so that they could be deposited in Green- 
wich Hospital. A circular to this purpose was 
printed, and a copy shown to the late Prince Con- 
sort, who at once requested that the purchase 
should be made on his behalf, "as it would be 
his pride and pleasure to present the memorials to 
Greenwich Hospital. " Sir Harris acted as nego- 
tiator, and the relics were purchased from the 
alderman's widow by the Prince for 150Z. 


Cam den Lawn, Birkenhead. 

The annexed notice of Alderman Smith appears 
(p. 352) in John Nicholl's * Account of the Wor- 
shipful Company of Ironmongers,' privately printed, 
London, 1866, second ed., 4to.: 

" 1810. Joshua Jonathan Smith, Esq., citizen and Iron- 
monger, was chosen to serve the office of Lord Mayor. 
He was elected Alderman of Castle Baynard ward in 
1803, and Sheriff of London and Middlesex in 1808, on 
which latter occasion he was received into the livery of 
the Ironmongers' Company, having been admitted to the 
freedom in 1803 by the nomination of the Lord Mayor, 
and by translation from the Company of Patten-makers, 
of which he was previously free. Alderman Smith was 
by trade a sugar-baker at Be'net's Hill, Doctors' Com- 
mons, and was, conjointly with Lady Hamilton, executor 
of the last will and testament of the late Horatio Vis- 
count Nelson. He died 15 July, 1834, aged 69, and was 
buried in the vaults under the chapel of Saint Mary, 
Fulham. Collections of Samuel Gregory, Esq. Arms : 
Argent, on a bend azure, between two unicorn's heads 
erased gules, three lozenges or. (Escutcheon in the 
Hall.) " 

Alderman Smith appears to have held a com- 
mission in the militia or a volunteer corps, as he 
is credited with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 
John Watson Stewart's ' English Registry,' Dublin, 
1818, p. 153. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

O'BRIEN : STRANGWATS (8 th S. iv. 448, 495). 
In supplement of the information given by 'N. & Q.' 
as above upon this alliance, which seems so to 
have aroused the traditional prejudice against 

8 th S. V. JAN. 27, '94.] 



the calling of an actor, may I be permitted to 
add something from this side of the water, on the 
evidence of a famous officer of the continental 
army ? In the ' Memoirs of Captain Alexander 
Graydon,' Edinburgh, 1822, p. 60, the writer, 
speaking of the distinguished personages who 
patronized his mother's boarding house in Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, between the years 1765 
and 1775, says : 

" Another was Lady Susan Obrien [sic] not more dis- 
tinguished by her title than by her husband, who accom- 
panied her and had figured as a comedian on the London 
stage in the time of Garrick, Mossop, and Barry. Although 
Churchill charges him vrith being an imitator of Wood- 
ward, he yet admits him to be a man of parts ; and he has 
been said to have surpassed all his contemporaries in the 
character of the Fine Gentleman, in his easy manner of 
treading the stage, and particularly of drawing his sword, 
to which action he communicated a swiftness and a 
grace which Garrick imitated but could not equal. 
Obrien [sic] is presented to my recollection as a man of 
the middle height with a symmetrical form, rather light 
than athletic. Employed by the father to instruct Lady 
Susan in elocution, he taught her, it seems, that it was 
no sin to love for she became his wife ; and, as I have 
seen it mentioned in the Theatrical Mirror, obtained for 
him, through the interest of her family, a post in 
America. But what this post wap, or where it located 
him, I never heard." 

New York. 

ACTS' (8* S. iv. 487). There is, I believe, no 
doubt that Mr. Martin is the author. I was in- 
formed that this was so by a former contributor, 
who was also a well-known bibliographer, the late 
Mr. Buckley. There are not wanting in the book 
itself the means of confirming this. The prefaces 
in the two volumes have the signature F. M. The 
preface to vol. i. p. iii, has : 

" The present little volume, although complete in it- 
ielf, is to be regarded as a continuation, and conclusion of 
the prefatory disquisitions, contained in the 'Notes on the 
Pour Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles,' 1838, 12mo.' 

Castle, son of David Myddelton, Keceiver-General 
for North Wales in the reign of Edward IV. David's 
father Ririd, a Welshman, surnamed himself 
Myddelton owing to his lineal descent from Ririd 
ap David, who married Cecilia, daughter and heir 
of Philip Myddelton, great-grandson of Sir Alex- 
ander Myddelton, of Middleton, Salop. Of this 
family, it is said, was Sir Richard Middleton, 
Lord Chancellor of England in the reign of 
Henry III. The writer of this reply, who is a 
descendant of Sir Hugh's brother, Sir Thomas 
Myddelton, or Middleton, Lord Mayor of London, 
through the latter's great -great -great -grand- 
daughter Susanna Gary, Lady Cullum, hopes 
eventually to publish a pedigree of the Middletons. 

Sir Hugh Myddelton was of a North Wales family, 
his father, Richard Myddelton, was Governor of 
Denbigh Castle in the time of Edward VI., Mary, 
and Elizabeth, and his grandfather, Foulk Myd- 
delton, was governor of the same place in the time 
of Henry VII. It is very likely that the Middletons 
of, or near, Boston, in 1553, were related. William 
Middleton, of Swaton about ten miles from 
Boston as the crow flies gent. , in his will, made 
in 1599, and proved the same year (P.C.C. 
Wallopp 5) leaves his lands in Spalding to his son 
William Middleton, which lands were formerly the 
lands of testator's uncle, John Middleton ; he 
appoints as his supervisors his two uncles, Waters 
Audley and Anthonie Audlie, Mr. Hughe Mid- 
dleton, of London, goldsmith; Francis Braiham, of 
Swaton, gent.; and Richard Whitlington, of 
Horbling, gent. This Mr. Hughe Middleton I 
take to be the projector of the New River, which 
seems to point to a possible relationship. Any 
information throwing light on such relationship 
would be appreciated by me. Sir Thomas Myd- 
delton, Sir Hugh's brother, owned property in 
Wainfleet, Folkingham, Burgh, Friskney, Partney, 
Hanney, Spilsby, Halton, co. Lincoln ; and Hugh, 

Which is also the statement in the notice at the on his brother's behalf, recovered in the Court of 
beginning of vol. ii. ED. MARSHALL. Common Pleas at Westminster, May 23, 35 Eliz., 

It is stated in Halkettand Laing's ' Dictionary 1 
that the author of this work was the Rev. Frederick 

M T a F tin - J. F. MANSERGH. 


SIR HUGH MYDDELTON (8 ih S. iv. 527), of New I descent. 

celebrity, was the sixth son of Richard I St - Albans. 
Myddelton, of Denbigh, and great-grandson of 
David Myddelton, of Gwaynynog, Denbighshire. 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

Common Pleas at Westminster, May 23, 35 Eliz., 
against Robert Brooke and William Lewes, 
200 acres of land, 100 acres of meadow, 
200 acres of pasture, and 100 acres of marsh in 
the parishes above named. The lands acquired 
by Sir Thomas were by purchase, and not by 

I have known three generations of Myddletons 
living in Lincolnshire ; but Sir Hugh had estates 
in Wales, and I have always understood they 
were a Welsh family ; but probably that is not 
ign Myddelton was not of a Lincolnshire, correct. The first that I remember was Rector of 
>f a Welsh family. He was the younger son Bucknall, about four miles from Horncastle. His 
ot Kicnard Myddelton, M.P. for Denbigh, 1536- son, who afterwards had a living near Melton 
r>4 / , and governor of Denbigh Castle, who was Mowbray, was one of the masters of the Horn- 
* ulke Myddelton, also governor of Denbigh | castle Grammar School when I was there. It was a 


L S. V. JAN. 27, '04. 

very celebrated school in those days ; the head 
master, Dr. Smith, had a great reputation, and 
boys came to him from all parts. The widow of 
my old tutor and one of her sons are now living 
near me in Boston. His eldest son, Thomas 
Cheadle Myddleton, and a brother are living at St. 
Albans. B. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

THEOBALD WOLFE TONE (8 th S. iv. 526). 
"1846" is an obvious misprint for 1826, when 
Tone's * Autobiography ' was first published at 
Washington. It formed the text of that speech of 
Shiel referred to in the same contribution as having 
been delivered in 1827. CLIO. 

I have just seen MB. Pa END ERG AST'S letter in 
' N. & Q.' He is wrong. Grouchy was at Bantry 
Bay. Wolfe Tone says so. He ought to know ; 
he was there too. E. BARRY O'BRIEN. 

In 'Secret Service under Pitt' (p. 170) I ven 
tured to gainsay a statement of Mr. Froude's 
regarding the French expedition to Ireland in 1796. 
Mr. Froude's statement is: "Then, as twenty 
years later, on another occasion no less critical 
[Waterloo] Grouchy was the good genius of the 
British Empire." Froude's * English in Ireland,' 
iii. 205. 

* La France et Irlande, 1 by M. Guillen (Paris, 
1888), was written with full advantages of access 
to the papers of the French Admiralty and War 
Office. That book is now in my hand, and clearly 
shows (p. 270) that it was Bouvet, and not Grouchy, 
who in 1796 proved " the good genius of the British 

Before 'La France et Irlande' reached my 
hands I had read a resume of its contents as given 
by M. Guillon's critics, and from that risumi I 
adopted one statement which I fear is not accurate, 
t.., that "Grouchy was not at Bantry"; but in a 
new edition of my book now being prepared 
that point will be put right. 

Grouchy, indeed, " was not at Bantry," which is 
a town forty-seven miles from Cork, and contain 
ing 4,000 souls, but, unlike Hoche, the com 
mander of the expedition, Grouchy was in Bantry 
Bay, and Admiral Bouvet refused to land the 
troops, in spite of all the most urgent remon 
strances on the part of both officers and men. 
Bouvet, on his return to France, was ignomin- 
ously dismissed from the navy. (See ' La France 
et Irlande/ chap, vii.) W. J. FITZPATRICK. 

ILLIS" (8 th S. iv. 446). The explanation is this. 
Borbonius was the compiler of ' Delitise Poetarum 
Germanorum,' Francof., 1612. At voL i. p. 685, 
there is this entry : 

Lotharii I. 

Orania mutantur nos et mutamur in ill if, 
Ilia vices quasdam res habet ilia vices. 

DR. CHARNOCK contributes this in * N. & Q.,' 
5 th S. i. 372. He also refers to the four previous 
series as having reference to it. It also occurs in 
6 th S. viii. 69. 

So far there is a fair account of " Mutantur, nos 
et mutamur in illis. But " Tempora," which 
replaces " Onmia," is from another source. In the 
* Epigrammata Joan. Oweni, Cambro - Britanni 
Oxon.,' Amst. 1647, lib. i. Ep. Iviii. p. 172, there is 

Tempora ! 

Tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis, 
Quomodo ? fit semper tempore pejor homo. 

It is "Tempora" in'Aphorismi et Axiomata 

selecta a R. P. W. K., O.S.B.,'p. 78, Altdorf. 

ad Vin., 1745 ; in Binder, ' Nov. Thes. Adag. 
Latt.,' Stuttgart, 1866, p. 368. 


The ascription of the germ of this saying to the 
Emperor Lothair is familiar to readers of ' N. & Q.* 
from its first volume onwards. It may save 
further trouble to place on record at one reference 
the two versions of this popular saying and their 
not very recondite sources. "Omnia mutantur," 
&c., is among the epigrams of Matthias Borbonius 
incorporated in the 'Delitise Poetarum Germa- 
norum,' and is headed " Lotharii I." " Tempora 
mutantur," &c., is among those of John Owen, 
being the first line of No. 68 of Liber Primus 
"ad tres Mecsenates," and is headed "0 Tem- 



WATERLOO (8 h S. iii. 307, 412, 493). Sir E. 
Creasy, in 'The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the 
World,' quotes this story in a foot-note, on p. 371, 
from Siborne, vol. ii. p. 263. On p. 374 he states 
that the Duke of Wellington gave the order, " Up, 
Guards, and at them ! " PAUL BIERLEY. 

PEPTSIAN FOLK-LORE (8 th S. iv. 526). I read 
a paper before the Folk-Lore Society on May 13, 
1881, entitled ' The Superstitions of Pepys and 
his Times' (see Folk-Lore Record, vol. iv. pp. 211, 
212) ; but as I felt that I had not by any means 
exhausted the subject, I kept the paper back, and 
it was not printed. I hope in the near future to 
read another and a fuller paper on the same sub- 
ject before the Folk-Lore Society. 


PEPYS'S "BOOK OF STORIES" (8 th S. iv. 527). 
I have made diligent inquiries for the manu- 
script book of stories which Pepys refers to in his 
' Diary,' but unfortunately without success up to 
the present time. I have still hopes, however, 
that it may eventually turn up. 


"NDDER" (8 th S. v. 27). The editorial sug- 
gestion was evidently correct, and " shepe nuder " 
should be slepe under. Since writing my query, 
I have found at the end of the second book of the 


8*8. V. JAN. 27, ' 



* Herball ' over two pages of corrigenda. Among 
them is the following entry : " P. 150, 1. 13, slept 
for ' shepe.' " That is all ; no mention of " nuder 
being wrong. When this has been changed to 
under, slepe makes sense of the passage. The 
word " sit" could not refer to sheep. They either 
stand or lie down. The ' Herbal! ' was " Imprinted 
at Collen by Arnold Birckman, 1568." To the 
first part Turner prefixes a dedication to Queen 
Elizabeth, dated at London in March of this same 
year. He had spent several years in Germany 
during his exile, but he could hardly have been 
there while his book was going through the press, 
as at that time he held the deanery of Wells. He 
is said to have died in 1568, the very year in 
which his book was printed at Cologne. Can this 
be true ? No doubt a record of his death must 
exist at Wells. J. DIXON. 

The Editor's suggestion is doubtless correct. 
The passage should read, " if any slepe under it," 
&c. There is a similar statement in Lyte and in 
Gerarde. The superstition dates from Dioscorides. 

C. 0. B. 

BLANCHE OF LANCASTER (8 th S. iv. 267, 354, 
473). J. A. will find information respecting the 
above in 

Royal and Noble Authors of England. By Horace 
Walpole. 1796. Pp. 289-92. 

Annala of England. Oxford, 1856. Vol. ii., pp. Ill- 
Queens of England. By Agnes Strickland, 1851. 
Vol. ii., pp. 158, 364, 385. 

The Funeral Sermon of Margaret, Countess of Rich- 
mond, &c., emprynted at London, &c., by Wynkyn de 
Worde. Reprinted by A. Bosvil at the Dial and Bible in 
Fleet Street, 1708. (Thia reprint contains information 
respecting the colleges, &c., she endowed.) 

Dictionary of English Literature. By S. A. Allibone. 

Collection of Royal and Noble Wills. By John 
Nichols. 1780. P. 376. (Contains her will.) ' 

Collection of Letters. By Leonard Howard (?) London. 
1753-56. 2vols.(?) See Allibone. 


If those who are making research about Blanche, 
wife of John of Gaunt, should find mention of 
Bidston, in Cheshire (Bedstane it may be called), 
as a portion of her dowry, I shall be obliged if 
they will publish the same in your columns. I am 
wishful to trace how the estate became the property 
of the Earls of Derby. HILDA GAMLIN. 


'The Life of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of 
Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII. 
and foundress of Christ's and St. John's Colleges, 
Cambridge,' by Caroline A. Halsted, 1842 or 1843, 
will provide J. A. with the information he requires. 


267, 310, 339, 368, 436 ; iii. 16). I have been 

unable to send the following note until now. It 
is extracted from a note and account book written 
by my great-grandfather : 

" London, 25 March 1728. 

"This day I, Richard Wilson, came of age My 

mother gave me possession of the following estates, left 

me by my father when I came of age A House in 

St. James' Square let to S r Thomas Jemmesson at 100 
per arm. worth 20 years' purchase=2,000." 

On May 5, 1728, he writes: "Paid Henry 
Strong, builder, for repairs to my house in St. 
James's Square, 95 10*." Y. S. M. 

INSCRIPTION ON STONE (8 th S. iv. 468). Mar- 
tial has : 

Extra fortunam eat quidquid donatur amicis. 
Quas dederis solas semper habebis opes. 

<Ep.,' v. xliii. 7,8. 

Seneca, ' De Beneficiis,' refers to another form of 
a similar sentiment : 

" Bgregie mini videtur M. Antonius apud Rabirium 
poetam, quum fortunam suam transeuntem alio videat, 
et nihil sibi relic turn, prater iua mortis, id quoque si 
cito occupaverit, exclamare : * Hoc habeo, quodcunque 
dedi.' quantum habere potuifc, si voluiseet." Bk. vi. 
cap. iii. 

It became, in one form or another, a very common 
epitaph, as : 

Ecc' q'd expendi habui 
Qud donavi habeo 
Qud negavi punior 
Qud eervavi p'didi 

which is below the tffigy of a priest at St. Peter's, 
St. Albans, 1410, with an English version, which 
may be seen in Eavenshaw's ' Anciente Epitaphes,' 
1878, p. 5, with a notice of similar epitaphs on 
Robert Byrkes, 1579; William Lambe, 1540; 
John Orgen, 1591 ; Edward Courtenay, 1419. 

See also Jeremy Taylor, vol. iii. pp. 302, 352 ; 
Weever's ' Funeral Monuments,' pp. 581, 607. 


The dictum on the inscription to Francis, Earl 
of Bradford, is from Martial, lib. v. Ep. xlii. 1. 8. 
The epigram is headed " Amicis quod datur, non 
perire." The couplet runs thus : 

Extra fortunam est, quicquid donatur amicis ; 
Quaa dederis, solas semper habebis opes. 


Is not the dictum about which MR. GILBERT 
VANE inquires a rendering in pentameter verse of 
the first line of the well-known epitaph : 

What I gave, that I have ; 
What I spent, that I had ; 
What I left, that I lost. 


531). The superstition that peacocks' feathers are 
unlucky if worn on the person does not appear to 
Snd faith in Lincolnshire. Nearly all the agricul- 
tural labourers at the statute fairs wear a peacock's 



S . Y. JAN. 27, '94. 

feather with rosette and ribbons in their hats, and 
they are sold by hawkers in the streets at fair 
time. F. C. K. 

"To QUARREL" (8 th S. iv. 404, 478). There 
is a prayer in ' Eucharistica : Meditations and 
Prayers on the most Holy Eucharist' (p. 68), 
attributed to Archbishop Laud, which would run 
u Behold I quarrel not the words of thy Son, my 
Saviour's blessed institution," were not "[at]" 
inserted after the "not," for the better under- 
standing of the phrase by modern worshippers. 


SLANG NAMES FOR Corns (8 th S. iv. 248). 
I have just come across a book in the British 
Museum Library which may meet your corre- 
spondent's requirements. The name of it is 
'Anleitung zer Einer leichten Erlernung der 
judisch deutschen Sprache,' by Gottfried Selig, of 
Leipzig. This book contains, among other matters, 
the slang names of coins in the jargon of the Ger- 
man Jews. W. C. RICHARSON. 

StrouJ Green. 

If MR. H. W. WALLIS will communicate with 
me I shall be happy to send him a copy of an 
article that I wrote on this subject. It may 
possibly be of use to him. 


Arolaen Lodge, Elm Grove, Wimbledon. 

PEPIN LE BREF (8 th S. iv. 469). I have a 
note that he married "Bertra, dau. of Caribert, 
Count of Laon." CHARLES S. KINO, Bart. 

Corrard, Lisbellaw. 

HAWZE (8 tb S. iv. 367). In 1759 Hawke had 
been for months off Brest waiting for De Conflans 
to come out. In November a storm drove Hawke 
into Torbay. Thereupon De Conflans came out 
and engaged Duffs squadron in Quiberon Bay. 
Hawke got back and smashed up the French fleet 
on November 20. The event had been awaited 
on this side with considerable anxiety, and the 
English fleet had been kept well supplied with 
fresh meat, vegetables, and London porter. After 
the victory these supplies somehow fell off. 
Whereupon some one sent home the following : 

Ere Hawke did bang 

Mounseer Conflans, 
You sent us beef and beer. 

Now Mounseer's beat 

We 've nought to eat, 
Because you 've nought to fear. 


LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS (8 th S. iv. 101, 135, 
169, 181, 234, 281, 332, 341, 376, 423, 492, 521). 
MR. WARD is no doubt right in stating that the 
terrace wall was built in 1663 (the year the terrace 
walk itself was made), but surely that wall merely 
superseded an older one, and it would be such 
earlier wall which is shown on the plan of 1657 to 

which I referred. W. Herbert, in his ' Antiquities 
of the Inns of Court,' 1804, p. 295, describes the 
building of a brick wall in the beginning of the 
reign of James I., and he says, " This enclosed the 
long walk," so I imagine it included the wall in 
question. Even Aggas's map (or rather a reprint 
of it which I have before me) seems to indicate a 
wall or fence on apparently the same line. 

The wall as shown on the plan runs from Turn- 
stile to a point somewhere near the parish boundary- 
marks now affixed to the rear of No. 11, New 
Square, it then turns eastward and runs across 
the square to the south-west corner of the house 
now No. 13. The ground south of this wall, 
which is now part of New Square, but did not at 
that time belong to the inn, is shown as an open 
space, cut off from the rest of Ficket's Field, of 
which it had formed part, by the road now called 
Serle Street. C. M. P. 

There is a public-house in Chiswick Mall, facing 
the Thames, a little to the east of Chiswick 
Church, where a whetstone is still to be seen fixed 
to the door-post at the principal entrance to the 
house. S. A. 

"To lie for the whetstone," see 'Towneley 
Mysteries/ Surtees Society, p. 192, "He lyea 

for the quetstone." 

E. S. A. 

TROT TOWN (8* S. iv. 8, 96 ; v. 37). Troy 
Town, Rochester, mentioned by MR. J. LANG- 
BORNE, was duly included in the list given by MR. 
W. H. PEET at the second reference. "Troy 
Michell " is usually known as Mitchell-Troy, or St. 
Michael-Troy. Here " Troy " is said to be a cor- 
ruption of " Trothy," the river on which the 
village stands. Surely in the list of Troy Towns 
we should include the legendary name of London, 
Troia Nova, or Trinovantum, the capital of Brutus : 
For noble Britons sprong from Trojans bold 

And Troy-Novant was built of old Troves ashes cold. 
Spenser's Faerie Queene,' iii. 9. 

Dr. Brewer, by-the-by, tells us that this word 
is British, being compounded of " Tri-nou-hant " 
(inhabitants of the new town). What is the actual 
origin of the name New Troy as applied to our old 
capital? CHAS. JAS. F&RET. 

SIR JOHN MOORE (8 th S. v. 28). Sir John 
Moore was Sheriff in 1671, and Mayor of London 
exactly ten years later. He was M.P., also Pre- 
sident of Christ's Hospital, the writing school of 
which he founded at a cost, it is written, of 4,OOOZ. 
He founded and endowed a Free School at Apple- 
by, in his native county, and was a generous 
supporter of the Grocers' Company. 


Poundfald, near Swansea. 

Miss = MISTRESS (8 th S. iv. 186; v. 36). I 
must apologize to PROF. SKEAT and MR. ADAMS. 

. V. JAS. 27, 'S4.) 



I was misled, so to speak, by the reprint of Tyndal 
in the Parker's Society's publications books which 
I had assumed to be trustworthy in all other than 
theological matters. But I did not ignore Evelyn, 
only I had not regarded him as infallible; and 
surely the student of etymology, above all others, 
should be ** nullius addictus pirare in verba 
magistri." EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

HENRY W. KING (8 th S. iv. 500). I notice a 
short obituary of my old friend by MR. JNO. T. 
PAGE. He may be glad to know that I have written 
a memoir of that learned antiquary, which (with a 
portrait) appears in the Transactions of the Essex 
Archaeological Society just published. Therein I 
have referred to a great number of Mr. King's 
writings, both in MS. and print. It would now 
be well-nigh impossible to compile a complete 
bibliography, . W. CROUCH. 

BOULTBEE (8 th S. iv. 508). The Rev. Charles 
Boultbee, a non-graduate, was instituted to the 
vicarage of Kirdford, Sussex, Jan. 28, 1819 ; to the 
rectory of Blackborough, Devon, Oct. 23, 1830 ; 
and to the rectory of Bondleigh, in the same 
county, on Oct. 25 following (1830). His death 
is thus recorded in the Gentleman'* Magazine, 
October, 1833, vol. ciii. pt. ii. p. 379 : 

" Sept. 6. At Pinwell cottage, near Atherstone, aged 
50, the Rev. Charles Boultbee, Rector of Baxterley, 
Warwickshire, to which he was presented last year by 
the Lord Chancellor." 


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

BANGOR (8 th S. v. 9). Including the Bangor 
from which Viscount Bangor takes his title, there 
are several places of historic interest of that name 
that are not cities. Assuming, however, that the 
statement is a serious one, and relates to what is 
said to be the oldest see in Wales, the answer to 
the query of your correspondent perhaps depends 
upon the validity of the following definition : 

" City (civitas) is a town corporate, which is or hath 

been the see of a bishop, and hath a cathedral ; and 

ihough the bishopric be dissolved, as at Westminster, 

it still remaineth a city. (' Coke upon Littleton,' 

109, 1 Blackstone,' 114)." 

I am not mistaken, when Manchester became 
a bishop's see, some years ago, the good people 
there were not satisfied that their town was a city 
until the latter title had been expressly conferred 
upon it by the Government. How far the like 
was the case in former times may be a question 
for those learned in the law. 


To which place of this name does this query 

apply ? There are localities bearing this name in 

the States of Maine, Michigan, and New York ; 

also in the counties of Down, Mayo, Flint, and 

Carnarvon. If to the last named, it is an ancient 
city, the origin of which is involved in very great 
obscurity. It was erected into a see about the 

71, Brecknock Road. 

It ia news to me, and would, I think, be so to 
most of my friends in the city and neighbourhood 
of Bangor, to hear that Bangor is not a city. On 
what ground is the assertion made ; and what is 
the definition of a city ? C. C. B. 

S. iv. 367, 478). The following, from Ford and 
Dekker's masque * The Sun's Darling' (Act II. 
near end), may be of interest in connexion with 
this subject : 

" One gallant went but into France last day, and was 
never his own man since; another stept but into the 
Low Countries, and was drunk dead under the table." 
In French we find both mort ivre and ivre mort. 
Still more interesting is Shakespeare's inversion 
(< Much Ado,' I. iii. 69) : " That young start-up 
hath all the glory of my overthrow." 


105, Albany Road, Camber well, 8.E. 

S. v. 49). A list of the proposed knights appears 
in Burke's ' Commoners of Great Britain and Ire- 
land,' in the Appendix to vol. i. of the edition 
issued in November, 1833. R. B. 


JOHN LISTON (8* S. iii. 143, 216, 252, 374, 
418 ; v. 55). The memoir of Listen referred to 
by MR. DOUGLAS does not appear in the index 
of articles contained in the first hundred volumes 
of Temple Bar, so it probably saw the light in 
another quarter. THE INDEX-MAKER. 

There are MS. catalogues of the collection of 
books known as ' Bibliotheca Jacksoniana,' and of 
the collection of antiquities presented by Robert 
Ferguson, F.S.A., which it is hoped will be pub- 
lished at some future time. It is expected that 
the book-plate of the Jackson collection will 
appear in the next number of the Ex-Libris 

SEDAN-CHAIR (8 th S. ii. 142, 511 ; iii. 54, 214, 
333 ; iv. 229 ; v. 33). On Good Friday, 1888, I 
was present at the service in Seville Cathedral, 
and at the close the archbishop, who had been 
officiating, walked towards the entrance near the 
Giralda, where a sedan-chair was awaiting him 
inside the church. He got in and was carried to 
the palace. G. W. TOMLINSON. 


UNIVERSITY GRACES (8 tt S. iv. 507; v. 15). 
Though, in compliance with MR. GILDERSOME- 



[8 th S. V. JAN. 27, '94. 

DICKINSON'S request, I replied to him direct, I 
should be glad to know from some one better in- 
formed than I am by whom the collection of graces 
in Dr. Bliss's 'Reliquiae Hearnianae' was made. 
I see them mentioned at the latter reference as 
graces used at Oxford in Hearne's days. The 
" det Reginse pacem " of University, the " Reginam 
conservet " of Balliol, the " det Reginse pacem " of 
Queen's, the " Salvum fac Regem," and " Fac 
Reginam salvam " of New College, the " Regem 
proteget" of Lincoln, the " Regem nostrum con- 
servet" of Corpus, the "Salvam fac Reginam" 
of Christ Church, the "Salvum fac Regem" of 
Jesus and of Worcester, are not inconsistent with 
this view. But the "Conserves Reginam Vic- 
toriam" of Exeter, the " Victoriam Reginam 
defende" of Brasenose, the "Salvam fac Vic- 
toriam " of Trinity, the " fac salvam Victoriam " 
of Wadham, and the " Reginam Victoriam in pace 
custodias " of Pembroke seem to show that, though 
they may have been used in substance long before 
Hearne's time, they were collected long after. 
Hearne says that the Pembroke grace was written 
by Camden. 

If Bliss had brought the graces in a collection 
by Hearne up to date, he would probably have 
treated all alike. Those in which Queen Victoria's 
name appears cannot have been the only graces in 
use in Bliss's time, for the Corpus grace certified 
to have been in use at the time of his death con- 
tains in the collection the word " Regem." 


ST. OSWYTH (8 th S. v. 49). Your correspondent 
ought to have looked in Stow's ' Survey ' for " St. 
Sith " in Cheap Ward. Oswyth is a misspelling of 
Osyth. The church of St. Osyth (or Syth, as it 
was usually called), of which our first Lollard 
martyr was priest, was otherwise named St. Bennet 
Shorehog, as by Fabyan in his list of the wards 
{' Chronicles,' ed. 1811, p. 296; cf. Stow, 'Sur- 
vey,' ed. Thorns, 1842, p. 98). It was destroyed 
in the Great Fire, and was not rebuilt, but united 
to the church of St. Stephen, Walbrook, that 
masterpiece of Wren's. The name, however, sur- 
vives after a fashion in Size Lane, for which I fine 
" Syth's Lane, Bucklersbury," in the ' Picture o 
London for 1803,' p. 345. Some information about 
the virgin martyr St. Osyth appeared 'N. & Q., 
8"> S. ii. 412. F. ADAMS. 

GOULD OF HACKNEY (8 th S. iv. 448). Perhapi 
your correspondent is not aware that " George 
Dance, who died 1768," is probably the same per 
son who held the appointment of Clerk of thi 
Works to the Corporation of London. He wa 
born June 2, 1725, which would give a clue to th 
date of his marriage, where the wife's family nam 
would occur. He was buried in the churchyarc 
of St. Luke, Old Street. His fifth son, George 
became R.A., and succeeded his father in th 

ffice. He was born March 20, 1741. Nathaniel 

smith, of Bloomsbury Square, and Nathaniel 

Dance (another son), of Southampton Row, were 

is executors. He had a grandson Nathaniel 

)ance. George was free of the Merchant Taylors' 

Company ; but I doubt if any information on the 

oint in question can be obtained there. Is there 

o pedigree of this illustrious family of Dance ? 

las the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' been tried. 


MRS. SCARLETT will find a full pedigree of 
Gould of Hackney and Bovingdon in Mis. Gen. et 
3er., N.S., iii. 355; but the marriage with Dance 
s ignored. I have abstract of the will of George 
Dance the elder; but this does not allude to the 
Goulds, and the article in the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
omits all mention of marriage. 

Whilst speaking of the Goulds, may I be allowed 
to say that I suspect the name was formerly pro- 
nounced like the precious metal, as a monument 
n the church of Lew Trenchard, Devon, to one of 
those Goulds, has the following : " As for ye Earth, 
t hath the dust of Gould. Job xxviii. 5, 6." 


Eden Bridge. 

(8"> S.iv.428, 513 ; v. 33). I have no doubt that the 
copies of the 1642 Prayer Book with the insertion 
of Charles I.'s martyrdom were old copies prepared 
for use, with certain alterations, between the return 
of Charles II. and the printing of the new revised 
edition. I know of one sumptuous copy of a 
Charles I. Prayer Book, with several alterations, 
prepared for Charles II., with his arms on sides and 
painted on the edges. Till the new edition came 
out, necessarily the old Prayer Book was used. 

J. 0. J. 

iv. 507). In my 'Lyra Apostolica,' as a note to 
Newman's great poem on Judaism, I have copied 
out the following story : "The chaplain of Frederick 
the Great had good reason for his answer. When 
asked by the king to give in one word a reason for 
believing in the inspiration of the Bible, ' The Jews, 
your Majesty/ was his memorable reply." Possibly 
the incident mentioned by your correspondent may 
have become confused with the above. ALICE. 

Did not the speaker referred to, when he spoke 
of the Jews being suggested to George III. as the 
best example to Christians, simply muddle and 
misapply a very different story ? Dr. Liddon, at 
the beginning of his third Bampton Lecture, tells 
it thus : " A sceptical prince once asked his chap- 
lain to give him some clear evidence of the truth 
of Christianity, but to do so in a few words, because 
a king had not much time to spare for such matters. 
The chaplain tersely replied, 'The Jews, your 
Majesty.' " I have an idea that the chaplain was 

8* 8. V. JAN. 27, '94.] 



Dr. S. Clarke, in which case the prince must have 
been George II.; but I cannot verify this. The 
story so told is certainly more probable than 
twisted, as it seems to have been, by the speaker 
referred to. ROLAND S. MATTHEW. 


If for " example " MR. BONE will read evidence, 
the story, whether true or not, has a point. The 
idea is worked out by Pascal in his ' Pensees,' and 
in the old-fashioned books upon " Christian evi- 
dences." EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


GRANTS OF ARMS (8 th S. iv. 488). Mr. Cole- 
man, of White Hart Lane, Tottenham, sometimes 
advertises in his catalogues original grants of 
arms, and copies of them. Perhaps he might be 
able to assist W. H. in his search for the missing 
documents. The best magazine for an advertise- 
ment of the kind would be the co^er of Miscellanea 
Genealogica et Heraldica, edited by Dr. J. J. 
Howard, and published by Mitchell & Hughes, 
140, Wardour Street. This magazine has some very 
fine copies in colour of original grants of arms. 

5, Tregunter Road, S.W. 

WILLIAM HENRY OXBERRT (8 th S. iv. 507 ; v. 
16). He was admitted to Merchant Taylors' 
School in September, 1816, as the eon of William 
Ozberry. The entry in the school register records 
that he was born on April 21, 1808 (Rev. Charles 
J. Robinson's 'Register of Merchant Taylors' 
School,' vol. ii., 1883, p. 203). 


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

S. iv. 487, 518). "Oh, Thou who dry'st the 
mourner's tear," is, as has been said, by Thomas 
Moore, in * Sacred Songs.' The dedication is 
dated May, 1816, so it was published more than 
ten years before Blanco White's sonnet. 

S. C. H. 


The Handwriting of the Kings and Queens of England. 

By W. J. Hardy, F.S.A. (Religious Tract Society.) 
IN a handsome quarto volume, illustrated with very 
numerous photogravures and facsimiles of signatures and 
historical documents, Mr. W. J. Hardy has reprinted, 
with additions, some papers on the signatures of the 
Kings of England which, on their first appearance in 
the Leisure Hour, attracted a considerable amount of 
attention. iMr. Hardy's close familiarity with the Public 
Records, of which his uncle and his father were sue 
cessively deputy keppers, has enabled him to accomplish 
in thoroughly competent fashion, a work of great intereui 
and value. Our first sovereigns were unable to write, 
and the early Saxon and Norman kings were content to 

ffix their mark, usually a cross, to a document written 
>y a scribe. Not until the reign of Edward III. is a 
oyal sign manual other than a cross affixed to a docu- 

ment, the earliest of all being what is described as 
' words equivalent to his signature " by the Black 
Prince. A writ of the date of 1370 bears the words in 
mestion, which are " Homout [Hochmuth] Ich dene." 

These same mottoes are found on the tomb of the Black 
Prince in Canterbury. Mr. Hardy has no doubt that 
hey were written by the Prince. Signatures of Richard 
[I. of unquestionable authority are to be found. One 

fiven by Mr. Hardy is in English, and belongs to 1356, 
t is affixed to a French document, assigning to a prioress 
of St. Magdalen, Bristol, an annual tun of Gascony wine. 
Signatures of all subsequent kings, and occasionally of 
queens, also follow. They include " Jane the Queen," 
Lady Jane Grey, Oliver and Richard Cromwell, the 
Stuart pretenders, and others, down to the grandchildren 
of her present Majesty. In many respects the study of 
these is interesting. One can contemplate at leisure the 
development of handwriting, from the few crabbed 
characters of the Black Prince to the bold and virile 

Leopold " of the late lamented Duke of Albany. One 
sees, moreover, such revelation of character as is afforded 
in the varying signatures. The most hurried, vigorous, 
and impetuous band of all is that of Richard III., 
affixed in breathless indignation at Lincoln, three months 
after his coronation, to sentences such as " Here, loved 
be God, ys alle welle and trewly determyned and for 
to resyste the malysse of hyme that hadde best cawse to be 
trewe, the Due of Bokyngame, the most untrewe creature 
lyvyng, \vhome, with Godes Grace We shall not be long 
tylle that we wylle be in that partyes and subdewe his 
malys. We assure you there was never falsse traytor 
better puryayde for as this berrerre [bearer] Gloucestre 
shall she wo you." Anne Boleyne's writing is very pretty 
and regular, and that of Edward VI. is quite beautiful. 
" Jane the Queen " has naturally pathetic interest, and 
Elizabeth is splendid there is no other word for it. 
A strangely familiar letter of Anne of Denmark to Buck- 
ingham begins " My kind dog. 1 ' The early signatures of 
Charles are four. With Oliver P. we are all familiar ; 
R. Cromwell is less well known. It is useless to go 
through what may easily become a mere nomenclature. 
The work could scarcely be more brilliantly executed or 
in safer hands. A model antiquary, Mr. Hardy baa 
dealt with Ira subject eruditely and lovingly, and has 
given the world a book of high and permanent interest. 
Some signatures of the early translators of the Bible 

Tindale, Latimer, Coverdale, &c. constitute a valuable 
addition to the volume. 

The Poems of William Blalce. Edited by W. B. 

(Lawrence & Bullen.) 
THE latest addition to the delightful " Muses' Library " 
of Messrs. Lawrence & Bullen consists of the poems 
of Blake. Editions of Blake, comprising ' The Songs* 
of Innocence, 1 ' The Songs of Experience,' and a 
selection from his other works, are accessible. For 
the first time, however, the ' Prophetic Books ' and 
other mystical works of Blake have been issued in a 
shape convenient to be carried in the pocket. Those 
who will study in extenso these writings are not numerous. 
A man must himself be endowed with the prophetic 
vision which Blake claimed, to be able to force any 
meaning into some of these productions. Passages, how- 
ever, of imaginative beauty and splendour abound, and 
there is no genuine lover of poetry who will not be glad 
to study Blake's poems in their entirety, a privilege that 
has been denied to most. It is now too late to preach 
the claims on attention of one of the most inspired of 
lyrists the herald, moreover, of the greatest poetical 



[8* s. v. JAN. 27, 

fervour that has been seen since the time of Elizabeth. 
There are many poems with which the memory of all 
lovers of poetry is charged. Others, again, on which 
we, alight claim, and are accorded, frequent reperusal. 
" What a man to borrow from ! " said naively one of 
Blake's artistic friends and patrons ; and the remark still 
holds true. Blake himself borrowed a little, principally, 
as it seems, from Shakspeare and Milton. The new issue 
is sure of a hearty reception. A characteristic portrait 
of Blake, by Mr. Linnell, adds to the attraction of the 
volume. Mr. Yeats's introduction and notes are excellent. 

Catullus : with the Pervigilium. Edited by S. G. Owen. 
Illustrated by J. E. Weguelin. (Lawrence & Bullen.) 
IN editing a fresh Catullus Mr. Owen has based his text 
upon the editions of Doering, Lachmann, Schwabe, Ellis, 
Schmidt, and Postgate. He baa added to his volume the 
' Pervigilium Veneris,' and supplied the whole with a 
aeries of scholarly notes. The poems are issued in a 
sumptuous edition, limited to a thousand copies for 
England and America, and constitutes one of the hand- 
somest books we owe to Messrs. Lawrence & Bullen, the 
approved caterers for the most delicate palates. Mr. 
Weguelin's plates enhance greatly the value of the book. 
These consist of a charming frontispiece and six other 
illustrations, all equally graceful in design and execution. 
The first and most graceful of these is to the second ode, 
and presents Lesbia and her sparrow. The last illus- 
tration is to 1. 35 of the ' Pervigilium Veneris.' Mr. 
Weguelin's designs have the grace and beauty of last 
century workmanship. 

Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots of France. By 

P. F. Willert, M.A. (Putnam's Sons.) 
To the " Heroes of the .Nations " series has been added 
a carefully written account of Henri IV. and the religious 
strife in France. Like many historians, Mr. Willert 
writes from the Protestant standpoint. It is difficult, 
indeed, from any honest standpoint for a conscientious 
man, and especially a conscientious Englishman, to 
write from any other. Some comical stories concerning 
Henry are told by Tallemant des Reaux, with whose 
free and sometimes malignant gossip Mr. Willert does 
not greatly concern himself. Discreeter historians have 
been compelled to give Le Bearnaia a bad character 
morally, and the latest biographer does not abut his eyes 
to the king's delinquencies. None the less Henry was 
one of the bravest and most competent captains of an 
age fertile in such ; he was long a bulwark of the Pro- 
testant cause ; he had a rough good sense and elements 
of great personal popularity. Where these qualities are 
found the world is rarely censorious in dealing with 
other defects of character. Most aspects of his life are 
presented by Mr. Willert courageously, truthfully, and 
well. Especially good is the condemnation of Biron's 
treachery, for to that it practically amounted. The 
pictures of massacres, sieges, and wars are stimulating, 
and the volume is worthy in all respects of the series to 
which it belongs. 

The Poets 1 Praise. From Homer to Swinburne. Col- 
lected and Arranged by Estelle Davenport Adams. 

A GRACEFUL idea is in this volume gracefully carried 
out. Mrs. Davenport Adams has Bought to include in 
one volume the most illustrious examples of the praise 
by poets of their art or their compeers. Materials for 
such a work exist in superabundance, and the chief, or, 
indeed, the only difficulty has been found in the task of 
rejection. Apart from whole poems, such as Shelley's 
'Adonais' and Arnold's 'Thyrsis,' dedicated to the 
memory of poets, our early literature teems with com- 
mendatory verses such as, in the days when log-rolling 

was a fine art, poets were in the habit of writing to each 
other. In some cases, as in that of Shakspeare, the 
praise has been collected beforehand ; in others, the 
task of garnering involves considerable labour. A very 
large number of poetic tributes to poets have been col- 
lected, and the book can be taken up at any moment 
with the certainty of delight. Almost the only things of 
importance the absence of which we regret are Wither's 
" prison notes " in praise of poetry, constituting, as they 
do, an enchanting rhapsody, and Sir John Beaumont's 
epitaph on his younger brother Frank, the dramatist, 
containing, perhaps, the most graceful tribute ever paid 
by senior to junior : 

Thou should'st have follow'd me ; but death, to blame, 
Miscounted years, and measured age by fame. 
The volume deserves, and will receive, a hearty welcome. 

WE have received Dr. Christopher Tye's Mass in six 
voices, Euge Bone, published in " The Old English 
Edition," edited by G. E. P. Arkwright (Joseph 
Williams). The earliest MS. of the work is preserved 
in the Bodleian Library, and an interesting essay on the 
early sixteenth century composer, whose anthems may 
still be heard occasionally in our cathedrals, precedes the 
mass itself, which is well worthy of revival by such a body 
as the Bach Choir, which has done good service in 
resuscitating masses by Pulestrina, and might enlarge 
the debt under which it has placed musical amateurs by 
bestowing equal attention on English antiquarian com- 

MR. ASHBY STHRRY'S actualities are always piquant, 
and his criticisms, dramatically expressed, upon books 
and plays by living men, are excellent. These qualities 
alone are sufficient to commend his Naughty Girl: a 
Story of 1893, published by Bliss, Sands & Foster. 

THE seventh volume of ' Book Prices Current,' giving 
the results of the book sales for 1893, will be issued by 
Mr. Elliot Stock immediately. The usual copious index 
and review of the year's sales will accompany the volume. 

MRS. HILDA GAMLIN, of Camden Lawn, Claughton 
Road, Birkenhead, requests those possessing letters or 
unpublished matter concerning George Romney to com- 
municate with her, she being engaged on a volume to be 
called ' George Romney and his Pictures.' 


We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

CORRIGENDUM. 8 th S. iv. p. 525, col. 2, 1. 27, for " tat 
for tat " read tit for tat. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

V. FEE, 3, '94.] 




CONTENT 8. N 110. 

NOTES Carlvle and Tennyson, 81 'Dictionary of National 
Biography,' 82-Age of Herod Monastic Charities, 84- 
Bucks Transcripts Lincolnshire Folk-lore Rev. S. Roe- 
Tsar " Respectability," 85 Private Hangman Irish 
41 Ibh"=Ceuntry " Our Lord falls in Our Lady's lap " 
Henry and Richard Barley, 86. 

QUERIES Rebellion of 1745 Yorkshire Portraits "Ozen- 
bridges" Lord Dacre: Wotton " Scale "Sir T. Cham- 
berlainEdward Pritchett Arms of Cities, Towns, and 
Corporations Prince, of Durham, 87 Sir Wm. Mure 
Icelandic Folk-lore Lutigarde " Arbre de Cracovie" 
Quality Court" Rectio" A Printer's Freak Rood Lofts, 
Screens, &c. Visitation of Kent Caterham Court 
Dickens's Canary " Dick " Madame de Donhault " Gay 
deceiver" Lady Danlove, 88 Browning or Southey 
Horses Capt. Cheney Bostock Wm. Cooke, 89. 

REPLIES : " Good intentions," 89 Origin of Kingston- 
upon-Hull Comb in Church Ceremonies, 90 Centrifugal 
Railway, 91 " Smore " Mervyn Family Togra Smith, 
92 Date of Thurtell's Execution St. Petersburg ' His- 
tory of England 'Bathing Machines " He that" Sir 
Francis Page, 93 Tombstone in Burma Kennedy : Henn 
Epitaph M.P., Long Parliament, 94 Plumptre's 'Life 
of Ken Translations of ' Don Quixote ' Unfinished 

Books, 95 Breaking Glass Atholl or Athole, 96 Extra- 

' ordinary Field St. Clement's Day Possession of Pews 
Wychwood Forest Force and Energy Lunch : Luncheon, 
97 Heads on City Gates Admiral Hales" Riding about 
of Victoring "Miserere Carvings, 98 Sir Joseph Yates 
Francois Quesnay St. Winifred Authors Wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Earle's ' Psalter of the Great Bible ' 
Jessopp's ' Random Roaming, and other Papers 'Earle's 
' Customs and Fashions in Old New England ' Boaden's 
4 Memoirs of Mrs. Siddons 'Castle's ' English Book-plates' 
Grosart's ' Thoughts that Breathe and Words that Bum.' 

Some months ago I called attention (8 th S. iii. 
367) to an article on Alfred Tennyson in the 
Quarterly Revieiv for September, 1342, which 
seemed to me to bear strong internal evidence of 
having been written by Thomas Carlyle. I alluded 
to certain passages in which I thought his hand 
was to be clearly recognized, but did not consider 
it necessary to quote any of them, as I concluded 
that every one who happened to read my remarks, 
and to be interested in the subject, would, no 
doubt, refer to the article itself. But I also 
imagined that I had said quite enough to suggest 
a further inquiry as to whether it was actually 
Carlyle's. Accordingly, I looked forward with no 
little curiosity to a full discussion, once it had been 
opened in the pages of ' N. & Q.,' on what I 
ventured to think one of the most important ques- 
tions that had been raised with reference to un- 
acknowledged productions of Carlyle. Tennyson 
is understood to have been the only contemporary 
poet whom the great Scotsman credited with any- 
thing of an authentic "message." An elaborate 
study of him by such a critic were, therefore, could 
one but attest its genuineness, a valuable discovery 
indeed. Be this as it may, I have to note that my 
communication fell altogether flat, and did not 
elicit a single answer. It might, perhaps, be 
more discreet on my part at once to assume that it 

was simply not worth one, and so refrain from pro- 
pounding the same query again. Yet, after a very 
careful reperusal of the article, I am more than 
ever convinced of the accuracy of my former con- 
jecture with respect to the authorship. I believe 
it to be the work of Carlyle, though possibly re- 
touched to no trifling extent by Lockhart. Let me 
now proceed to support my opinion by a few 
citations from the article, and respectfully invite 
the judgment thereon of all Carlylian experts. 

In the course of some preliminary dissertations 
on the spirit and characteristics of the age which 
the still comparatively youthful Alfred Tennyson 
addressed, the critic in the Quarterly observes : 

' In the House of Commons, in the Courts of Law, we 
may hear nonsense enough. But in these places it is not 
the most vehement, the most chimerical in other 
words the most outrageous and silly who bear the 
chiefest sway, but much the contrary. Now in such 
Strand-Meetings, for the purest and noblest purposes, it is 
plain enough that a loud tongue, combined with a certain 
unctuous silkinesa of profession, and the most dismal 
obscuration of brain, may venture with success upon the 
maddest assertions, the most desperate appeals; and 
will draw sighs and even tears of sympathy, by the 
coarsest nonsense, from hundreds of the amiable and 
thoughtful persons dieted at home on Cowper, Fenelon, 
Wordsworth, and tuned to Nature's softest melodies. 
The carrier's horse (or was it ass 1) that could draw infer- 
ences, is but a brute symbol of the spoken stuff that at 
religious meetings can draw admiration from the finest 
female bosoms." 

Speaking of what is needful material for poetic 
treatment, and holding the supply of such to be 
abundant, the writer continues : 

" This is all the poet requires ; a busy vigorous exist- 
ence is the matter sine qud non of his work. All else 
comes from within and from himself alone. Now 
strangely as our time is wracked and torn, haunted by 
ghosts, and errant in search of lost realities, poor in 
genuine culture, incoherent among its own chief ele- 
ments, untrained to social facility and epicurean quiet, 
yet unable to unite its means in pursuit of any lofty 
blessings, half sick, half dreaming, and wholly confused, 
he would be not only misanthropic, but ignorant, who 
should maintain it to be a poor, dull, and altogether help- 
less age, and not rather one full of great though conflict- 
ing energies, seething with high feelings, and struggling 
towards the light with piercing though still hooded 

An eloquent reference to Chaucer's lifelike 
pictures of contemporary English life concludes 
thus : 

" And he who has best shown us all this as it truly 
was, yet sent forth at every breath a fiery element, of 
which he was himself scarce conscious, that should some 
day kindle and burn much still dear and venerable to 
him. A gulf of generations lies between us and him, 
and the world is all changed around his tomb. But 
whom have we had to feel and express like this man 
the secret of our modern England, and to roll out before 
him the immense reality of things as his own small 
embroidered carpet, on which he merely cared to sit 
down and smoke his pipe ? " 

Coming down to a more recent time, the re- 
viewer says : 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 3, '94. 

" There have been but two writers among us whom 
every Englishman with a tincture of letters has read or 
heard of, aiming to shape poetically an image of human 
life. These are, of course, Sir Walter Scott and Lord 
Byron. But see how different this aim has been from 
such a one as we hint at. The elder poet, with his whole- 
some sense and clear felicity, has indeed given us much 
of human fact, and this, as it could not be otherwise, in 
the colours of the time that he himself belonged to. 
But he has swayed the sympathies of the world in a 
great measure through this curiosity after the past, which 
he more than all men in the annals of mankind has 
taught us all to regard as alive and still throbbing in 
spirit, though its bones be turned to dust. Byron has 
sought, through distance of place and foreign costume, 
the interest which Scott obtained from the strangeness 
of past ages ; and it is but a small though a profound 
and irrepressible part of our far-spread modern mind that 
he has so well embodied in his scornful Harolds and 
despairing Giaours." 

Combating the notion that the circumstances of 
contemporary life were unpropitious to poetry, the 
reviewer observes : 

" But had we minds full of the idea and the strength 
requisite for such work, they would find in this huge, 
Harassed, and luxurious national existence the nourish- 
ment, not the poison, of creative art. The death struggle 
of commercial and political rivalry, the brooding doubt 
and remorse, the gas-jet flame of faith irradiating its own 
coal-mine darkness in a word, our overwrought mate- 
rialism fevered by its own excess into spiritual dreams 
all this might serve the purposes of a bold imagination, 
no less than the creed of the antipoetic Puritans became 
poetry in the mind of Milton, and all the bigotries, super- 
stitions, and gore-dyed horrors were flames that kindled 
steady light in Shakespeare's humane and meditative 

Tennyson's ' Ode to Memory ' is thus caustically 
dealt with : 

" To tell Memory, the mystic prophetess to whom in 
these transcendent mutations we owe all notices con- 
necting our small individuality with the Infinite Eternal, 
that converse with her was better than crowns and 
sceptres ! Memory might perhaps reply : ' My friend, 
if you have not, after encircling the universe, traversing 
the abyss of ages, and uttering more than a hundred 
lines, forgotten that there are such toys on that poor 
earth as crowns and sceptres, it were better for you to be 
alone, not with, but without me.' Think bow sublime a 
doctrine, that to have the beatific vision is really better 
than the power and pomp of the world. Philosophy, 
that sounds all depths, has seldom approached a deeper 

But a passage which, as I fancy, will have a 
peculiarly familiar ring to students of the Chelsea 
sage, especially the concluding sentence of it, occurs 
in the reviewer's comments on Tennyson's excur- 
sions into the ancient regions of classic mythology : 

" This mythological poetry is not of equal interest and 
difficulty with that which produces as brilliant and deep 
effects from the ordinary realities of our own lives. But 
it is far from worthless. Some German ballads of this 
kind by Goethe and Schiller nay by Biirger and by 
Heine have great power over every one, from the art 
with which the imagination is won to accept as true 
what we still feel to be so strange. This is done mainly 
by a potent use of the mysterious relation between man 
and nature, and between all men towards each other, 

which always must show itself on fitting occasions as the 
visionary, the ominous, the spectral, the ' eery,' and 
awful consciousness of a supernatural somewhat within 
our own homely flesh." 

Admirers of Tennyson will rejoice to hear that 
the Quarterly critic, whoever he was, mingled 
warm praise with the occasional lukewarmness, if 
not severity, of his estimate of the poet : 

" The verse is full of liquid intoxication, and the lan- 
guage of golden oneness. While we read, we too are 
wandering, led by nymphs among the thousand isles of 
old mythology, and the present fades away from us into 
pale vapour. To bewitch us with our own daily realities, 
and not with their unreal opposites, is a still higher task ; 
but it could not be more thoroughly performed." 

With respect to the above samples, surely oni 
may exclaim aut Carlylus aut Diabolus. The like- 
ness to Carlyle's mode of expression as well as of 
thought is so near as to become ridiculous, if it be 
merely imitation after all. But it is inconceivable to 
me that so exacting a judge of literary work as Lock- 
hart undoubtedly was would give anybody who 
could gravely indulge in such apish tricks a footing 
in the Quarterly. There was, indeed, as we all 
know, a good deal of bare-faced imitation of the 
author of ' Sartor Kesartus ' at one period, but it 
had hardly begun when the article in question was 
published, and I may repeat that, in any case, 
Lockhart was not likely to encourage a mere mock 

Sydney, New South Wales. 


(See 6th s. xi. 105, 443; xii. 321; 7"> S. i. 25, 82, 342, 

876; ii. 102, 324, 355; iii. 101, 382; iv. 123, 325, 422 ; 

v. 3, 43, 130, 862, 463, 506; vii. 22, 122, 202, 402 ; viii. 

123, 382; ix. 182,402; x. 102; xi. 162, 242, 342 ; xii. 

102 ; 8" s. i. 162, 348, 509 : ii. 82, 136, 222, 346, 522 f 

iii. 183; iv.384.) 

Vol. XXXV. 

Pp. 47 b, 425 a. "B.A. Glasgow." Is there such 
a degree ? 

P. 92. John Macgowan. ' Priestcraft Defended,.' 
nineteenth ed., 1805. See * N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. ix. 
427; D. N. B.,' xxvi. 406. 

P. 109 a. " Newcastle-under-Lyne," read Lyme. 

P. 131 b. " Leigh Richmond," read Legh. 

P. 144. Sir Geo. Mackenzie. See ' N. & Q.,' 7" 1 
S. iii. 3 ; Taylor Innes, ' Stud, in Scot. Hist./ 
1892 ; Ogygia vindicated against Sir Geo. 
Mackenzie,' by 0. O'Conor, Dubl., 1775. 

P. 151. See Henry Mackenzie's additions to 
Collins's ' Ode.' 

Pp. 161 b, 186 b. u Over the signature," road 

P. 164 a. Coxhow. ? Coxhoe. 

P. 174. Sir James Mackintosh. Mathias, ' P. 
of L.,' p. xvi. 

P. 185. John George Hubbard. For " George * 
read Gellibrand (xxviii. 135). 

8* 8. V. FEB. 3, '94.] 



P. 246 b. How could he preach "in London" 
while at Albury"? 

P. 248 b. Byron says Hector Macneill's poems 
are deservedly popular, particularly 'Scotland's 
Scaith,' of which 10,000 copies were sold in one 
month ( Engl. Bards and Sc. Rev.,' 798). 

P. 289. Madan. See Mathias, ' P. of L.,' 68-70 ; 
another reply to Thelyphthora was " Marriage and 
its Vows Defended, by a Female Christian, but no 
Methodist,"4to., 1781. Madan was a correspondent 

P. 290 b. Haxhay. ? Haxey. 

P. 297 b. Fonaby. ? Ferriby. 

P. 299. Bishop Maddox was a patron of John 
Lockman (q.v.). 

P. 329. Maguire. See Oldham's 'Satires on 
the Jesuits/ i. (ed. Bell, 91-2). 

P. 372 b. "He did do"? 

P. 373 b, 1. 13. For " Hardwicke " read Hard- 
wide (xxiv. 347). 

P. 427 a. Mallet. F. Dinsdale published an 
annotated edition of ' Edwin and Emma/ 1849. 

P. 436 b. Malone. Mathias, ' P. of L.,' 340-1. 

P. 441 a. " Antiquarian Society," read Society of 

Vol. XXXVI. 

P. 5. Malton. See Monkhouse, ' Earlier English 
Water Colour Painters/ 1890. 

P. 17 a. In 1816 Manby printed an Address to 
the Society of Arts, vindicating himself from the 
charge that he had pirated his system of rescue 
from shipwreck. His drawings of his medals were 
issued at Yarmouth, 1851; see 'Life of W. Wilber- 
force/ iii. 499, 514. 

P. 21. Mandeville. See Fowler and Wilson, 
'Principles of Morals/ i. 83; Smith, 'Moral 
Sentiments/ part vii. ; Sidgwick, ' History of 
Ethics '; Tennemann, 1852, pp. 334-5. 

P. 22 b. Whatisa"staller"? 

P. 28. Gifford prefers MandeviUe to modern 
books of travels, ' Baviad/ 215. 

Pp. 30 b, 31 a. "Over the signature," read 

P. 32 a. His (?) cathedral." 

P. 56 b. For " Nunburnbam " read Nunburn- 

P. 81. H. L. Mansel. Dr. John Young, 'Pro- 
vince of Reason, criticism of Mansel's Bampton 
Lectures/ I860 ; H. Calderwood, ' Man's Know- 
ledge of Infinite, in answer to Mansel/ 1861 ; 
Liddon's Sermon on his death, 1871 ; Church 
Quarterly Review, Oct., 1877, Jan., 1885 ; Saisset, 
Religious Philosophy,' 1863, ii.; A. S. Farrar, 
Science in Theology/ 1859, p. 196. 

P. 86. W. L. Mansel. See Robertas ' Life of 
H. More/ iv. 90 ; ' Life of W. Wilberforce/ iii. 

Pp. 91, 92. Mansfield. See Letters of Junius'; 
Bickens's Barnaby Rudge '; E. H. Barker's ' Lit. 
Anecd./ i. 18. 

Pp. 96-8. Bishop Mant. See 'Life of Bishop 
D. Wilson'; John Scott, of Hull, replied at length 
to the 'Two Tracts on Regeneration and Con- 
version ' in an ' Inquiry into the Effects of Bap- 
tism/ second ed., 1817, which he defended against 
Laurence (xxxii. 207), 1817 ; Gent. Mag., 1816. 

P. 102 b. Tho. Manton. See Patrick's ' Autob./ 
46-7, 251. 

Pp. 104-5. Bishop Manwaring. See Marvell, 
'Reh. Trans./ ed. Grosart, iii.; Perry, 'Hist. Ch. 
Eng./ 1861, i. 365 sqq. 

P. 107 b. " Misprison." ? Misprision. 

P. 128 a. " Purforte," read Purfoote. 

P. 132 a. " Deserves." ? Derives. 

P. 173 a. Archbishop Markham's verses, see 
Wrangham's ' Zoucb/ i. p. Ixv. 

P. !79b.Marleberge. See ' Liber Eveshamensis/ 
H. Brads haw Soc., 1893. 

P. 205 b. 'Philomorus' was reissued 1878; 
praised by Lord Campbell, ' N. & Q./ !* S. xi. 

P. 212. Herbert Marsh. See Mathias, ' P. of 
L./ 401 (wrongly called "William"); 'Life of 
Tho. Scott,' ed. nine, 1836, pp. 321-3 ; his ' Lec- 
tures ' are recommended in Prof. Farrar's ' Synop- 
sis/ Durham, 1869. 

P. 2 18 a. "Owed him preferment." ? Owed 
him his preferment. 

P. 242. Natb. Marshall, as Vicar of St. Pan- 
eras, refused fees on burial there of Dr. Grabe, 
1711, Nelson's 'Bull/ 406 ; praised by Blackwall, 
'Sacred Classics.' 

P. 242 b. St. John Evangelist. ? Where. 

P. 247 a. Stephen Marshall. Dr. H. Hammond 
replied to him in ' Resisting Lawful Magistrate/ 

Pp. 251-2. W. Marshall. His 'Yorkshire 
Words' were reprinted by the Engl. Dialect 
Soc.; see Yorlcsh. Arch. Jour., vii. 108; Dr. 
G. W. Marshall's ' MiscelL Marescalliana/ i. 23. 

P. 254. Sir John Marsham. Thomas Stanley 
was his nephew and dedicated to him his ' History 
of Philosophy/ 

P. 255. Marshman. See Wm. Ward's ' Works ' 
and ' Life ' by Stennett ; ' Periodical Accounts of 
Bapt. Mission/ 6 vols. 1800-17; 'Narrative of 
Bapt. Mission in India/ 1808, ed. four, 1813; 
J. Marshman's ' Statement Relative to Serampore,' 
1828; ' Spirit of Serampore System/ by W. Johns, 
1828 ; J. 0. Marshman's ' Review of Dyer, Carey 
and Yates/ 1830-1 ; Carey's ' Reply to Dyer, 
1830-1 ; Sydney Smith in Edinburgh Rev., 1808 ; 
Miss Yonge, ' Pioneers and Founders '; ' N. & Q./ 
7 th S. iii. 101. 

P. 272. Benj. Martin. 'Miscellaneous Corre- 
spondence/ vol. i. for the year 1755 and 1756, 
Lond., 1759 ; De Morgan, ' Arithm. Books,' 68, 

P. 273. Dr. Edw. Martin and Queen's Coll. 
See Patrick's ' Autob./ 41, 49. 



. V. FEB. 3, '94. 

P. 277. G. Martin. See ' Naworth Household 
Books,' Surt. Soc. 

P. 279. Henry Martin was a contributor to the 
P. 299 a. For " Hot-ham " read Hoth-am. 

P. 316. H. Martyn. See ' Life of Dean Milner, 
229; 'Life of Pratt'; 'Eclectic Notes'; Seeley, 
' Later Evangelical Fathers/ 1879 ; Treggellas 
* Cornish Worthies,' 1884 ; Conybeare and How- 
son, 'St. Paul,' ch. viii. 

P. 321 a. John Owen addressed an epigram to 
I'ho. Martyn on his ' Life of Wykeham/ first coll., 
ii. 26. 

P. 365 a. A statue of Mary II. is at Univ. Coll., 

P. 426 a. John Mason. See Ascham's ' Letters/ 
1602, p. 37. 

P. 438 b, last line. For "Marsh" read 

P. 440 b. For "Miller" read Milks; see 
' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. xii. 321. W. C. B. 


In the life of F. D. Maurice are some omissions 
which should be supplied. His first name was 
John, although he did not use it in writing his 
signature (see ' Life ' by Col. Maurice, and Oxford 
class-list, 1831, where his name appears as " John F. 
Maurice ") No mention is made of his youngest 
sister, Harriet, who married E. H. Plumptre, 
D.D., late Dean of Wells. She is not mentioned 
in Col. Maurice's ' Life.' In writing of Priscilla 
Maurice some notice was to have been expected 
of her very popular little book, 'Sickness, its 
Trials and Blessings.' In the bibliography, 
Maurice's contributions to the short-lived ' Tracts 
for Priests and People ' are not inserted. 

In the life of Richard Michell, it is inaccurate 
that "at the previously unprecedented age of 
twenty-four he was appointed examiner in the 
school of lit, hum" Keble was appointed examiner 
in this school, on Davison's recommendation, in 
1814, when he was twenty-two years of age (see 
Coleridge's 'Life/ p. 54). 



the account of Herod the Great in the ninth 
edition of the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica' we are told 
that when he was appointed Governor of Galilee 
by his father in B.C 47, he was twenty-five years of 
age. This is doubtless founded on Whiston's note 
on the statement of Josephus ('Ant./ xiv. 9, 2), 
that he was then but fifteen years of age. Whis- 
ton contends that this is a mistake for twenty-five ; 
and this view is followed in Kitto's ' Bible Cyclo- 
paedia,' where we read : " Herod died, aged sixty- 
nine, in B.C. 4, consequently he must have been 
twenty-six or twenty-five in the year B.C. 47." 
But it is nowhere stated in Josephus that he was 

sixty-nine at the time of his death. He is cer- 
tainly called old in the ' Jewish War/ i. 24, 7 ; 
but so a man might be when some years younger than 
that. Nor can we gather mucb, one way or the 
other, from his own expression (i. 23, 5) that he 
might fairly expect, having been religious and re- 
frained from luxury, to live to old age. Whiston, 
in his note, is not consistent with himself, for, in 
referring to the account of Herod's death by 
Josephus, he says, " where, about forty years after- 
wards [i.e., after he was appointed Governor of 
Galilee] Herod dies an old man, at about seventy." 
Now if he were seventy at his death, it is evident 
that forty years before he was not twenty-five, but 
thirty. His death, however, occurred forty- three 
years after the said appointment ; and if seventy 
at his death, he would then have been twenty- 
seven. In the second edition of Smith's 'Diction- 
ary of the Bible ' the original statement of Josephus 
is accepted that Herod was then fifteen. It seems 
to me that the truth probably lies between the 
two, and that the fifteen is an error for twenty. 
It must be remembered that Josephus calls him at 
bhe time "a very young man"; yet he could 
hardly have been appointed to an important com- 
mand when a boy of fifteen. W. T. LYNN. 

MONASTIC CHARITIES. Tn an interesting article 
on almshouaes which recently appeared in the 
Daily Telegraph, the following statements occur : 

" There was an obvious reason for their having sprung 
up so plentifully immediately after the Reformation. 
Prior to that great religious upheaval the Catholic clergy 
were the recipients and the distributors of nearly all the 
extra-muncipal charity in the kingdom. No need existed 
"or a Poor Law, since the poor were relieved at the gates 
of the monasteries, and in many instances were sheltered 
: or the night in outbuildings attached to the convents, 
some slight amount of work being required from them in 
;he morning in requital of the hospitality which they 
lad received. A multitude of grammar schools were 
endowed to supply that instruction which had hitherto 
>eeii given and gratuitously given in the monastic 

One would like to know how far these views are 
jased on facts, and how far they are derived from 
;he inner consciousness of the writer. Eecent 
nvestigations have led me to very different con- 
clusions, which may be shortly stated. 

1. As to charity. On certain stated days of the 
year the monasteries gave away a limited sum of 
noney or other bounty to persons nominally 
' poor," the whole amounting to merely a small 
raction of their revenues. This method could 
only create a class of professional paupers, and 
was certainly not an organized system of relief. 
"t was so insufficient for the needs of the times 
hat almshouses were everywhere instituted by 
>rivate benevolence long before the monasteries 
seased to exist. The numerous guilds, moreover, 
lad for one of their objects the relief of members 
ailing into poverty or sickness. 

8" 8. V. FEB. 3, '94.J 



2. As to schools. The monastic schools were 
intended exclusively for the boys engaged in the 
services of the abbey or priory churches, and a 
few of these boys were sent to the universities, 
with the view of their becoming monks. I have 
seen nothing to show that such schools were open 
to outsiders, except, perhaps, to a few royal and 
noble personages in very early times. 

3. As to hospitals. The monastic infirmaries 
were in like manner intended solely for members 
of the convents, and no one else was admitted into 

4. As to hospitality. The great and the wealthy 
were feasted, at enormous expense, by the abbots 
and priors, while ordinary travellers were relegated 
to the abbey hospice or inn, where, apparently, 
they were expected to pay for their food and 

These conclusions refer to a period of at least 
two centuries before the suppression. The num- 
bers of poor which resulted from that sudden 
revolution are traceable mainly to the immense 
army of men and women servants employed 
within the walls of the monasteries, who were sud- 
denly disbanded without any provision being 
made for them. To this great multitude may be 
added the far lesser number of regular pensioners 
dependent on the monasteries. 

It is always best to get the facts of history as 
correct as possible before making deductions from 
them. Some of the readers of 'N. & Q.' may 
wish to help in doing this by checking the fore- 
going conclusions with their own, and by stating 
whether they deem them to be warrantable or unwar- 
rantable. Reference should be made not to any 
theoretical rules and injunctions, but to the actual 
practice in individual cases. R. E. G. KIRK. 

BUCKS TRANSCRIPTS. Genealogists please ob- 
serve, that many of the volumes of Bucks Arch- 
deaconry wills at Somerset House are bound with 
transcripts. Baptisms, marriages, and burials, at 
West Wycombe, 1636, will be found round about 
will register 1645-6. 

Eden Bridge. 

city of Lincoln has just mentioned to me that two 

' the circular windows in the cathedral have the 
legend of the master-mason and the apprentice 
attached to them. The elder man designed and 
built a window of great beauty, but his subordi- 
nate s work proved to be so much finer in concep- 
tion and execution that, beside himself with 
jealousy, the master flung himself from the 
scaffold on which he was standing, and perished 
on the floor below. Certain dark stains are still 
pointed out as the traces of his blood. 

On being cross-questioned, the person narrating 

ie story adds that she is not quite clear as to its 

tragic conclusion. The master either committed 
suicide or murdered the apprentice in his rage. 
Any way, there was death by violence, and the 
marks of a man's life-blood, which will never wash 
out, are still visible, although it is said they " look 
a deal liker furniture polish than real blood." 

Can any correspondent of ' N. & Q. ' settle with 
authority which it was, master or man, who was 
killed, and explain the cause of the so-called 
blood-stains, whether they owe their origin to 
deliberate art or to a freak of nature ? 

The floor of a large portion of Lincoln minster 
was anciently of brass, says popular belief ; " but 
when Oliver Cromwell drove out the Koman 
Catholics [who are generally confounded with the 
Romans], he had the building made into a market, 
and most, of the metal was taken up." Such is 
the accuracy of oral tradition. P. W. G. M. 

REV. SAMUEL KOE. (See 7 th S. v. 402.) The 
Rev. Samuel Roe, of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
B.A. 1734, M. A. 1745, instituted to the vicarage 
of Stotfold, co. Bedford, Dec. 24, 1754, was a 
specimen of that inconsistent, but not uncommon 
character, an enthusiast against enthusiasm. With- 
out any extraordinary capacity or attainments, he 
might have lived without notice, and have died 
without remembrance, had he not signalized him- 
self by a proposal for preventing the further growth 
of Methodism, a proposal as full of genius as it 
was of humanity. But this amiable and bene- 
volent man shall be heard in his own words : 

" I humbly propose (in the most dutiful manner) to 
the legislative powers, when it shall seem meet, First, 
to make an example of Tabernacle - preachers, by 
enacting a law to cut out their tongues, who have been 
the incorrigible authors of so many mischiefs and dis- 
tractions throughout the English dominions. And, by 
the said authority, to cut out the tongues of all Field 
Teachers, and Preachers in houses, barns, or elsewhere, 
without Apostolical ordination and legal authority, being 
approved and licensed, to enter upon that most sacred 
trust, most solemn office." * Enthusiasm Detected, 
Defeated/ Camb., 1768, p. 287. 


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

TSAR. A few weeks ago the Times, in an 
article upon the 'N. E. D.,' expressed its approval 
of the spelling Tsar, the form in which the word 
invariably appears in its columns. Other news- 
papers are slow to follow suit, and signs (so far as 
I can discover) of a general inclination to reform 
the usual spelling of the title of the autocrat of 
All the Russias are very rare. I do not question 
the decision of the editor of the * N. E. D.,' but 
would merely make a note of an attempt which 
may or may not prove successful to correct the 
fairly well established spelling of a familiar word. 

" RESPECTABILITY." The following cutting 
from the Manchester Guardian of Sept. 2, 1893, 



[8> 8. V. FEB. 3, '94. 

is of interest. It is difficult to guess how Britons 
could have negotiated the situation when their 
favourite fetish was still unnamed : 

" The word respectability ' ia one BO dear to the mind 
of Britons that it ia somewhat difficult to imagine how 
they got on before it was added to the vocabulary of the 
race. Yet apparently it is not much more than a cen- 
tury old. ' The Candid Philosopher ' was printed in 
1778, without the name of the author, who was R. 
Lewis, a corrector of the press. At vol. i. p. 189, he 
uses the word, but adds in a parenthesis, 'if I may coin 
the word,' thus claiming to be the originator of what 
has become one of the sacred words of the British 
people. The earliest example of the word in the ' Cen- 
tury Dictionary ' is from Nathaniel Hawthorne." 


A PRIVATE HANGMAN. A friend has kindly 
sent me an extract from the Miscellanea Genea- 
logica et Heraldica (1874, p. 203), which shows 
that the family whose name I bear, and from the 
Kinderton branch of which I believe I am de- 
scended, indulged in the luxury of a private hang- 
man, appurtenant to their estates. The privilege, 
it will be seen, was not only asserted but put in 
action as late as 1581, when the lord of the manor 
to which the service appertained found a hangman 
to execute a murderer on the Kinderton demesnes, 
for the sum of five shillings : 

" In the reign of Elizabeth, John Croxton de Ravens- 
croft, gent., held certain lands, &c., in Kinderton of 
Thomas Venables, lord of that manor, by service (inter 
alia) to find for the said Thomas Venables and his heirs 
one hangman, to bang murderers and felons within the 
manor when required. The Kinderton Court Rolls 
(6 Sept., 34 Eliz.) contain a presentment by the jury 
that the eaid John Croxton rendered this service by 
hiring one John Lingard for the sum of five shillings to 
hang Hugh Stringer for the murder of Ann Cranage and 
her daughter Ciciley Cranage." 


WORD. Scholars who have given anything like a 
serious attention to the etymology of Irish words 
cannot fail to have noticed how frequently the 
Irish ibh, " country," turns up in dictionaries and 
philological discussions. We find Irish ibh, 
"country," in an Irish dictionary published in 
Paris in 1768, and called 'Focaldir Gaoidhilge- 
Sax-Bhearla,' and also in the * Irish-English Diction- 
ary ' by O'Reilly, ed. 1877. Irish ibh, " country," 
occupies an important place in Pictet's discussion, 
in Kuhn's ' Beitrage,' i. 91, on the names of Ire- 
land. M. Pictet, in his explanation of Ptolemy's 
'lovtpvia (Ivernia), sees in the first syllable this 
ibh, which he thinks may be connected with the 
Vedic ibha, "family," and with the Old High 
German eiba, " a district." And now again quite 
recently Mr. Nicholson, in a letter which appeared 
in the Academy, Nov. 11, 1893, on the North 
Pictish inscriptions, maintains that he has found 
this very word ibh, in the form ip, in the inscrip- 
tion which he reads RENNIPUAROSIR on the 

famous Newton Stone. I think it is quite time 
that antiquaries should be warned that no such 
word as ibh or ib or tp, meaning "country," is 
to be found in any Irish text. Ibh is nothing 
but a "ghost- word," one of the many absurd 
blunders and forgeries to be found in Irish diction- 
aries. The fact is that ibh (older ib) is not a word, 
it is merely a case-ending. In Old Irish Ulaid 
(nom. pi.) meant "the men of Ulster," then "the 
Province of Ulster"; in the dat. pi. the form was 
Ultaib. In the same way Lagin meant " the men 
of Leinster," then "the Province of Leinster "; in 
dat. pi. Laignib. The dat. pi., as in Ultaib, 
Laignib, occurring much more frequently than the 
nominative, came to be often used to signify the 
district itself. Then, in course of time, the origin 
of the termination -ib was forgotten. Ultaib was 
supposed to be a compound, the second element 
whereof was explained to be " district, country." 
Mr. Whitley Stokes, in a note on p. 300 of Max 
Mullens * Science of Language,' 1891, vol. i., ex- 
plains ibh somewhat differently. He holds that 
the ibh (country) of the dictionaries is due to a 
very modern dative plural of tta, " a descendant." 
I think, however, that my explanation of this 
mysterious ibh is, on phonetic grounds, the more 
probable one. At any rate, whatever Irish lexi- 
cographers may say, there is no Irish word ibh 
meaning "country." Consequently, it is not pos- 
sible that it can be found on the Newton Stone. 


(See 1 st S. vii. 157 ; 6 th S. vii. 200, 206, 209, 252, 
273, 314 ; 8 th S. v. 20.) I have just come upon 
the following interesting notice in that great store- 
house of Irish learning, Prof. O'Curry's lectures, 
in the volume on MS. materials, p. 183, in a 
translation of a note or entry in the ' Leabhar na 
h-Uidhre,' 'or the * Book of the Dun Cow,' the 
original Irish of which is given in Appendix, 
No. Ixxx.: 

" And it is a week from this day to Easter Saturday, 
and a week from yesterday to the Friday of the Cruci- 
fixion ; and [there will be] two Golden Fridays on that 
Friday, that is, the Friday of the festival of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and the Friday of the Crucifixion, and this 
is greatly wondered at by some learned persons." 

The entry must have been made on March 25, 
1345. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

two brothers', members of the Long Parliament 
Henry for Northallerton, Richard for Malton 
were the eldest and third sons respectively of Sir 
Richard Darley, of Buttercrambe, co. York, by his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Gates, of Sea- 
mer (Foster's * Visitations of Yorkshire '). Both 
were members of the advanced section of the Par- 
liamentary party, and joined in all the extreme ac- 

8 8. V. FEB. 3, '94.] 



tions of that party down to the forced dissolution of 
April, 1653, Neither brother, however, took part 
in the actual trial of the king, although Richard 
was nominated one of the judges of fche High 
Court. Henry Darley was sixteen years old in 
1612, was admitted a student of Gray's Inn in 
1614, and was one of the members of the third 
Council of State of the Commonwealth in 1652. 
Both brothers returned to Westminster with the 
rest of the Rumpers in May, 1659, but withdrew 
from the House in February, 1660, upon the re- 
admission of the secluded members. Beyond this 
date I have failed to trace either brother, and shall 
be greatly obliged by any information as to what 
ultimately became of them, or by any further 
genealogical particulars respecting them. 

Sir Richard Darley, their father, who was 
knighted at York on April 11, 1617, was certainly 
alive as late as 1648, when he, must have been 
about eighty years of age. On Aug. 31, 1648, 

" upon Petition of Sir Richard Darley, of Buttercrambe, 
co. Yorke, Knight, That he hath been endangered and 
sustained loes for his good affections and service to the 
Parliament, Ordered that 5,00(M. be paid him in full 
satisfaction of the real Losses and damages he hath sus- 
tained, of which 2,5001. to be paid him out of the estate 
of Sir Charles Cavendish, brother to the Earl of New- 
castle." ' Commons' Journals.' 

W. D. PINK. 
Leigh, Lancashire. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

REBELLION OF 1745. Will some of your well- 
informed correspondents kindly give me (or refer 
me to) some definite information on the following 
subject ? Some year or so back (if my memory 
serves me faithfully) an interesting discovery was 
made in an old house in the North of England, 
supposed to be connected with the rising of 1745. 
During alterations a secret chamber was discovered 
containing accoutrements for a troop of horse, which 
apparently had lain thus concealed for nearly a 
century and a half. I cannot remember my ground 
for my belief, but I have a strong impression that 
the facts were as I have given them. 


YORKSHIRE PORTRAITS. A letter addressed to 
Mr. Russell Smith, Soho Square, inquiring for por- 
traits, has been returned to me. Who has his 
business now; or who sells portrait prints in 
London 1 I am anxious to purchase, or even 
borrow, portraits of Gen. Joshua Guest, Revs. E. 
Hoyle, S. Lowell, J. Meldrum (these particularly). 
In what magazine did Meldrum's appear ? I have 
made lists of portraits from my sets of the Evan- 

gelical (1793-1844) and Methodist or Arminian 
(1778-1868) magazines. Have such lists been 

Idel, Bradford. 

" OZENBRIDGES." A gentleman of means, living 
in Rhode Island, N. J., in 1750, obtained his cloth- 
ing from England, probably from Kendal. In 
his carefully-kept account-book there appears in 
the cost of every suit of clothes an item of a 
quarter of a yard or an eighth of a yard of " ozen- 
bridges." Can any of your readers give me in- 
formation as to the meaning of this word ? 

T. W. R. 

LORD DACRE : WOTTON. In ' Cal. State Papers/ 
1575, there is a note of certain letters, writings, 
and other things landed at Sandgate Castle, in 
Kent, by Harry Wotton, said to be a brother of 
Lord Dacre, captured at sea by the Ayde. Where 
can I find any further particulars of this event ? 


" SCALE." Can any of your readers inform me 
when the term " scale,' or its equivalent in any 
language, was first used in musical literature? 
Dictionaries', cyclopaedias, and histories are 
strangely silent on this point. C. K. W. 

KNIGHTED 1661. He is stated in the * Visitation 
of London ' (1633) and Le Neve's * Pedigrees ' to 
have been married. Did he or his brother leave 
any descendants 1 Was he any relation to a Lieut. 
George Chamberlain who was in James II.'s forces 
at the siege of Limerick, 1691 ? Sir Thomas had 
a grant of lands near Bruree, co. Limerick, in the 
time of Charles II. Who inherited his property ? 
I shall be obliged for any information referring to 
the foregoing. ALFRED MOLONY. 

32, Vincent Square, S.W. 

obliged for information as to the date and place 
both of birth and death of this painter. Graves's 
4 Dictionary of Artists ' tells me that he exhibited 
from 1828 to 1864, and gives a list of his works, but 
no further details as to life. 


Is there any book which gives the arms of 
foreign cities, towns, and corporations? I have 
inquired for such a work, both in this country and 
on the Continent, but cannot hear of anything of 
the kind. Such a work, if copious and accurate, 
would be of great value. ASTARTE. 

PRINCE, OF DURHAM. The daughter of Capt. 
Prince, East India Company, married, in 1788, Sir 
Home Riggs Popham. Was her father any relation 
to Lieut. John Prince, who was originally in the 
Royal Navy, and after of Shinclifte Hall, Durham ? 


[8 th S. V. FEE, 3, '94. 

Lieut. Prince married Miss Cradock, of a Durham 
family, and as one of Sir Home Popham's sons 
was named Cradock as a second Christian name, 
it struck me that there might be some family con- 
nexion between Lieut, and Capt. Prince. 


SIR WM. MURE OF Kow ALLAN. I have seen it 
stated that several MS. copies of the metrical 
version of the Psalms of David, by Sir Wm. Mure 
of Rowallan, were at one time in existence. Do 
any of these still exist ; and, if so, where I The 
editor of the * House of Rowallan ' (1825) men- 
tions two MS. poems, also by Sir William, ' The 
Joy of Tears' and 'The Challenge and Reply,' 
regarding which I would very gladly receive any 
information. W. T. 

Lord Lytton writes, in ' The Last of the Barons ': 
41 If Warwick be chafed it will be as the stir of the 
sea-serpent, which, according to the Icelanders, 
moves a world." What is the meaning of this 
reference? E. WALFORD, M.A. 


LUTIGARDE. She was the wife of Conrad, Duke 
of Lorraine and Franconia, who died in 955, and 
the daughter of the Emperor Otho the Great, of 
Germany. Of what name and family was her 
mother ? X. 

" ARBRE DE CRACOVIE." Can any one tell me 
the origin of this phrase ? From the context it 
seems to mean a political club or coterie : 

"Nous retrouvames nos cai'djis [boatmen] qui noug 
attendaient a Beschick-Tash ; ils nous eurent bientot 
remis a Top' Hane, ou nous nous arretames a un petit 
cafe frequente par des Circaesiene, grands politiqueurs 
qui tiennent la une espece d'arbre de Cracovie. Mon 
compagnon me traduisit leurs discours, et je fus assez 
^tonne de voir ces hommes a bonnets hordes de fourrure, 
a jupon de poll de chevre serre par une ceinture de 
metal, aux jambes entourees de linge retenu par des 
cordelettes, parler des affaires de Paris et de Londres, 
apprScier les ministres et les diplomates en parfaite con- 
naissance de cause." Theophile Gautier, ' Constantinople/ 
ed. 1891, chap. xv. 

Were the Political Upholsterer of the Tatler, and 
the Laird of Cockpen, whose " mind was ta'en up 
wi' the things o' the state," two leaves " de Parbre 
de Cracovie " ? JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Alreaford. 

would kindly give some account of Quality Court, 
Chancery Lane, and the origin of the name. I 
believe the place, not even mentioned in any 
history of London. W. R. 

"RECTIO." Can any of your readers tell me 
where the word rectio is used to signify govern- 
ment ? What dictionary mpntions Charles Reade 
as having used the word in this sense ? NELL. 

A PRINTER'S FREAK. In the Clarendon Press 
reprint of the Authorized Bible, issued in 1833, 
the heading of the third page of Micah, over 
chap, iv., is "Joel." Does this peculiarity of 
pagination occur in the original ; or is it a mis- 
take of the modern compositor ? 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

I shall be obliged by any information concerning 
these, where they still exist or have been restored. 
I am seeking information especially concerning 
those of Norfolk and Suffolk. I believe Somerset 
and Devon have some. Have Oxfordshire and 
Berkshire ? Can photographs be obtained ? 


11, Festing Road, Putney, S.W. 

VISITATION OP KENT. Please inform me in 
what year was the last Visitation of Kent ; also, 
if names of persons once enrolled appeared in sub- 
sequent Visitations ? E. TAYLOR. 

180, Kennington Park Road. 

of your readers give me any information about an 
old history of the above, which I have heard of, 
but cannot find anywhere? Caterham Court is 
mentioned frequently in Edna Lyall's new novel 
1 To Right the Wrong.' AZTEC. 

DICKENS'S CANARY " DICK." In Forster's < Life 
of Dickens' (1874, vol. iii. p. 95) it is stated that 
this canary was very dear to Dickens, died in 
1866, in the sixteenth year of his age, and was 
honoured with a small tomb and epitaph. Can 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' say what that epitaph 

MADAME DE DONHAULT. In the French 'Re- 
cueil des Causes Cdslebres,' 1808, there is an account 
of a trial in which a woman claimed to be Madame 
de Donhault, whose death five years before had 
been attested by relatives in Orleans. The case 
was taken to the highest Court of Appeal, judg- 
ment being given in every instance against her. 
Is anything further known about this case, which 
in many points curiously resembled the Tichborne 
case? J. J. B. 

"GAY DECEIVER." Very commonly used, like 
" Gay Lothario," for a male jilt. Can any definite 
origin be assigned for the phrase ? Probably some 
comic song. C. B. MOUNT. 

LADY DANLOVE. Who was she? In 1630 I 
find her living in " ffulham streete." By her will, 
dated 1636, the " Ladie Danlowe" left 10Z. for 
distribution among the poor of Fulham. Any 
facts regarding her will be of use to me. 


49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

8' S. V. FEB. 3, '94.] 



Right through ring and ring runs the c'jereed. 
The above line occurs in Browning's ' The Ring 
and the Book ' (1. 467) ; bub in dictionarie & this 
same line is quoted, to illustrate the use of the 
word djereed as being Southey's. I cannot find 
the line in Southey's ' Works,' and should be 
grateful if any reader could throw light on the 
subject. MAUD W. SHAW. 

HORSES. Can any reader tell me of English 
books treating about the form and formation of 
horses, which will assist me in the translation of a 
very technical work from the French ? 


" One of the regiments raised in Cheshire for service 
under the Commonwealth was commanded by Col. Henry 
Brooke, having John Brooke for Lieu*. -Col., John Brom- 
hall for Major, Ealph Pownall, John Lownes, Edward 
Stailefox, Thomas Lathom, and Cheney Bostock for 
Captains." See Onnerod's 'Hist. Cheshire,' vol. i., 
Introd., p. Ixiv. 

The following is an extract from a letter written 
by Dr. Benjamin Rush, who was treasurer of the 
United States Mint, 1799-1813, to Dr. John 
Bostock (the physiologist), physician in Liverpool, 
dated May, 1805 :, 

" I cannot lay down my pen without mentioning to 
you the incident that first connected me with your father 
as a friend in the University of Edinburgh. Supping 
with him one night, in the room of a student of medicine, 
he said, in a visit he had paid to London the summer 
before, he went to see the spot in which tbe scaffold 
stood on which King Charles I. was beheaded. He 
viewed it, he said, with uncommon emotions, and added 
that his grandfather or great-grandfather had done duty 
as a Captain of the Guard that surrounded the scaffold. 
You and I, then (I eaid), Mr. Bostock, ought to be more 
intimately acquainted. I am descended from a man 
who commanded a troop of horse in Cromwell's army, 
arid who migrated to Pennsylvania with William Penn, 
whose religious principles he had embraced after the 
Civil War was over." 

Can any of your readers inform me if the Cap- 
tain of the Guard was the Cheney Bostock of Col. 
Brooke's regiment ? R. C. BOSTOCK. 

FOLK. He married, July 26, 1619, at St. Mar- 
garet's, Lee, Kent, Anne Maidwell, widow, of St. 
Matthew's, Friday Street. Anne was the widow 
of Anthony Maidwell (whom she married at Lee, 
April 2, 1616), who was buried at St. Matthew's, 
Friday Street, Oct. 7, 1617. She was also widow 
of George Isham, of Friday Street (will dated 1608, 
prob. 1613, P.C.C.. 68 Cupel), about whom some 
correspondents have most kindly afforded me 
valuable help. It will be difficult, perhaps, to find 

it who the lady was ; but I should be grateful 
for information as to William Cooke. 


Shankton Rectory, Leicester. 


(8 th S. T. 8.) 

I take the following from Trench's ' Proverbs,' 
ninth edition, p. 76 : 

"How exquisitely witty many proverbs are. Thus, 
not to speak of one familiar to us all, which is perhaps 
the queen of all proverbs : 'The road to hell is paved 
with good intentions'; and admirably glossed in the 
' Guesses at Truth ': ' Pluck up the stones, ye sluggards, 
and break the devil's head with them,' " &c. 

The archbishop passes over the discrepancy of Mr. 
Hare's version from his own while availing him- 
self of his "gloss." Mr. W. Davenport Adams, 
in his ' Dictionary of English Literature,' quoting 
the proverb in the same words, says it is Spanish. 
I do not know it in that language, but I can give tbe 
German : " Der Weg zum Verderben ist mit 
guten Vorea f zen gepflastert " (" The way to perdi- 
tion is paved with good intentions "). 

The proverb has been current in our language in 
several different forms. The earliest known to me 
is George Herbert's rendering (' Outlandish Pro- 
verbs,' 1640, No. 170): "Hell is full of good 
meanings and wishings." This is evidence of 
the foreign origin of the proverb. In a col- 
lection entitled * Proverbs' (Oxford, 1803, p. 48), 
I find " Hell is very full of good meanings and 
intentions," showing a blend of two different ver- 
sions. In Bonn's 4 Handbook ' (1855) appears not 
only an enlargement of Herbert's version, " Hell 
is full of good meanings and wishes, but heaven is 
full of good works," but also, " Hell is paved with 
good intentions." This latter form is that adopted 
by Walter W. Kelly ('Proverbs of all Nations, 
Compared, Explained, and Illustrated,' 1859, p. 90), 
from whom I borrow the German version above, 
which he cites as exhibiting a great improvement 
of the metaphor. 

From the foregoing statement it is evident that 
C. C. B. is mistaken in imputing misquotation to 
Mr. Hare, even if it be proved that the " road " or 
" way " version of the proverb was current prior to 
the date of ' Guesses at Truth ' (1827). A slight 
assimilation of Herbert's version to the German is 
apparent in the 1803 example, and a more decided 
assimilation in the version used by the Hares. If 
the completely assimilated form has come into 
vogue in recent years, it is probably for the reason 
indicated by Mr. Kelly. F. ADAMS. 

Apparently Dr. Johnson must be credited with 
the standard form of this proverb. Writing of 
Johnson's humility and piety, towards the end of 
chap. xxxi. of the * Life,' Boswell observes : 

" No saint, however, in the course of his religious 
warfare, was more sensible of the unhappy failure of 
pious resolves than Johnson. He said one day, talking 
to an acquaintance on this subject, ' Sir, hell is paved 
with good intentions.' " 



[8 S. V. FEB. 3, '94. 

This is probably the passage, and Johnson, no 
doubt, is the wise man referred to in * Guesses at 
Truth.' George Herbert, another gnomic inventor 
to whom moderns owe something, gives the fancy 
in his l Jacula Prudentum' in this form : " Hell 
is full of good meanings and wishes ' (' The Works 
of George Herbert in Prose and Verse/ p. 363, 
Warne & Co.). THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helenaburgb, N.B. 

According to Georg Biichmann ('Gefliigelte 
Worte,' Berlin, 1889, pp. 226-7), the saying " Hell 
is paved with good intentions " is to be found in 
Samuel Johnson's writings; but he does not say 
in which. He adds that the expression is quoted 
by Johnson's biographer, Boswell (in the sixty- 
sixth year). Walter Scott ('Bride of Lammer- 
moor/ bk. i. ch. vii.), refers it to an English theo- 
logian, probably meaning George Herbert, who, in 
* Jacula Prudentum' (p. 11, ed. 1651) expresses 
the same idea in the following form : " Hell is full 
of good meanings and wishings." Perhaps the 
saying had its origin in the following passage by 
Jesus Sirach(21, 11): "Die Gottlosen gehen zwar 
auf einem feinen Pflaster, dess End der Holle 
Abgrund ist." PAOLO BELLEZZA. 

Milan, Circolo Filologico. 

iv 361, 469). MR. BOYLE must have read my 
note inattentively, or he would not have penned 
such a random statement as that I based my 
" theory " of the business quarter of Wyke having 
stood on the bank or banks of the old river Hull 
merely on u the forced interpretations of two 
words." Besides the two quotations containing 
the words in question, I gave other three, namely, 
one from Lord Hale's treatise ' De Portibus 
Maris,' copied by him from the pleadings in a 
suit between the Archbishop of York and the 
burgesses of Hull in 44 Edward III.; another 
from a petition of the same burgesses to the king 
in 1300 ; and one from a writ ad quod damnum 
issued by Edward I. in reply to that petition. 
These three passages were, I thought, quite clear 
on the point that Kingston - upon - Hull was an 
entirely new town, built and founded by Edward I. 
on the bank of Sayer Creek, and that this water- 
course was expressly improved by the king and 
made navigable to suit the requirements of the 
new port created by him. 

I can supply yet another passage to prove my 
point. It is from an inquisition taken in 14 Ed- 
ward II. before Henry de Staunton and others, 
who had been ordered by the king to ascertain, 
among other things, what and how many plots let 
at the first foundation of the new town of Kings- 
ton, or thereafter, at annual rents payable to the 
king, were then unoccupied. Frost, to evade diffi- 
culties, suggests in this instance that the words 
"in prima fundatione ejasdem ville" can only 

have reference to the change of name from Wyke, 
to Kingston, te unless, indeed," he adds, "a com- 
pliment was intended to be paid to royalty in the 
use of the expression which ascribes to Edward I. 
the actual foundation of the town." 

MB. BOYLE'S method of treating all data which 
do not not fit in with his preconceived theory is 
unique. He himself obligingly amplifies the quo- 
tation from Lord Hale's treatise which proves that 
the site where the king founded and built his new 
town was only occupied " vacariis et bercariis " 
(cowsheds and sheepcots, or " cribs and folds," as 
old Gent translated the passage), and consequently 
that the port of Wyke could not have occupied 
the site near Sayer Creek when Edward acquired 
it and changed its name, or that if it had existed 
there once it must have ceased to exist altogether, 
and not merely "in a sense," at the time of the 
change of ownership. MR. BOYLE does not 
explain the difficulty, but ignores it, in the 
same way as he has ignored all the awk- 
ward evidence adduced by me. If Wyke and 
Kingston occupied different sites, the process men- 
tioned by MR. BOYLE of one town absorbing the 
other was a comparatively easy and not an unusual 
one ; but if Wyke and Kingston were one and the 
same place, as MR. BOYLE contends, the feat of a 
town absorbing itself would have outrivalled in 
difficulty that said to have been achieved by two 
Kilkenny cats. One may exclaim, with Voltaire, 
" Et voila comment on e"crit 1'histoire !" To quote 
MR. BOYLE'S own words, his " facility of speculatioa 
suggests that he might attain distinction in less 
rigid paths of literature than those of history," 
say in the paths trodden by Jules Verne or Eider 

I am, of course, looking forward with great 
interest to the promised appearance in print of 
MR. BOYLE'S paper on the subject at issue, and 
am still open to conviction upon the point that the 
old seaport town of Wyke really did stand on the 
bank of Sayer Creek when King Edward acquired 
it. At present, I am under the impression that 
this "historical fact" is merely a "fable con- 
venue," as Voltaire would call it, among " those 
who have any knowledge of the history of the 
town," and is wholly unsupported by any evidence. 
If such evidence exists, why does not MR. BOYLE 
supply the reference ? And if I differ from Frost, 
Cook, and, according to MR. BOYLE'S belief, from 
everybody else, that only proves that I think for 
myself, and do not follow previous writers in a 
blind, unreasoning way. 

In conclusion, let me quote the well-known 
words of Horace, "Siquid novisti rectius istis, 
candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum." 

L. L. K. 

468). DR. PALMER will find the information he 
desires in Du Cange, Durandus, and in Ratold's 

th s. V. FEB. 3, '94.] 


'Pontifical'; also in Mabillon ('Mus. Ita!.,' t. ii. 
p. 288), where, quoting the Ordo Romanus, it is 

" IPBO Pontifice super faldistorio residente, diaconus et 
subdiaconus accipientes ab acolythis tobaleam suam et 
pecten, extendant tobaleam circa collum et caput ejus 
leviter et decenter pectment, videlicet primo diaconus a 
parte dextra, deinde subdiaconus a sinistra." 

Ratold's 'Pontifical,' written before the year 
986, directs "Deinde ministretur ei (Episcopo) 
aqua ad manus et pecten ad caput," after putting 
on the episcopal tunic. 

Du Cange refers to a ritual belonging in 1360 
to the Church of Viviers, where it would appear 
from the rubric that the celebrant's hair was 
combed by the deacon, not only in the vestry, but 
several times during divine service, 

" Sacra celebraturus aedet dum in choro Kyrie, Gloria 
et Credo decantantur ; unde quotUs assurgebat ipsi 
capillos pectebat diaconus, amoto ejus capello ecu al- 
mucio, licet id officii jam in Secretario antequam ad 
altare procederet sollicite ei praeBtitisset." 

In Dugdale's ' History of St. Paul's Cathedral ' 
mention is made of several ivory combs which 
belonged to the Church, and in Dart's ' Canterbury ' 
mention is made of a comb, which was the gift of 
Henry III., set with precious stones, and there is 
still preserved in the treasury at Sens Cathedral a 
large ivory comb, set with precious stones and 
sculptured with figures of animals. On it are cut 
these words, " Pecten Sancti Lupi," from which it 
has been supposed that it once belonged to this 
bishop in the sixth century. Dugdale also men- 
tions among the ornaments carried off by Henry 
VIII. from Glastonbury "a combe of golde gar- 
nishede with small turquases and other course 
stones weinge with the stones viii. oz. dt." A 
comb was also found in a bishop's grave at Dur- 
ham in 1827 made of ivory and measuring 6 in. 
in height and 4i in. in width, and may be seen 
figured full size in RaineVSt. Cuthbert,' plate vii. 
This led to the supposition that the body was that 
of St. Cuthbert, for Reginald (' De Admir S. Cuth- 
berti Virtut,' p. 89) alludes to such a comb be- 
longing to the saint, which was placed in his 

At the present day at the consecration of a 
bishop the ministers are directed by the rubric to 
use the comb in arranging the bishop's hair (" mun- 
dantur et complanantur capilli ") after the anoint- 
ing of his head with the holy oil and drying it 
with a morsel of bread. 


The references at foot do not furnish a reply to 
DR. PALMER'S query ; but it may be of interest to 
him to know that ' Combs buried with the Dead ' 
formed the subject of a communication from the 
late REV. R. S. HAWKER, Vicar of Morwenstow, 
Cornwall, just three-and-forty years ago. Refer- 

ences to, and extracts from Dr. Rock's ' Church of 
Our Fathers ' and Sir Thomas Browne's ' Hydrio- 
taphia ' are given in N. & Q.,' 1 st S. ii. 230, 269, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

See Dr. Rock's ' Church of Our Fathers,' vol. ii. 
pp. 122^126. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

The use of the comb before celebrating is men- 
tioned more than once in the * Liber Eveshamensis ' 
recently issued by the H. Bradshaw Soc., and the 
editor gives a useful note upon it (p. 172). At 
the present time the collar of the vestment is pro- 
tected by a piece of linen. The comb found in the- 
tomb of St. Cuthbert is to be seen at Durham. 

The comb is used now only in the consecration 
of a bishop, the Pontifical requiring an "ivory 
comb " to be provided for the ceremony; anciently 
it was used by priests and clerics for combing their 
hair before leaving the sacristy for the church. 
See Maskell's ' Mon. Rit.' and Mabillon, 'Museum 
Italicum,' quoted in the ' Catholic Dictionary 
(Addis and Arnold). GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

The first of these was exhibited at the old 
Adelaide Gallery, now Gatti's Restaurant, about 
1843, at the same time as Perkins's steam gun. 
I remember to have seen it several times. The 
central ring was about fifteen feet high, and the 
gauge, as well as I recollect, eighteen or twenty 
inches. A small but heavy carriage used first to 
rush down the steep incline and travel empty 
round the interior of the ring, then ran up a some- 
what lower incline, where it stopped, much after 
the manner of the switchback railways. A second 
descent was then made by the carriage with an 
open pail of water without spilling a drop ; while 
the third journey was made with a man in tha 
carriage. As there was no return line, the carriage 
was lowered and drawn up the starting incline by 
a cord, being lifted from rail to rail at the passing 
spot at the ground side of the ring. 

There was also a working model at the old 
Polytechnic, with two centrifugal rings instead of 
the one at the Adelaide Gallery. This was in the 
days of Bachoffner and the diving-bell. The model 
was in the great hall of the Polytechnic. I do not 
remember the name of any inventor ; but there was 
no new discovery in the matter. 


A lady of my acquaintance tells me that in 1850 
she made a trip on this railway at Liverpool. As 
a girl she was very small in stature, and she wag 
taken by her mother, accompanied by two doctors, 
on this railway, in the hope that the shock would 
make her grow. She says that for three days 
afterwards she shook as if she had the palsy. As 



[8 th S. V. FEE, 3, '94. 

she is only about five feet now, we may judge that 
the remedy was not very efficacious. 


" SMORE " (8 th S. iv. 528)." To smoor " is the 
ordinary Lowland Scots (i.e., Old Northern 
English) for " to smother." It is not long since I 
heard it used with graphic effect in the following 
narrative, told me on the spot by a hill farmer in 
Galloway, which illustrates the traditional reverence 
for the cross surviving the fervour of the Reforma- 
tion, even among the Westland Whigs. 

On the head waters of the Luce, in the heart of 
a wild moorland district, stands the deserted farm- 
house of Laggangallan, so named from three large 
standing stones (lag nan gattean, hollow of the 
standing stones), each bearing a large incised cross, 
with five smaller ones, representing the five wounds. 
Of these stones, one disappeared some years ago ; 
of those that remain, one is about seven feet high, 
the other six. My informant told me that the 
third had been taken by a former tenant of the 
land to form the lintel of a new barn. From that 
day forward ill-luck attended him, and finally his 
sheep-dogs went mad and bit him. The man 
developed hydrophobia. Far from any help in 
that remote spot, his wife and children were in 
terrible plight, till, in desperation, they got him 
down and " smoored him between two cauf beds," 
t. 6., smothered him between two chaff mattresses. 

MR. DIXON will find many examples in Jamie- 
son's * Dictionary '; in addition to which I would 
remind him of the conclusion of Burns's song of 
* Duncan Gray': 

Duncan could na be her death, 
Swelling pity smoor'd his wrath ; 
Now they 're crouse and canty baitb, 
Ha, La, the wooing o't. 

" Ommast smoor'd to death " is a common ex- 
pression about Leeds ; and " Aw'm i' no hurry, 
as Temple said when Berry hanged him for smoorin 
his mother-i'-law," is a bit of Lancashire wit. 
Jamieson gives the spelling " smoar " for West- 
moreland. F. ADAMS. 

In Lowland Scotch, a dialect closely analogous 
to that of Northumbria, " smother " is usually pro- 
nounced " smoore." Burns, in his * Tarn o' Shanter, : 
says : 

By this time he was cross the ford 
Where in the ana' the Chapman smoored. 

[Very many replies are acknowledged.] 

THE MERVTN FAMILY (8 th S. iv. 526). A 
pedigree of the Mervyn family is given in Hoare's 
'History of Wilts' (vol. iv. i. 20), which com- 
mences two generations earlier than the John 
Mervyn living 1476. He was one of the trustees 
of the will of Margaret, Lady Hungerford (widow 

of Sir Robert Hungerford, second baron), which 
s dated August 8, 1476, and given in extenso in 
Hoare's ' Wilts' (vol. i. ii. 95). 

John Mervyn married Joan, daughter of Lord 
Elungerford, but I believe there is a little doubt as 
to whether she was the daughter of Eobert, the 
second baron, by the above-named Lady Margaret, 
or of Robert Hungerford, their son. 

Fonthill Gifford is in Wiltshire, in the hundred 
of Dunworth, and no doubt came to the Mervyns 
on the occasion of the marriage of the above-men- 
tioned John and Joan. 

It remained in the family of Mervyn till it was 
alienated by James, Earl of Castlehaven, between 
1632 and 1640, to Francis, Lord Cottington, and 
passed from that family to William Beckford soon 
sifter 1750. About 1823 it was purchased by Mr. 
Farquhar. Sir Michael Robert Shaw-Stewart, 
Bart., is the present Lord of the Manor. 

There is no mention of the Mervyns coming from 
Wales in the pedigree as given by Hoare. 

E. A. FRY. 

172, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

Fountel Giffard, now Fonthill Gifford, is in 
Wiltshire, fifteen miles west from Salisbury. It 
remained in the Mervyn family from before 
1439 till after 1611, when Henry Mervyn, Knt., 
succeeded to the estates. He sold the Fountel 
estates to his brother-in-law, Mervyn, Lord 
Audley, second Earl of Castlehaven, on whose 
attainder in 1631 they became forfeited to the 
Crown; but the descendants lived in the neighbour- 
hood many years after. The last male representa- 
tive of the family, John Mervin, died at Kingston 
Deverell, Wiltshire, in 1805, aged seventy-eight, 
where there is an estate still called Mervyns. 
Fonthill Gifford is now owned by Sir Michael 
Shaw-Stewart, Bart., and Alfred Morrison, Esq. 
I have a copy of ' Notes of the Family of Mervyn 
of Pert wood,' by Sir William Richard Drake, 
F.S.A., which gives a genealogical history of the 
family (1873). THOMAS HENRY BAKER. 

Mere Down, Mere, Wiltshire. 

If H. will consult Mis. Gen. et Her., N.S. i. 358, 
423, ii. 3 ; Hoare's ' Wilts,' i. i. 180, iv. 20 ; and 
Kelly's ' Directory, he will find all his questions 
therein answered. The home of the Beckfords 
and its wonderful history are too well known to 
bear repeating here. 


TOGRA SMITH, D.D. (8 th S. iv. 528). Thomas 
Smith, Fellow of Magdalen, Oxford (1666-92), 
was son of John Smith, of All Hallows Barking, 
London, in which parish he was born June 3, 1638 ; 
mat. Queen's, Oxon., Oct. 29, 1657; B.A. 
March 15, 1660/1 ; M.A. 1663 ; incorp. at Cam- 
bridge 1673 ; D.D. 1674 ; Master of Magdalen 
College School 1664-6 ; an Oriental scholar ; chap- 
lain to Sir Daniel Harvey, the Ambassador to 

V. FB.3, f fl4.J 



Constantinople, 1668-71 ; chaplain to Sir Joseph 
Williamson, the Secretary of State ; Kector of 
Stanlake, co. Oxon., Dec., 1684, and Jan., 1684/5; 
died May 11, 1710 (vide Foster's ' Alumni'). 

Eden Bridge. 

Joseph Smith was entered at Trinity, March 31, 
1718, as pensioner, under Mr. Myers, as son of 
John Smith, "generosus," deceased, of co. Durham, 
aged seventeen. He had previously been educated 
at Westminster under Dr. Friend. He was B.A. 
1721/2, M.A. 1725 ; he was Minor Fellow 1724, 
Major Fellow 1725. R. S. 

For full accounts of Thomas Smith and of John 
Smith refer to their lives in the ' Dictionary ' of 
the obsolete Chalmers. 



Tograi Smith, Rabbi Smith, and Dr. Thomas 
Smith, are three names for the same person. The 
fullest life of their bearer will be found in Dr. 
Bloxam's ' Magdalen College Register ' (iii. pp. 182, 
et seq.). See also the same author's 'Magdalen 
College and King James II. ' Dr. Bloxam writes 
that Dr. Smith excited some suspicion by the line 
which he took during the king's proceedings against 
the college,and ''accordingly his customary appella- 
tion of Tograi, the name of an Arabian author of 
eminence, whose poem he had edited, was changed 
to that of' Roguery." Particulars of his MSS. will 
be found in Macray's ' Annals of the Bodleian. ' It 
would be difficult to describe much of the work of 
Dr. Smith's own pen as affording a "beautiful 
specimen of calligraphy." 0. E. D. 

146, 216, 256, 355, 434).' N. & Q.' has contained 
several notes concerning this celebrated murderer. 
I have met with the following in a book catalogue 
recently received. I never heard of it before. It 
may be useful to have a permanent record that 
such a book exists : 

" Pierce Elan's Account of the Trial of John Thurtell 
and Joseph Hunt ; Recollections of John Thurtell, Exe- 
cuted for Murdering W. Weare, with the Condemned 
Sermon, &c.. portraits and plates, 1824, 8vo." 


Some curious particulars respecting ThurtelFs 
execution may be seen in the autobiography of 
Chief Baron Nicholson, of the Judge and Jury 
Club. It will be recollected that the " new drop," 
now used for hanging, was designed by Thurtell for 
his own execution. H. T. SCOTT. 

ST. PETERSBURG (8* S. v. 67). Either form is 
right. The city was named after Peter and his 
patron saint, and is commonly called by Russians 
both Petersburg and St. Petersburg. If I am not 
mistaken, in the Russian church service it is in 

one place called Petersburg that is, where the 
Metropolitan of that town is prayed for ; and if I 
am right in this, this shows how immaterial it is 
which form is adopted. D. 

(8 th S. v. 68). Richard Graham, Viscount Pres- 
ton, is the person wanted. See Macaulay's ' His- 
tory' (chap. xvii. vol. ii. pp. 247-249, 255, 
popular edition), and the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' (vol. xxii.). C. E. D. 

BATHING MACHINES (8 th S. iv. 346, 415). No 
mention has been made of bathing-boats, which 
were in use on the north-east coast some fifty years 
ago. A bathing- boat was a coble with an awning 
amidships and a ladder at the stern, the rower 
seated in the bow. They were used exclusively 
by gentlemen, the bathing-machines exclusively 
by ladies. I do not know if they be in use still. 

"HE THAT" (8 th S. i. 311). I wish to add to 
the examples already given of this curious pro- 
nominal combination one of "her that "= her, 
from Gower's ' Confessio Amantis,' book v. (vol. ii. 
ed. Pauli) : 

ayein the lawes right 

Mars thilke time upon her that 
Remus and Romulus begat. P. 157. 

I regard the following (ibid. p. 169) as another 
example, but there is a shade of uncertainty, as 
the explanation of " that " as a conjunction is just 
possible : 

So priveliche aboute he ladde 
His lust, that he his wille hadde 
Of Latona and on her that 
Diane his doughtor he begat. 


SIR FRANCIS PAGE, 1661-1741 (8 th S. iv. 68, 
275, 513). If MR. PICKFORD'S difficulty be 
"Why was Sir Francis Page buried at Steeple 
Aston ? " as a native of that village I can supply 
the most simple explanation possible. He was 
buried there simply because he had spent the later 
years of his life and died in the parish, a cir- 
cumstance that excellent antiquary the late W. 
Wing (ALA of these pages) must assuredly have 
mentioned to MR. PICKFORD at the interview he 
speaks of. In my boyhood I well knew the site 
of Judge Page's former residence, Middle Aston 
House, Middle Aston being a hamlet in the parish 
of Steeple Aston. For some reason the house had 
been razed to the ground level, but the ornamental 
waters (three), the skilfully designed ornamental 
landscape plantations, extending all round and to 
half a mile in front, the ha-ha, the iron entrance 
gates, the extensive kitchen gardens, the rookery, 
&c., still remained. At the time of which I 
speak, somewhere early in the forties, there was 
living in the village of Steeple Aston an aged man, 



[8* S. V. FEB. 3, '94. 

Timothy Hopcraft, son of a servant of "Judge 
Page," and I perfectly remember this old man show- 
ing me a set of twelve silver round-handled knives 
and forks, which he said had belonged to the 
Judge. They were what we should now call 
Queen Anne style, the points of the knives 
reflexed and the prongs of the forks steel. Two 
stone figures, Gog and Magog, from the old house, 
now, I am told, adorn the entrance to the co- 
operative stores. Within the last year or two 
Mr. Cottrell -Dormer, of Rousham, has built a new 
house on the old site, as a residence for bis second 
son . THOMAS PERRY, F. C. S. 


OLD TOMBSTONE IN BURMA (8 th S. iv. 467, 
531). Coja Petrus de Faruc was a trader with 
the East. About his nationality I am not certain, 
though I have reason to believe that he was a 
Portuguese. In " The Diary and Consultation 
Book for the Affairs of the Honourable English 
Company in Bengali," kept by the " Honourable 
President and Governor of Fort William and 
Councill," the following entry occurs, dated " primo 
December, 1703 ": 

" Granted a pass to ship St. Martine, burthen 100 
tonna, belonging to Cojah Matroos Noquedah, Cojah 
Petrus, Francis Nunus, Master, bound for Acheen." 

In these records, Cojah is not an infrequent name. 
Acheen is, of course, a seaport in Sumatra. How 
Cojah Petrus came by his death in Burma, Oct. 20, 
1725, I do not know; but it was not unlikely in 
connexion with some trading expedition. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

KENNEDY : HENN (8 tb S. iv. 488 ; v. 53). At 7 th 
S. iv. 288 a query, hitherto, I believe, unanswered, 
appeared, about the Kennedy family, with reference 
to John Kennedy, sent over to Ireland in 1642 by 
the Scottish Privy Council in command of some 
troops to put down the 1641 rebellion. I believe 
he was under Major Munro, who, with 2,500 men, 
landed at Carrickfergus in 1642, and marched 
thence to Newry, "which, with the castles o 
Armagh and Carlingford, they captured from the 
insurgents " (* Handbook to Carlingford Bay,' 1846 
p. 161). Is there no record of this mission preservec 
at Edinburgh ? Kennedy's direct descendants in the 
male line are still living, and would like to know 
who he was. His son Horace, Sheriff of Derry a 
the beginning of the siege, was sent thence to Scot 
land to get help from his relatives in Ayrshire 
Who were they ? These descendants did not in 
1793 enter for the Cassillis title, when Capt 
Kennedy, R.N., gained it, and defeated thi 
Kennedy of Cultra. What claim had the latter 
His ancestor came to Down in 1670. Capt 
Kennedy traced his descent from Sir A. Kennedj 
of Culzean, youngest son of Sir T. Kenned; 
(knighted at the coronation of James I.), who wa 

econd son of the third Earl of Cassillis. The 
Idest son, Gilbert, became fourth earl, but his 
ine died out in 1792. Burke's pedigree is, of 
:ourse, ex parte Lord Ailsa. I have an old one 

about 1792, also ex parte eadem, which mentions 
Tames Kennedy, elder son of Sir T. Kennedy, who 

died s.p. The only old loopholes are : a son of the 
: hird Earl of Cassillis older than Sir T. Kennedy 
'ob. 1605), any issue of James Kennedy, and a 

brother of him older than A. Kennedy and with 
ssue. My old pedigree, of course, mentions none 

of these ; but it gives the titles of the deeds, &c,, 

on which Capt. A. Kennedy based his claim. 
I find in the Scottish Journal of Topography, 

&c. (Edinburgh, 1848, p. 73), that Lord Eglinton 

went to Ireland with a regiment raised by himself 
n 1642, which formed part of the force of 10,000 

men sent by the Scottish Parliament to aid the 

Scottish planters in protecting themselves against 
;he rebels. Did John Kennedy belong to this 

force ? If Miss WARD likes, she can write direct 
to OXON. 

Winsfield School, Burton-on-Trent. 

QUAINT EPITAPH (8 th S. iv. 486 ; v. 39). The 
epitaph given by your correspondent at the first 
reference appears in W. Fairley's ' Epitaphiana,' 
1873, p. 94. It is stated that it is found in Barrow 
Churchyard on a Mr. Stone. For variants of the 
inscription in books beginning " Steal not this 
book, for fear of shame," cf. G. F. Northall's 

English Folk-Rhymes,' 1892, pp. 102-3. The 
following inscription, which I recently saw in a 
servant's Prayer-Book, is not given by Northall : 

If I perchance this book should lose, 
And you perchance should find it, 

Remember is my name, 

And stands behind it. 


M.P., LONG PARLIAMENT (8 th S. v. 9). R. W. 
is correct in his surmise as to Sir Richard Wynne, 
who held the office of Treasurer to Queen Henrietta 
Maria at an early date in the reign of Charles I. 
That the Sir George Wentworth who signed the 
warrant by the Lords Justices and Council of Ire- 
land in 1642 was Stratford's brother cannot be 
doubted. His position as P.C. sufficiently estab- 
lishes his identity. Moreover, he held the re- 
sponsible post of General of the Forces in Ireland. 
His namesake and contemporary, Sir George 
Wentworth, of Wolley, seems to have had no 
official connexion with the sister isle. John 
Borlase, M.P. for Corfe Castle, and John Borlace, 
M.P. for Mario w in the Long Parliament, were 
one and the same person, namely, Sir John Borlace, 
of Bockmere, Bucks, created a baronet in 1642, died 
1672. But the "J. Borlace" who signed the 
warrant referred to would, I think, be his Cornish 
cousin, Sir John Borlace, Lord Justice of Ireland 
in 1643-44. He was son of Walter Borlace, of 

8S. V. FEB. 3, '94.] 



Trannack, in Cornwall, and died in 1647, aged 
seventy-two. He had a son John, Scout Master 
of Ireland in 1641. " J. Temple " would almost 
certainly represent Sir John Temple, Knt., Master 
of the Rolls in Ireland 1640-44, and Joint Com- 
missioner of the Great Seal 1648. He was M.P. 
for Chichester from 1645 till 1648, and died in 

1677 He was father of the celebrated Sir William 
Temple, Bart. W. D. PINK. 

I do not think any answer has yet been made to 
a query about some members of the Long Parlia- 
ment (7"> S. vi. 226). The names of fifteen 
members were given, also the authorities from 
whom the names were taken. None of these 
names appear in the lists with which I am familiar. 
Can any one explain why ? JEEMYN. 

FOLD TKAOEDY (8 th S. iv. 344).-r-Francis Wol- 
freston, of Statfold, baptized May 3, 1612, died 
Nov. 3, 1666 ; was succeeded by his son Francis, 
of Pembroke College, Oxon., and Inner Temple, 
"the stiffest of nonjurors"; about 1667 he first 
began to write himself Wolferstan, married Sept. 13, 
1666, Hester, daughter of John Bowyer, of Bid- 
dulph, gent., and died intestate; his only son 
Francis, the unfortunate youth who fell in love 
with Miss Antrobus, having died of smallpox in 
the parish of St. Giles (? Cripplegate or in Campis), 
1698/9. The latter was born at Statfold, Sept. 20, 
1672 ; his youngest paternal uncle Stanford Wol- 
ferstan was born Dec. 18, baptized at Statfold, 
Dec. 30, 1651, first of St. John's College, Cantab., 
afterwards incorporated to Oxford (? Pembroke 
College), Vicar of Wootton Wawen, co. War., 

1678 ; died Sept. 29 ; buried at Wootton Wawen, 
Oct. 2, 1698. By his second wife Susanna, daughter 
of Mr. John Creed, of Cambridge (whom he married 
in Jesus Chapel, Cambridge, Nov. 27, 1682), he 
had a third son, 

Francis Wolferstan, born Oct. 12, baptized at 
Wootton Wawen, Oct. 15, 1693, of St. John's, 
Cantab., rector of Dray ton Bassett, co. Staff., 1722, 
and of Grendon, co. War., 1738 ; married Feb. 12, 
1738, Elizabeth, elder daughter of Walter Noel, 
of Hilcote, co. Staff., and relict of Rev. Arthur 
Stevens, formerly rector of Grendon ; she died s.p., 
Jan. 31, 1754, aged sixty-seven, he April 19, 1758; 
both buried at Graydon, vide M.I. there. 

MR. MOYER will see that the unfortunate lover 
and the last-named Francis were first cousins. I 
cannot discover anything of Hartiwell or the early 

Eden Bridge. 


32; v. 51). In reply to your correspondent who 

asks why I did not include among the English 

translations of ' Don Quixote ' the version of C. H. 

Wilmot (London, 1774), let me say that I spoke 

only of complete translations. The book of C. H. 
Wilmot is an abridgment ; and, though claiming to 
be " translated from the Spanish," is only a com- 
pilation, or rt/acctmento, made from other transla- 
tions. H. E. WATTS. 

MR. PICKFORD tells us that Charles Kingsley 
once told him that he considered " * Don Quixote ' 
one of the saddest books ever written." Was this 
an unconscious plagiarism ? for Byron (* Don 
Juan,' canto xiii. ix.) utters the same sentiment 
Of all tales 'tis the saddest the more sad, 
Because it makes us smile. 


BUT NEVER PUBLISHED (8 th S. iv. 467).* Life of 
Swift,' by John Forster, vol. i., 1875, John Murray. 
Not completed. 

' History of Ireland since the Union/ by the 
late Mr. Justice Keogh, announced by Hurst & 
Blackett(?). Never published. 

* The Official Baronage of England, showing the 
Succession, Dignities, and Offices of every Peer 
from 1066 to 1885,' vols. i.-iii. (Dukes, Marquises, 
Earls, and Viscounts), 1885, Longmans & Co. This 
will not be completed. 

'The Post Office Gazetteer of the United King- 
dom,' by J. A. Sharp and R. F. Pitt, 2 vols., royal 
8vo., Longmans & Co., 1875. Announced but 
never published. WM. H. PEET. 

In the Norvicensian, the organ of the Norwich 
Grammar School, for April, 1882, the Rev. 0. W. 
Tancock stated that "in 1857 George Borrow 
advertised as ' ready for the press ' ' Penquite and 
Pentyre, a book on Cornwall,' but it was never 

Penquite is an old manor house in the parish of 
St. Breward, and Pentyre the headland on the 
east side of the mouth of the Camel estuary, some 
thirteen miles from St. Breward, in the parish of 
St. Minver. JAMES HOOPER. 


Lowndes quotes Clare (John), ' Moments of 
Forgetfulness.' No copy of this is known to 

The Publishers 1 Circular of Dec. 9, 1893, asks 
for the journal of Elizabeth Woodville, wife of 
Edward IV. Has this been published 1 



For years " hope" and Mr. J. Whitaker "told 
a flattering tale " on the wrapper of ' N. & Q.' 
touching a supplement to Bar ing- Gould's 'Lives 
of the Saints,' which should deal with emblems, 
and furnish the longed-for necessary index to fif- 
teen preceding volumes. We find no mention of 
this now, and it is to be feared that the project has 
been abandoned. Mr. Hooper's " Complete Works 
of Michael Drayton, now first collected," stands 


[8 S. Y. FEB. 3, '94. 

incomplete on my shelf, containing nothing more 
than 'Polyolbion' and 'The Harmony of the 
Church/ and bearing date 1876. Not far from it 
is vol. i. of Canon Raine's ' Lives of the Arch- 
bishops of York/ published in 1863, and crying 
out for attention. Its next-door neighbour is 
vol. i. of Mr. Reginald Shutte's ' Life of the Bishop 
of Exeter ' (Phillpotts), 1863. But surely ' N. & Q.' 
will fail to find space in which to register all the 
literary paving-stones which might be adduced. 
Writers and publishers are not exempt from the 
fate of promising more than they are able to per- 
form, and death will often insert " Finis " before 
an author himself knows that his final word is 
penned. ST. SWITHIN. 

MR. PBET asks " What other unfinished works 
are there ? " The second volume of John Forster's 
' Life of Swift/ and also vol. ii. of the ' Memoirs of 
Marquis Wellesley/ by McCullagh Torrens (Chatto 
& Windus), never appeared. Some persons 
thought that the latter might have been sup- 
pressed by injunction ; but a member of the firm 
who published vol. i. informed me that the reason 
was simply that it did not sell. ' A History of 
Ireland since the Union/ by the late Mr. Justice 
Keogh, was advertised, I think, by Hurst & 
Blackett, but it never appeared. The late Sir 
John Gray mentioned to me that he lost some files 
of his Freeman's Journal, which had been lent 
to the judge for the purposes of his intended 
publication. The second volume of O'Connell's 
1 Memoir of Ireland, Native and Saxon ' (London, 
Dolman), never appeared. The same remark 
applies to John O'Connell's ' Repeal Dictionary/ 
to some of Herbert Spencer's writings, and to 
O'Callaghan's ' History of the Irish Brigade in the 
Service of France' (Dublin, Kelly), though he 
afterwards recast his material, and Cameron & 
Ferguson brought out the * History ' in one pie 
thoric volume. W. J. F. 


I have on my shelves ' A Memoir of Ireland, 
Native and Saxon/ by Daniel O'Connell, M.P., 
vol. i., 1172-1660, published in 1843. Vol. ii., 
which was to be brought down to the date oi 
publication, has not yet appeared. 

Under the second class " Hone's Scrap Book, i 
Supplementary Volume to the ' Every Day Book, 
the ' Year Book/ and the ' Table Book/ from the 
MS. of the late William Hone, with upwards o 
150 engravings of eccentric objects, pp. 800," was 
extensively advertised by the late John Camden 
Hotten in 1866, and has not been published 
This delay has been referred to in ( N. & Q.'; see 
4 S. x. 351, 399 ; 6 th S. i. 354, 522 ; 7 th S. xi. 

71, Brecknock Eoad. 

Two promised books (never performed) engagec 
the attention of the curious for several years : Mr 

Story-Maskelyne's ' Crystallography/ long " in the 
jress " at Oxford ; and M. Didron's ' Christian 
[conography/ vol. ii., about which Bohn's Library 
announced still longer, that " Mons. Didron has 
not yet written the second volume." 


BREAKING GLASS (8 tb S. iv. 243, 315). In 
connexion with this subject, I trust I shall not be 
thought egoistic in reproducing a letter which I 
wrote to the Morning Post on Oct. 3, 1891 : 

' Sir, In your article of to-day's issue anent the 
Folk-lore Congress you cite the President's remark, ' In 
;hese studies of ours every one may help '; so perhaps, 
even I may add my modicum, by the following relation. 
Until recently there was in the Church of Cowden, 
Kent, annexed to the pulpit, an ancient hour-glass, which 
formerly served to regulate the length of the preacher's 
discourse. In July or August of last year the church- 
cleaner discovered this to be broken. Una voce the 
mrochial soothsayers proclaimed, ' The glass is broken. 
[)ur minister will die ! ' Now, so far as is known, that 
glass had never before been broken ; wherefore, whence 
the superstition ; and what is the folk-lore connecting 
' the pitcher broken at the fountain ' with ' the glass 
that bounds the sands of time ' ? I may add that the 
prognostication proved true, as the decease of the Rector 
of Cowden took place shortly after, away from home." 

Readers of * N. & Q.' will be glad to learn that 
the Cowden glass a twenty-minutes one has 
been restored whole and entire, and is now in 
statu quo. By the way, Has 0. 0. B. forgotten 
< The Luck of Edenhall' ? 

Eden Bridge. 

That breaking a wine-glass is an ill omen seems 
a less wide-spread superstition than many sup- 
pose. The writer in 1842 was a student at the 
University of Jena. The new-married son of the 
Duke of Weimar then visited Jena, and when 
the students flocked to the ducal residence there, 
he stood with his bride in a high balcony, and 
gave a toast to the university and city. Then, 
having drunk a bumper of champagne, he threw 
down the glass on the pavement below. A few 
weeks afterward the writer witnessed a Jewish 
wedding in the oldest synagogue at Prague. At 
the close of the solemnity the groom and bride 
pledged each other in a brimming glass, which was 
no sooner emptied than it was dashed to frag- 
ments on the stone floor. Glass-breaking in both 
these instances was intended to be auspicious of 

Madison, Wisconsin, U.S. 

ATHOLL OR ATHOLE (8 th S. v. 47). In Ander- 
son's * Scottish Nation* the three variants are 
given, Athol, Atholl, Athole ; and, while the last 
form is placed at the top of the page, the first is 
used in the body of the article devoted to an ac- 
count of the house. Mr. Anderson bases his in- 
formation on Skene's * History of the Highlanders/ 
and he explains that " the name signifies ' pleasant 

S^S.V. FEB. 3, '94.] 



land/ and Blair of Athol, its principal valley, ' th< 
field or vale of Athol.' " Apparently " Athole ' 
is becoming the favourite form ; it is the only one 
used in Hunter's * Illustrated Guide to Perthshire 
(1885). THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgb, N.B. 

EXTRAORDINARY FIELD (8 th S. v. 29). This 
seems to be a partial reproduction of Stasimus's 
wilfully exaggerated account of the farm in 
Plautus's ' Trinummus,' which I had the privilege 
and pleasure of seeing uncommonly well acted by 
the Queen's Scholars of St. Peter's College, West- 
minster, this last December. In Chambers's 
Journal, January, 1871, there is a story of a field 
in Wales, called "the white field," which was 
supposed to be so slightly crusted over with chalk 
that the weight of a man would break through and 
he would go to the bottomless pit (p. 61). 

W. C. B. 

ST. CLEMENT'S DAY (8 th S. iv. 507 ; v. 58). 
In Dyer's * British Popular Customs,' 1876 (pp. 
423-5), it is stated that in Cambridge the bakers 
on St. Clement's Day hold an annual supper, 
which is called the "Bakers' Clem"; and that at 
Tenby it was customary for the owners of fishing- 
boats to give a supper of roast goose and rice pud- 
ding to their crews. Of. also Hampson's ' Medii 
J&vi Kalendarium,' 1841, vol. i. pp. 60-2. 

The ' Draper's Dictionary,' a propos of felt, has : 
"According to some writer?, a monk on a pilgrimage' 
having used some carded wool in his sandals, to protect 
his feet, found that the fibres, by long friction between 
the foot and the sandal, had matted together so as to 
produce a firm texture resembling cloth. From this 
hint the manufacture is said to have originated. An old 
hatter informed tbe writer that in his youth an annual 
festival was held on St. Clement's Day (November 23) 
in honour of this saint, who was the reputed inventor of 
feltj and that in Ireland, and other Roman Catholic 
countries, the hatters etill hold their festival on that 
day.' Tomlinaon's ' Useful Arts and Manufactures.' 


POSSESSION OF PEWS (8 th S. iv. 327, 396, 532). 
I remember some strange and unseemly in- 
cidents in connexion with this subject of the 
appropriation of church seats, a subject upon 
which in my youth rustic churchgoers held strong 
pinions. I do not remember locks on pew doors, 
seats were regarded as virtually private pro- 
>rty, intrusion upon which was occasionally re- 
sisted m tt amis. There were two maiden ladies 
i a parish where some part of my boyhood was 
spent, each of whom disputed the other's right to a 
irtam seat in the church. It was to the lewder 
rt a source of infinite jest to see these two racing 
>unday by Sunday for this siege Perilous, as it 
rentually proved. For at last, the contention 
;rew so high that one day Miss D., finding Miss 
U m possession, incontinently clapped herself 
down on that lady's knee. She, not to be out- 

done, resisted this invasion by thrusting a " drug- 
get pin " (doubtless carried to church precisely for 
this purpose) into Miss D.'s person below the 
bustle. Hereupon there followed an appeal to the 
clergyman, by whom the dispute was, not without 
difficulty, settled. The seats in this church were 
mostly open benches, and yet neither lady would 
budge an inch from what she considered her due 

What changes since then ! I remember that 
the first man in my native parish who audibly 
joined in the responses along with the clerk was 
looked upon as an interloper, endeavouring to bring 
that official into contempt and to secure the re- 
version of his office. C. C. B. 

When the Church of East Grinsted was reseated, 
some years since, the owner of one of the pews in 
the nave would not suffer it to be lowered, and 
there it stands to this day, in all its horse-box 
beauty, a curiosity and an eyesore combined. 
From East Grin stead to Limpsfield is but " scant 
ten mile," and here another eccentricity presents 
itself ; this church was reseated in 1871, but one 
pew only was redoored ! As a good old Sir Roger 
de Coverley pew it would be hard to beat the 
Dering drawing-room in Pluckley Church. For an 
apportionment of pews by the churchwardens temp. 
Elizabeth, see Leeds register, now being printed by 
the Thoresby Society. 

Eden Bridge. 

WYCHWOOD FOREST (8 th S. iv, 427). There is 
an interesting account of this place, accompanied 
by a plan, by the late Mr. John Yonge Akerman, 
F.S.A., in the thirty-seventh volume of the Archceo- 
logia, p. 424. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

FORCE AND ENERGY (8 th S. iv. 500, 518). In 
' Keely and his Discoveries : Aerial Navigation/ 
by Mrs. Bloomfield Moore, Appendix iii. p. 372, 
J. B. will find the following : 

" James B. Alexander, in his book on ' The Dynamic 
Theory,'* makes this distinction between Force and 
Energy : ' Energy is simply the motion of material 
bodies, large or small. Force is the measure of energy, 

its degree or quantity The ether is the universal 

agent of Energy, and the medium in all motion and 
phenomena. It may with propriety be called the Soul of 
Things.' " 

Mrs. Bloomfield Moore's book is published by 
Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 

Wolaingham, co. Durham. 

LUNCH : LUNCHEON (8 th S. iv. 464, 516). 
Your correspondent at the second reference says 
:hat he cannot call to mind any later authority 
or the use of nuncheon than the author of ' Hudi- 

'The Dynamic Theory of Life and Mind' (The 
Housekeeper Press, Minneapolis, Minn,) 



V. FEB. 3, '94. 

bras.' Miss Austen uses the word in 4 Sense and 
Sensibility/ chap. xiiv. : "I left London this 
morning at eight o'clock, and the only ten minutes 
I have spent out of my chaise since that time pro- 
cured me a nunchiou at Marlborough." Browning 
also has it in The Pied Piper of Hamelin.' 

So munch on, crunch on, take your nuncheon. 
It is hardly necessary to say that luncheon is not 
an altered form of nuncheon. 


There is an interesting and instructive note on 
this word in Archbishop Trench's * English Past 
and Present/ p. 126. He instances nuncheon or 
noon shun, noon scape (Lane.), noon min (Norf.). 
This throws light on another query by ARTHUR 
MONTEFIORE (iv. 468), nummet, an early luncheon 
or noon meat. A. W. CORNELIUS HALLEN. 


G. 0. B. says that the original meaning of 
"lunch" is "a lump." Most probably "lunch" 
is merely a form of "lump," as "hunch" is of 
"hump." The termination -eon seems to have 
been borrowed from an older word, nuncheon. 

HEADS ON CITY GATES (8 th S. iv. 489 ; v. 33). 
The first name that comes to my mind in con- 
nexion with this ugly custom is that of Llewellyn, 
in 1282; but perhaps his "ivy-crowned head" 
does not enter within the bounds of this question, 
for his head, according to tradition, was first put 
up in Cheapside, and later on the highest turret 
of the Tower of London, according to Thomas's 
* History of Owen Glendower,' printed in 1822, 
in which book he makes no mention of the ivy 
crown, but says that Edward gave orders to have 
the head of his dead foe ornamented with "a 
silver circlet." Mr. Baring - Gould's interesting 
book, ' Strange Survivals, 7 had a chapter on gate- 
posts and their "ball" ornamentation, that has 
a certain connexion with this subject. 


ADMIRAL HALES (8 tb S. v. 40). In your answer 
to EASTON Cox you say, " Of an Admiral Hales 
we know nothing." Would you, however, allow 
me to refer you to ' Archaeologia Cantiana,' 
vol. xiv. p. 61, where a paper on the Hales family 
(by one of their descendants) states "Sir Robert 
de Hales, Prior of the Hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem in England, in the reign of Edward III., 
Admiral of the King's Fleet, and Treasurer of the 
King's Exchequer in 4th year of Richard II. " ? He 
was murdered, together with Archbishop Sudbury 
and others, by the followers of Wat Tyler. The 
pedigree on p. 76 in the same volume shows they 
married a Cox in 1794. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

There was an Edward Hales (afterwards baronet, 
1683) who was appointed one of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty on the following 

dates: Feb. 14, 1679; Feb. 19, 1680; Jan. 20, 
1682; Aug. 28, 1683; and April 17, 1684. 


" RIDING ABOUT OF VECTORING " (8 th S. v. 27). 
I find the following explanation by the Rev. T. 
Lewis O. Davies in his ' Supplemental English 
Glossary,' with another example of the use of the 
expression : 

" Victoring Boys, roaring boya. 
To runne through all the pamphlets and the toyes 
Which I haue scene in hands of Vicloring Boyes. 
Davies, ' Scourge of Folly.' " 


71, Brecknock Road. 

MR. SUDDABY has omitted to finish the sen- 
tence. Statute 30 of the Merchant Taylors' School 
is as follows : 

' Ncr lett them use noe cock-fighting, tennya play, nor 
riding about of victoring nor disputing abroade, which ia 
but foolish babbling and losse of tyme." 

For nor the latter read and; it will then be 
manifest that the "victoring" was part of the 
disputation. This was the opinion of Carlisle 
(' Endowed Grammar Schools,' ii. 55), and he was 
probably well qualified to judge. 

Eden Bridge. 

MISERERE CARVINGS (8 th S. i. 413, 481 ; ii. 9, 
113, 214, 235 ; iii. 14, 78). Miss KNIGHTLEY 
states that there are misericords in St. Helen's, 
Bishopsgate. I shall be extremely obliged if she 
can tell me where they are, as I can find none there, 
unless she counts a piece of stained deal on one 
seat a misericord. The " Shoemaker Miserere " is 
an entire misnomer. The so-called shoemaker is 
a wood-carver, carving a rose, and is correctly 
described as doing so in Mr. De Wilde's ' Rambles 
Roundabout.' I do not speak of this from hearsay, 
as I have examined the carving carefully, knowing 
the chief trade of Wellingborough. To support the 
true description of this carving is a fellow- carver, 
also hard at work, on a misericord at Great Dod- 
dington, not far from Wellingborough. So, pace 
MR. WILDRIDGE and others, the shoemaker must 
resign in favour of the carver. I append my de- 
scription of the Wellingborough carver, written with 
the seat turned up before me. A wood-carver at 
work ; he wears a tippet fastened in front with a 
brooch like a rose his sleeves are puffed at the 
shoulders he wears hose and pointed boots. A 
pointed cap is on his head. On his knees is a piece 
of wood or bench, whereon, in the centre, is a boss 
shaped like a rose, which he is carving. On either 
side of this are ranged his tools, four on either 
side, viz., a hammer, chisels, and gouges. Behind 
him, and on either side, is an eagle with outstretched 
wings. Behind them again is foliage. The " sup- 
porters " or side subjects are foliated carving. A 
curious example of a misericord exists in the 

S- h S. V. FEB. 3, '94.] 



museum, Bangor. The device is two dragons, 
one dexter and another sinister, with open jaws, in 
which they seek to enclose a man's head. It is 
rather broken and the carving is coarse. Interest 
in these curiouscarvingsappears tobeon the increase, 
and no doubt many of your readers could indicate in 
your columns churches where they still exist. 

3, Pump Court, Temple. 

SIR JOSEPH YATES, JUDGE (8 th S. v. 7). 
There is an engraved portrait of this eminent judge 
on the walls of the Manchester Grammar School 
in company with those of many other distinguished 
scholars educated there. It is entitled " Sir Joseph 
Yates, Knt., one of the Judges of the Court of 
King's Bench. Died 1770." He was moved from 
the King's Bench, and held the appointment as 
Judge of the Common Pleas, not for one month 
(as stated by me on p. 7), but from Feb. 16, 1770, 
to June 7, 1770, when he died. The tribute to 
him by Junius, under date Nov. 14, 1770, in his 
first letter to Lord Mansfield, must consequently 
have been to his honoured memory. In a note in 
an edition of the ' Letters of Junius,' by Robert 
Heron (1801), it is said : 

" Sir Joseph Yates was lately dead. The facts which 
Junius relates are true. Yates was an able and upright 
judge, but incapable of improving the spirit of the law 
in his interpretation of it. There was an opposition of 
juridical principles, and of personal views, between him 
and Lord Mansfield." Vol. ii. p. 152. 

Newbourne Eectory, Woodbridge. 

Sir Joseph Yates matriculated at Oxford from 
Queen's College on Dec. 7, 1739, aged seventeen 
('Alumni Oxon.,' 1715-1886, vol. iv. p. 1626). 
He received the degree of the coif on Jan. 23 
1764, and took his seat as a Justice of the King's 
Bench on the following day (Burrow's * Reports, 
vol. iii. p. 1451). I am not aware of any portrail 
of Sir Joseph Yates ; but the Recorder of Salforc 
should be able to give information to MR. PICK 
FORD on this point. G. F. R. B. 

According to the c Book of Dignities ' (p. 373 
Yates was created a judge on Jan. 23, 1764, not 
in 1763. Also, according to the same authority 
when he was transferred to the Common Plea*, in 
1770, he held the latter appointment more than i 
month. The entry is : " 1770. Sir Jos. Yates 
just. K.B.,Feb. 16 ;d. June 16 following" (p. 379). 


FRANC.OIS QUESNAY (8 th S. v. 68). The autho 
of ' Principes de Chirurgie ' (Paris, 1746) was no 
Frangois Quesnay, but George (de ?) Lafaye. The 
book has been frequently reprinted with the 
author's name. The eleventh edition (edited by 
Ph. Mouton) appeared at Paris in 1811. 


ST. WINIFRED (8 th S. v. 29). I cannot exactly 
eply to ASTARTE'S question about St. Winifred, 
>ut in a bookseller's catalogue I notice : " Wene- 
rede. The Life and Miracles of St. Wenefrede, 
ogether with her Litanies and Historical Observa- 
ions made thereon, 1713, 8vo., calf rare." I 
wonder which is correct Winifred or Wenefrede. 


Oh I once the harp of Innisfail, &c. 
Opening lines of Campbell's ' O'Connor's Child.' 


The Psalter of the Great Bille of 1539. Edited by the 

Rev. John Earle, M.A. (Murray.) 
THE Great Bible is, indeed, aa Mr. Earle styles it, a 
"landmark in English literature." It consists of an 
edition of Matthews's Bible, revised from the Hebrew 
by Miles Coverdale, and published in 1539, four years 
after the appearance of the first complete translation of 
the Bible into English had seen the light. Coverdale's 
latest edition, published, like the preceding, under the 
auspices of Cranmer, is a singularly great improvement 
upon the previous volume, and shows Coverdale as a 
translator at his very best. Without being so potent a 
spirit as Tyndale, to whom all subsequent translators are 
indebted, Coverdale had very considerable scholarship. 
To Englishmen he will always be dear as the first trans- 
lator of the entire Bible, a task of great difficulty and 
labour. The Psalter from his Great Bible is now repub- 
lished in what is practically facsimile, and constitutes a 
priceless boon not only to Biblical students, but to scholar- 
ship generally. The text is black-letter, the Latin head- 
ings to the Psalms, which, beside being useful for pur- 
poses of designation, have a musical value and interest of 
their own, being preserved. What give special value to a 
volume that many students will be delighted to possess 
are the preface and the notes of the editor. The former, 
dealing with the Psalter in Greek and Latin, the Hebrew 
Psalter, and the English Psalter, is a model of erudition 
and sound judgment. The exegetical portion of the notes- 
commands special admiration, but the critical portion has 
also high merit, condensing what has been said by the 
best scholars, English and foreign. See particularly the 
note on P*alm cix., " Deus laudam meam," on the task 
of explaining, or apologizing for, the imprecatory pas- 
sages, and the view expressed by the Rev. Joseph Ham- 
mond in the second volume of ' The Expositor,' that 
verses 5 to 18 are practically dramatic an ingenious 
and a plausible view that many would like to take. Mr, 
Earle's own view is that the difficulty here and else-' 
where experienced will disappear as sounder views 
prevail as to the distinction of Scripture from other 
literature. We can only recommend the volume to our 

Random. Roaming, and other Papers. By Augustus 

Jessopp, D.D. (Fisher Unwin.) 

FEW litterateurs can beat out their grain of gold more 
skilfully, or make it cover a larger superficies, than Dr. 
Jessopp. Shut him up in a cell with his notes and 
transcripts from ancient records, and we will warrant 
him to turn out a chatty and well-written essay on a 
broomstick, or any other unlikely subject, that can be 
read with pleasure perhaps with profit. A dyspeptic 



[8* s. V. FEB. 3, : 94. 

critic may hint that he is discursive and garrulous, and 
that in his chapters, as in Christmas crackers, the 
poetical and gustable kernel bears but a minute propor- 
tion to the light and attractive material with which it 
is tricked out. Be that as it may, Dr. Jessopp is always 
readable, and he has a rare power of imparting life and 
interest to bygone times. Moreover, he ia always sweet 
and charitable in his judgments ; he is a doughty 
champion of the poor, and tilts vigorously at our modern 
panaceas of poor rates and school boards. He pleads 
feelingly for the creation of places of honourable retire 
xnent, where those who have been vanquished or disabled 
in the battle of life may find a refuge without being 
pauperized. Would that some millionaire may give 
substance to his dream ! 

Customs and Fashions in Old New England. By Alice 

Morse Earle. (Nutt.) 
THIS is a work of very considerable research regarding 
the manners and habits of the old colonial time. So far 
as we can call to mind, we have nothing of a kind 
exactly parallel relating to any one of our English 
counties. This is to be deplored, for records in print 
and manuscript exist in abundance from which similar 
volumes might be compiled. That very vague person 
" the general reader " is not credited with any zeal for 
studying old-world literature in any form ; but when the 
results are put before him in an attractive form, as 
Miss Alice Earle has done in this instance, it is well 
known that he reads with delight. 

The chapters into which the volume is divided are 
not all of equal value. That on " Child Life " is among 
the best; but it is painful reading. There are many 
things, both in America and England, that even now 
call loudly for amendment in the treatment of children, 
but we do not think the babies have ever been so badly 
off in the old home as they seem to have been across the 
Atlantic. We were not aware that it was a rule with 
the New England Puritans that babies should be baptized 
in the churches, however cold the weather might be. 
Miss Earle assures us that it was so, and that in many 
cases the ice on the surface of the baptismal basin had to 
be broken to reach the water. We know that in England 
in those days in cold weather baptisms were usually ad- 
ministered at home. Many children must have been 
hurried out of the world by this strange rigourism. But 
it was not in this that the little things most call for our 
pity. The hardness of parents good, holy men, who 
did everything for the best seems almost incredible. 
Cotton Mather, a man of whom New Englanders are 
justly proud, when his little daughter Katie was but four 
years old, took her into his study, and telling her that 
he should die shortly, expounded to her "the sinful 
condition of her nature." The good man erred in his 
prophesy. He lived thirty years longer, surviving little 
Katie, whom he had felt it to be his duty to terrify. 

The chapter on " Domestic Service " contains some 
points of more than ordinary interest. In the days 
before the great civil war of thirty years ago the de- 
scendants of the New England Puritans were the back- 
bone of the anti-slavery party. The conviction that 
slavery was an evil had always been held by these 
stalwart farmers ; but at first it existed as a sentiment, 
which it took long years of pondering and struggle to 
shape into that earnest conviction which fired the ser- 
mons and speeches of Theodore Parker and the other 
great Abolitionist orators. 

" Books and Bookmakers " is an excellent paper. The 
author gives a multitude of well-grouped facts relating 
to the rise of a native literature in America. The 
United States is now well-nigh as prolific of novel- 
writers aa the old land. It is little more than a century 

ago in 1789, to be exact when the first native novel 
appeared. It is called f The Power of Sympathy,' and is 
dedicated " to the young Ladies of America." 

The author says that in the old time ink was fre- 
quently made at home. This was not a practice con- 
fined to the colonies. In the north of England, until at 
least the middle of this century, the rural schoolmasters 
very frequently manufactured their own ink. 

Memoirs of Mrs. Siddons. By James Boaden. (Phila- 
delphia, Lippincott & Co.) 

OF Boaden'a zealous, if somewhat turgid, biography of 
Mrs. Siddons a handsome reprint, with admirable and 
well-selected illustrations, consisting principally of por- 
traits, has been issued by Messrs. Lippincott & Co. It 
is published in a limited edition, and will be warmly 
welcomed by readers of theatrical books. Boaden 
supplies much curious gossip and valuable information. 
His biographies form an indispensable portion of every 
theatrical library. 

English Book- Plates, Ancient and Modern. By Egerton 

Castle, M.A., F.S.A. (Bell & Sons.) 
IT is seldom that a work of erudition attains the honour 
of a second and enlarged edition so soon as has the 
1 English Book-Plates ' of Mr. Egerton Castle. So much 
matter, new and interesting, has come into the hands of 
Mr. Castle that there was nothing to be done except to 
reprint the work. It does not follow, however, that the 
new book replaces the old. Genuine enthusiasts con- 
cerning book-plates will, indeed, be careful to have the 
two. It is in modern book-plates those, indeed, of 
living men that the additions are most noteworthy. 
Perhaps the most picturesque, striking, and fanciful 
among them all is that of Mr. Walter Herries Pollock, 
editor of the Saturday Review. It furnishes a capital 
portrait, and is designed by Miss (?) Agnes Castle. In 
its new shape, as in its old, the volume deserves a place 
in every elegant library. 

To the " Elizabethan Library " Mr. A. B. Grosart has 
contributed a selection from the prose writings of Bacon, 
which he has called Thoughts that Breathe and Words 
that Burn. To those unfamiliar with Bacon it may be 

Ijtoiijtts to C0ms|r0tttais. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

COTES. The parish register ought to be a safe source 
of information. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Oflice, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8" 9. V. FEB. 10, '94.] 




CONTENTS. N* 111. 

NOTES .Carronades, 101 Sacheverell, 102-Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, 103 William Hoare, 104" To foil "The " Church 
Acre" at Aldermaston Milton's "Fleecy Star," 106 
Early Fire Brigades British Peers and German Sove- 
reignsParish Coffins, 107. 

QUERIES : " Ferrateen " " Metherinx ": " Olderne " 
Portrait of W. Koscoe Swift and Stella W. Parsons 
The Talmud, 107 Charles I. Beading Dutch to Milton- 
Freemasonry Eynus Cuming Small -pox Dorset 
Family Names Translation Wanted Browning's 'Epi- 
logue' James Lawrie Bayham Abbey, 108 Sir T. and 
Sir W. Rawlinson Price Family' The London Maga- 
zine' " Harg," 109. 

REPLIES : Irish Cathedrals, 109 " Ventre-saintrgris," 111 
"Hoodlumism" General Lane Fox on Primitive War- 
fare Tim Bobbin, the Younger County of Hertford- 
Curse of Scotland, 113 Lamb's Residence at Dalston The 
Magnetic Rock Verses Miraculous Fall of Wheat, 114 
"The good old times " Prince Charles Edward The 
Sarum Missal Hanging in Chains Talbot : Townsend: 
Bade, 116 Slang Tudhope Comet Queries White Jet 
Latin Quotations Sir Hugh Myddelton, 117 Brother- 
in-Law Ode to Tobacco "Exceptio probat regulam" 
Accurate Language, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lang's Scott's 'St. Ronan's Well' 
Wheatley's ' Dedication of Books ' Blessington's ' Con- 
versations of Byron and Blessington 'The Reviews and 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See l rt S. ix. 264 ; xi. 247.) 

I have recently had occasion to examine the 
claims put forward on behalf of Patrick Miller, of 
Dalswinton (well known in connexion with experi- 
ments on steam navigation in the last century), to 
the invention of carronades. I found nothing to 
substantiate his claims ; but the facts which I 
gathered may perhaps be worth recording in 

The earliest mention of the use of carronades in 
actual warfare which I have met with is contained 
in the Edinburgh Advertiser for April 13, 1779, 
p. 243, where accounts are given of an action 
fought, March 17, 1779, in St. George's Channel, 
near the Tuskar Rock, between the British privateer 
Sharp and the American privateer Sky-Rocket. 
The former was armed with carronades, " short 
guns of a new construction made at Carron." One 
of these accounts is from Capt. MacArthur, an 
Englishman, who was at the time a prisoner on 
board the Sky-Rocket, and was in a position to 
speak to the damage sustained by that ship. 

On April 19 in the same year a spirited action 
was fought in the Channel between the Spitfire, a 
British privateer armed with sixteen 18-pounder 
carronades, commanded by Capt. Thomas Bell, 
and owned by John Zuiller and others, and the 
Surveillante, a French frigate of thirty-two guns 

and a large crew. The Spitfire was taken after an 
obstinate fight, the Surveillante sustaining con- 
siderable damage. The loss is announced in the 
Edinburgh Advertiser of May 14, pp. 313, 317; 
and in the issue for May 25, p. 340, there is a 
letter from the captain, then a prisoner at L'Orient, 
to the owners, giving an account of the affair, 
which is, however, described more fully in the Ad- 
vertiser for Oct. 26, p. 277. 

A letter of four columns signed " Henry Ross, 
Liverpool, Sept. 7, 1779," appears in the above- 
mentioned paper on Sept. 28, p. 209, in which 
the writer speaks of the advantages of carronades 
in naval warfare, disclaiming at the same time all 
connexion with the Carron Foundry, and stating 
that he has no interest in the sale of the guns. He 
gives the results of experiments made with carron- 
ades at Liverpool in January, and at Woolwich 
and Hull in March, 1779. 

In the Advertiser for Oct. 26, 1779, there is a 
letter signed " A. C.," dated from Edinburgh, in 
which the writer says : 

" These new guna have been put on board some of our 
ships of war, but it is feared to little purpose, as there is 
reason to think that the officers are not made acquainted 
with their properties." P. 277. 

The order for introducing carronades into the 
British navy was probably given in the latter part 
of the year 1779, or perhaps later, as appears from 
the following minute of the Board of Admiralty : 

"July 16, 1779. Experiments having lately been 
made by the officers of the Ordnance of the utility of 
small pieces of cannon called Carronades, and the Comp- 
troller of the Navy, whom the Board directed to attend 
the said experiments, having recommended the use of 
them, Resolved that a Memorial be laid before the King 
proposing that the same may be established on board 
the ships of the Royal Navy according *o the numbers 
and nature for each class mentioned in the paper there- 
unto annexed." 

The foregoing extract was transcribed by me 
from the original Minute Book at the Public Re- 
cord Office, but I was not able to find the sub- 
sequent minute ordering the use of carronades in 
his Majesty's ships. 1 was also unsuccessful in 
tracing the report of the Comptroller of the Navy 
on the experiments carried out by the officers of the 

The following is from Rees's ' Cyclopedia,' art 
" Cannon," sig. Xx 2 : 

" There is now in the possession of General Melville 
a small model of it [i.e., a carronade] mounted on its 
carriage on a email platform, to one end of which is 
fastened a wooden representation in miniature of part 
of a ship's side, with a port, and the following inscrip- 
tion in brass, let in on the top thereof : ' Gift of the 
Carron Company to Lieut.-General Melville, inventor 
of the smashers and lesser carronades, for solid shot, 
shell, and carcass-shot, first used against the French 
ships in 1779.' " 

I have ventured to correct a slight verbal in- 
accuracy in the above, due to an obvious misprint, 
" solid shot " appearing as " solid, ship." It is just 



s v. FEB. 10, '94. 

possible that this model may still be in existence, 
and if it be, I should like to know where it is to 
be seen. 

According to the " Commercial Gazetteer " at the 
end of vol. iv. of MacPherson's ' Annals of Com- 
merce,' s.v. " Carron," carronades were 
"invented in the year 1752 at the Fort on Cove 
Island by General Melville, first made here in 1779 by 
Mr. Gascoigne, Director of the works, and now [1805] 
well known over all the world." 

K. B. P. 

(Continued from p. 45.) 

Volume III. 

53. The Reasons of those Lords that entered their Pro- 
test in Dr. Sacheverell's case, &c. 1710. 

54. A List of the Lords who protested against some 
Proceedings, in relation to the case of Dr. Henry Sache- 
verell, in the House of Peers, with their Lordships' 
reasons for Entring their Protestations. 1710. 

55. Another Edition. 1710. 

56. A Compleat List of the Lords Spiritual and Tem- 
poral with a List of the Commons of Great Britain, both 
of the late Parliament, Dissolved September the 23rd, 
1710, and that summoned to meet November the 25th, 
1710. N.B. That those Lords that have a Star before 
them were for Dr. S., and those with this mark J were 
against him, and those without any mark did not appear. 

571 A Letter to the Rev: Dr. Henry Sacheverell on 
Occasion of his Sermon, and late Sentence passed on him, 
by the Honourable House of Lords. By a Cambridge- 
Gentleman. 1710. Signed A.K. 

58. An Impartial Account of what pass'd most Re- 
markable in the Last Session of Parliament relating to 
the Case of Dr. Henry Sacheverell. 1710. 

59. The Thoughts of a Country Gentleman upon 
reading Dr. Sacheverell's Tryal. In a Letter to a Friend. 

60. The Second Edition. 1710. 

61. The Character of a Modern Addresser. 1710. 

62. Queries to the New Hereditary Right-Men. 1710. 

63. Four Letters to a Friend in North Britain, upon 
the Publishing the Tryal of Dr. Sacheverell. 1710. 

64. An Appeal from the City to the Country, for the 
Preservation of Her Majesty's Person, Liberty, Property, 

and the Protestant Religion Occasionally written 

upon the late impudent Affronts offered to Her Majesty's 
Royal Crown and Dignity by the People of Banbury and 
Warwick 1710. 

65. A Visit to St. Saviour's Southwark, with Advice 
to Dr. Sacheverell's Preachers there. By A Divine of 
the Church of England. 1710. 

66. A Search after Principles : in a Free Conference 
between Timothy and Philatheus concerning the Present 
Times. Wherein, among other Matters, Dr. West. 
Bishop Fleetwood, Bishop Wake's late Sermons, Bishop 
Burnet's Speech against Dr. Sacheverell are Consider'd : 
and the Celebrated Author of Priestcraft in Perfection 
not forgot. 1710. 

67. A Specimen of the Wholesome Severities, Prac 
Used in Queen Elizabeth's Reign, against Her Protestant 
Dissenter?, in the Examination of Henry Barrow before 
the High Commissioners, and Lords of the Council, &c. 
Recommended by Dr. Henry Sacheverell, as proper for 
the present Times. 1710. 

68. A New Catechism with Dr. Hickes's Thirty Nine 
Articles. The Second Edition corrected. 1710. 

9. Archbishop Tillotson's Vindication of Passive 
Obedience and Non-Resistance in his Letter to the Lord 
Russell, the Day before his Execution, July 1683. 1710. 

70. The Thirteenth Chapter to the Romans vindicated 
'rom the Abusive Senses put upon it. Written by a 
Curate of Salop 1710. 

71. John England, Minister of the Gospel. Pray for 
he Peace of Jerusalem. A Sermon Preach'd at Sher- 
)orne in the County of Dorset, on the Public Fast, 
March 15th, 1709/10 a little after the Rebellious Tumults 
occasion'd by Dr. Sacheverell's Tryal. The Second 

Edition ; with an Advertisement and Postscript. 1710. 

72. M r. Baron L[ovell]'s Charge to the Grand Jury 
!br the County of Devon, the 5th of April, 1710, at the 
Castle of Exon. The Famous Speech-Maker of Eng- 
and : or Baron (alias Barren) L 's Charge, at the 
Aesizes at Exon : April 5th, 1710. 1710. 

73. Mr. Baron Lovell's Charge to the Grand Jury for 
the County of Devon, the 5th of April, 1710, at the 
Castle of Exon. 1710. 

Volume IV. 

74. The Manager's Pro and Con : or, an Account of 
what is said at Child's and Tom's Coffee Houses for and 
against Dr. Sacheverell. [By Sir John St. Leger.] 1710. 
Reflections on a Late Pamphlet, entitled Priestcraft in \ 
Perfection. (An Appendix to the previous article.) 

75. The Second Edition corrected. 1710. 

76. The Fourth Edition. 1710. 

77. A Letter out of the Country, to the Author of the 
Manager's Pro and Con, in Answer to his Account of 
what is said at Child's and Tom's in the Caae of Dr. 
Sacheverell, Article by Article. 1710. 

78. The Picture of Malice, or a True Account of Dr. 
Sacheverell's Enemies, and their behaviour with regard 
to him since the Fifth of November last. 1710. 

79. The Jacobitism, Prejury, and Popery of High- 
Church Priests. 1710. 

80. Aminadab's Declaration, Deliver'd at a General 
Meeting Holden upon the First Day of the Last Pente- 
cost. N.p. 1710. 

81. A Character of Don Sacheverellio, Knight of the 
Firebrand ; in a Letter to Isaac Bickerstaff E?q. , Censor 
of Great Britain. Dublin. Signed John Distaff. 1710. 

82. St. Paul and Her Majesty vindicated. In proving 
from the Apostle's own Words, Rom: xiii, that the 
Doctrine of Non-Resistance, as commonly taught, is 
None of His. Not done before. Captain Tom. 1710. 

83. Dr. Sacheverell's Progress from London to his 
Rectory of Salatin in Shropshire, or, a True and Im- 
partial Account of the Reception he has met with, from 
the several Corporations He passed through in his Jour- 
ney thither. In a Letter from a Gentleman (that 
accompanied Him, from bis first Setting out, to this 
time) to his Friend in London. 1710. 

84. A Letter concerning Allegiance, written by the 
Lord Bishop of L[pndo]n, to a Clergy-man in Essex, 
presently after the Revolution. 1710. 

85. The Thoughts of an Honest Tory upon the Pre- 
sent Proceedings of that Party, In a Letter to a Friend 
in Town. 1710. 

86. Chuse which you Please : or Dr. Sacheverell'and 
Mr. Hoadly Drawn to the Life, being a Brief Repre- 
sentation of the Respective Opinions of each Party in 
Relation to Passive Obedience. 1710. 

87. The Thoughts of an Honest Whig, upon the Pre- 
sent Proceedings of that Party. In a Letter to a Friend 
in Town. 1710. 

88. A Speech without Doors. 1710. 

89. Taunt for Taunt. The Manager Managed : or, 
The Exemplary Moderation and Modesty of a Whig 
Low-Church Preacher discovering from his own Mouth. 
In Remarks, Observations, and Reflections upon a Ser- 

. V. FEB.10,'J4.] 



mon, preached on Sunday, the Fifth of November last 
past, in the Parish Church of St. Paul, Covent Garden, 
by the Self-Call'd Honourable Robert Lumley Lloyd, 
Rector of the said Parish. 1710. 

90. Bishop Hall's Hard Measure, written by himself 
upon his Impeachment of High Crimes and Misdemean- 
ours for Defending the Church of England, being A Case 
something Parallel to Dr. 8 1. 1710. 

91. What has been, may be again : Or, an Instance of 
London's Loyalty, in 1640, &c., Being the Substance of a 
Traitorous Play, acted in the Guildhall of that City by 
some of the Aldermen and Chief Leaders of the Party 
in the year 1642. Together with the Pulpit Doctrine of 
those Times. 1710. 

92. Dame Huddle's Letter to Mrs. S d her Landlady, 
with her Landlady's Answer. 1710. 

93. A General View of our Present Discontents. 1710. 

94. The Assertion is, that the Title of the House of 
Hanover to the Succession of the British Monarchy (on 
failure of issue of Her Present Majesty) is a Title Here- 
ditary, and of Divine Institution. 1710. 

95. The Judgment of whole Kingdoms and Nations, 
concerning the Rights, Power, and Prerogative of Kings, 
and the Rights, Priviledges, and Propeftiea of the People. 

96. Faults on both Sides : or an Essay upon the Ori- 
ginal Cause, Progress, and Mischievous Consequences of 

the Factions in this Nation By way of Answer to the 

Thoughts of an Honest Tory. The Second Edition. 1710. 

97. Faults on both Sides. Part the Second. By way 
of Letter to a New Member of Parliament. 1710. 

98. A Supplement to the Faults on Both Sides : con- 
taining the Complete History of the Proceedings of a 
Party ever since the Revolution. In a Familiar Dia- 
logue between Steddy and Turn-Round, Two Displaced 
Officers of State, which may serve to explain Sir Tnomas 
Double ; and to shew how far the Late Parliament were 
Right in Proceeding against Dr. Sacheverell, by way of 
Impeachment. 1710. 

99. Faults in the Fault- Finder : or, a Specimen of 
Errors in the Pamphlet, Entitled ' Faults on both Sides.' 
The Second Edition. 1710. 

100. Most Faults on One Side : or, the Shallow 
Politics, Foolish Arguing, and Villainous Designs of the 
Author of a Late Pamphlet, entitul'd ' Faults on Both 
Sides, 1 considered and Exposed. In answer to that 
Pamphlet. The Third Edition, corrected. 1711. 

(To le continued.) 

(Continued from 6 th S. iv. 523.) 

On March 24, 1668, Pepys at Whitehall heard 
great talk of a tumult at the other end of the town ; 
about Moorfields the 'prentices were employing 
the liberty of their holidays to pull down brothels. 
This was a Shrovetide sport with them ; they used 
then to hunt up the women of ill fame and throw 
them into prison to pass Lent there. This par- 
ticular burst of virtue startled the Court. The 
soldiers were ordered out horse and foot, and 
alarms sounded by drum and trumpet through all 
Westminster, as though the French were landed : 

" So Creed, whom I met here, and I to Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, thinking to have gone into the fields to see the 
'prentices; but here we found these fields full of 
oldiers all in a body, and my Lord Craven commanding 
of them, and riding up and down to give orders like a 

Some young men prisoners were brought along, 
but Pepys reports the bystanders with them and 
against the soldiery. He also tells of the Justice 
of the Peace who had shut some of them up in 
" the new prison at Clerkenwell," but the rest 
broke prison and let them out. In the next 
breath he tells us how Sir F. Hollis, whom he met 
do still" tell him "that above all things in the 
world, he wishes he had my tongue in his mouth." 
Naturally we hear no more of the fields. He, 
Hollis, and Lord Brouncker, then stroll down to 
the guards' room together, and there did drink in 
a handsome room. Hollis calls for his bagpipes, 
which " he did play beyond anything in that kind 
that I ever heard in my life," not worth the pains, 
"for at the best it is mighty barbarous music." 
So "to my chamber, to prick out my song, 'It is 
decreed."' This brings us back a stirring after- 
noon in March, 1668, in very lively guise, that, 
but for gossip, had never lived till now. It tastes 
of immortality ; there must be an apotheosis for 
even insects, surely. No wonder Homer and Mil- 
ton cannot die, when Hollis's bagpipe lives. 

Cunningham mentions the attack made by the 
London apprentices on Whetstone Park, ostensibly 
for its notorious immorality, in 1682. In 'Old 
and New London' this date is misprinted as 
1602. Thornbury, in his 'Haunted London,' 
gives far fuller particulars of the fracas. Un- 
happily he betrays no hint as to whence he draws 
his account, neither do I happen upon anybody 
else who does, so I must simply quote his words 
for what they may be thought worth. Cunning- 
ham mentions the attack in the year 1682 ; and I 
imagine thence that Thornbury must have looked 
up that year in journals and news-sheets of the 
day. The pity is he should have failed to record 
it for us. It is just eleven years later than the 
poem of the three dukes : 

" In 1682, the mi-named park grew so infamous, that 
a countryman, having been decoyed into one of the 
houses and robbed, went into Smithfield and collected an 
angry mob of about 500 apprentices, who marched on 
Whetstone Park, broke open the houses, and destroyed 
the furniture. The constables and watchmen being out- 
numbered, sent for the King's guard, who dispersed 
them and took eleven, nevertheless, the next night 
another mob stormed the place, broke in the doors, 
smashed the windows, and cut the feather-beds to 

Soon after this all impropriety must have been 
swept away from the spot, as in 1708 we find 
Hatton, in his ' Catalogue of Streets,' &c., noting 
Whetstone's Park as " mostly stables." It is the 
same still, except that printing-houses and the 
large hotel of the Inns of Court have encroached 
on a considerable portion of it. 

Strype, in his edition of Stow, 1720, must not 
be passed over entirely, because he notices that at 
this date the vicious inhabitants had been for some 
years " forced away." He speaks also of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. it* s. v. F.B. 10, -84. 

numerous little alleys that run through into Hoi 
born. Beyond Turnstile eastward, he recordi 
"Turnstile Tavern well noted," and two smal 
inns, " the St. John's Head, and the White Horse 
and Star." And a little further is Gridiron Alley 
" by the Griffin and Parrot, which is the eastward 
extent of the parish." This Gridiron Alley is 
given in the parish clerk's list of 1732. u 
in 1810 Lockie calls it Fenwick Court, "seven 
teen or eighteen doors on the left from Chancery 
Lane." All this somewhat ridiculous minuteness 
presents nevertheless a gentle sub-interest to the 
thoroughgoing philopole, or London-lover, and helps 
him, amidst the sweeping changes of devastating 
time, to gather up and garner a few of the more 
familiar names of the things that constituted the 
daily scene that Milton encountered when he 
lived in Holborn. If the eye of the poet failed, 
his all-seeing mind would appoint the ear in 
telligencer, and so gather much, though less. It 
is a pity that the indications are so much rarer 
than they might have been; but rarity, where 
imagination can play a little, soon displays its 
germ of value, and grows into a thing of price. 

Parton, in his plan of the parish, which he pre- 
tends to be of the date of A.D. 1300, gives to the 
whole of this triangular patch of ground the name 
of " Terra juxta Barram de Holeburn," in which 
he includes all of what is now Whetstone 
Park up to Holborn from the Great Turnstile to 
Gate Street. He gives it the alternative appella- 
tion of " Terra juxta Barrum Veteri [sic] Templi." 
He makes no attempt to verify this or any other 
part of his plans, so that one is gradually forced to 
regard them as so much pure fiction or wanton 
misrepresentation. What he marks as " Fickett's 
Croft, afterwards called Little Lincoln's Inn 
Fields," is placed by him as a field lying to the 
north and west of St. Clement Danes. This is, I 
think, simply impossible, for Little Lincoln's Inn 
Fields is the present New Square, and I have 
already said that I take Fickett's Croft and Serle 
Square to be merely so many names applied from 
time to time to the same spot. This I find to be 
confirmed by William Newton, who says : 

" On the southern side of Lincoln's Inn there was a 
close, formerly called Fickett'a Croft, which belonged 
to a family ef the name of Serle ; a portion of this field 
having been purchased by the society, to enlarge the 
area of their grounds, upon it they erected the pile of 
buildings called Serle's Court or New Square." 

It is very curious to find that the bars of Hol- 
born were called Temple Bars, from the Old Temple 
where the Knights Templars first established them- 
selves ; it stood a little west of the present Hol- 
born Bars and of Staple Inn. The faithful chro- 
nicler Stow thus speaks of it* : 

* I have fallen into a mistake in my former paper, at 
p. 424, where i refer to the " Old Temple " as being on 
the site of the Whitefrairs. The words "of the Old 
Temple " should be omitted. 

" Beyond the Barres had ye [in old time] a Temple, 
builded by the Templars whose order first began in the 
.veere of Christ 1118, the 19th of Henry the First. This 
Temple was left, and fell to ruin since the yeere 1184, 
when the Templers had builded them a new Temple in 
Fleet Street, neere to the River Thames. A great part 
of this old Temple was pulled doun but of late, in the year 

Adjoining this westward was the Bishop of Lin- 
colne's Inne. It was afterwards possessed by the 
Earls of Southampton, and called Southampton 
House. Stow tells us that Agaster Roper hath of 
late builded much there, and so doing brought to 
light the Caen stone vaultings of the old Temple, 
and showed a round church like that of the new 
Temple at the other end of Chancery Lane, and 
equally close to the second Temple Bar. Newton, 
writing so late as 1855, tells us that some stone 
walls were then remaining contiguous to the round 
church, to the west of which lay the burial-ground, 
hich was brought to notice a few years prior to 
the date of his book by the graves falling in. 
This Lincoln's Inne brings us, with its gardens, to 
the eastern side of Chancery Lane. On the opposite 
side of this lane was the Earl of Lincoln's house, 
granted to him by Edward I. when the Black 
Friars quited Holborn for Ludgate. It was from 
this house that Lincoln's Inn and Lincoln's Inn 
Fields derived their name. 

It was that building projector, Agaster Roper, 
I imagine, who built over all the ground from 
Staple Inn right up to Chancery Lane, and that 
picturesque old spot Middle Row as well. Its 
ppearance in 1835 is given in Partington's ' Views 
of London.' Obstructive it might perhaps be, but 
once seen from the City side, it was a thing not to 
36 forgotten. It was in happy harmony with the 
strange Jacobean gables of old Staple Inn, which 
las never looked at home since the razure of that 
ancient passage with its friendly Row. All appears 
arish now and out of place. The two ancientries 
together seemed so wedded in unity that the eye 
could rest on them, as on plant-growths, with satis- 
action. It appeared as if in a happy old world 
louse-seeds might perhaps be planted and spring 
up of themselves, as vegetables do, in mutual 
accommodation one to another, out of the parent 
earth. There is a faint likeness to it still to be 
een down away in Whitechapel, by St. Mary 
Matfellon, though now spoilt by the miserable new 
church there. "Perish, vanish, tarnish" is the 
motto of our day, with architecture defunct. 

0. A. WARD. 
(To le continued.) 


(Concluded from p. 25.) 

Hoare's portraits are solidly painted, natural in 
ttitude, and full of character ; his crayons fine 

th s. V. FEB. 10, '84.] 



and harmonious in colouring. Sir Thomas Lawrence 
when quite young was at Bath; when here he 
acknowledges the great assistance given him by 
Wm. Hoare in drawing heads in chalk. Of our 
friend as a painter, now seventy- six years of age, I 
have little more to say ; but the energy of a busy 
life died hard with him, for when over seventy he 
copied Guide's 'Aurora,' with its figures nearly 
as large as life, and this picture is finished with 
great firmness and precision of pencil. William 
Houre had a brother who practised as a sculptor at 
Bath ; amongst his works is the statue of " Beau " 
Nash in the Pump Room. I give a list of portraits 
that have been engraved after Hoare in mezzotint : 

Christopher Anstey. In possession of the Bath Cor- 
poration. An etching of his head in small in Print 
Room, Brit. Alus. Sir Thos. Lawrence also painted him. 
See Forster and Dyce Coll., S. K. Mus. 

*Ralph Allen. Etching of head, in Print Room, 
" from the life." Engraved by Hudson*. See also Dyce 

"The Bath Beauty. Engraved by Spooner. 
The fourth Duke of Beaufort. Etching. 
Charles, Earl of Camden. Forster and Dyce Collec 
tions. Engraved by Spilabury. 

*Phi!jp Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield. In National 
Portrait Gallery and Forster and Dyce Coll., Eng. En 
graved by Brooks, Houston, Simon, and A. Miller. 

Robert Dingley (of Magdalen Hospital fame). Engraved 
by Dixon. 

Job Dgiallo. Etching, head, in Print Room. 
Samuel Derrick (successor to " Beau " Nash as Bath 
M.C.). In posses-ion of Bath Corporation. 

Arthur Dobbs (Governor-in-Chief of North Carolina). 
Engraved by McArdell. 

Charles Fitzroy, second Duke of Grafton. In National 
Portrait Gallery and Forster and Dyce Collection. 
Samuel Greatheed. Engraved by Houston. 
George Grenville. In Print Room. Engraved by 
Houston and J. Wataon. 

Maria Walpole, Duchess of Gloucester (formerly 
Countess of Waldegrave). After Sir J. Reynolds. Etch- 
ing, in Dyce Collection. 

Miss Hoare. in Print Room. Engraved by Faber 
Tho Right Hon. Henry Bilson Legge. In Print Room, 
hngraved by Houston and Johson (tie). 
Mrs. Lovibond. In Print Room. Engraved by Faber. 
Catherine, Countess of Lincoln. In Print Room. En- 
graved by McArdell and Purcell. 

Richard Nash ("Beau"), M.C. at Bath. Engraved 
; r n n Llfe<> by - Goldsmith, and presented by Hoare 
to the Bath Corporation. 

lament Nevill, Esq., Lieut.- General H.M. King 
eorge U/ f t rces. Engraved by Brooks. 
Sir Isaac Newton. Etching. 

> Holies, Duke of Newcastle. In Nationa 
xayons. Engraved in Lodge's Portraits 

, R.A. Engraved by Kingsbury. 
The Right Hon. William Pitt (afterwards Earl Chat- 
In Print Room. In possession of the Bath Cor- 
Bon. Engraved by Fisher, Houston, Spilsbury 
Johson, Bocktnan, and Sissons 

Plunkett, a Courtesan. In Print Room. En- 
8 TI S ?' 8her ' Hou 8ton, and J. Watson. 

Right Hon. Henry Pelhara. National Portrait 

fry. Engraved for Core's 'Memories of the Pelham 

Admiuutration.' Engraved by Houston, 

Governor Pownall. In possession of the Bath Cor- 

Alexander Pope. At National Portrait Gallery. Forster 
and Dyce Collection, South Kensington. 

Peter Stephens, after N. Dance, R.A. Etching. In 
Print Room. 

Richard, Earl Temple. In National Portrait Gallery, 
[n Print Room and Forster and Dyce Collection. En- 
graved by Houston and J. Watson. 

William Warburton. Bishop of Gloucester. An etching 
of head in small, 1765. Also engraved in "Warburton 
and Kurd's Letters," 1809. In Print Room and Forster 
and Dyce Collection. 

A Landscape, after N. Poussin. Etching. The lady 
holding a sheet round the undraped figure. Engraved by 

William Hoare was painted by his son Prince, 
and this is engraved by W. S. Reynolds. 

Hoare's portrait, too, appears in profile in 
Zoffany's picture of the ' Life School of the Royal 
Academy/ the property of H.M. the Queen, and 
now at Windsor. This is engraved by Earlom. 
Also in Zoffany's picture representing a lecture by 
Hunter on anatomy before the members of the 
Royal Academy, now in the College of Physicians. 
Hoare is seen standing between Nollekens and Cos- 

From a likeness in my possession I believe 
Hoare to have taken a portrait of Tbicknesse, bat 
I can only find a small engraving of his head after 
Gillray, and that in the Print Room. Bromley 
mentions " a small oval prefixed to anecdotes, &c., 
of him, 1790." In the South Kensington Museum 
the only example of Hoare is a small female bead 
in oils. The Diploma Gallery and National Gallery 
have nothing of his. 

William Hoare died at Bath in December, 1792, 
leaving a numerous family. Besides the son, who 
inherited his father's talents, one of his daughters 
painted, exhibiting at the Society of Artists as 
well as at the Free Society between 1761 and 
1764. In the Abbey Church at Bath there is a 
mural tablet to William Hoare's memory, baying 
a medallion head on it. 

Besides those of Hoare's crayons I hare that 
may be seen by the asterisks in the foregoing list 
of some of his works are the following, that I 
find myself unable to trace the names of. All 
these show signs of having been used for engraving 

A gentleman, standing, three quarters, looking 
to front, hands leaning on a book, more books 
and a crayon drawing of a head, also a statuette 
of Britannia behind right, plain coat, buttoned np. 

A gentleman, sitting, three quarters, on a sofa, 
looking front, to right the hand in open breast of 
waistcoat, coat unbuttoned, left hand on waistcoat 
flap on thigh. 

A lady, three quarters, standing, looking front, 
slightly turned to right, hand on right in front of 
waist, dress folded over arm, left arm down, lace 

* All the men wear wigs. 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 10, '94. 

fichu, lace square on bosom, powdered hair, pearl 
bandeau in hair, background of wall and a column. 

Group of boy and girl, latter to left, standing 
looking front, turned to right, right arm holding 
open sketch-book, on which boy sketches while 
sitting on a bank, looking to right, loose neckcloth, 
turnover collar, landscape background. 

Group of gentleman, lady, and child, right, 
centre, and left respectively ; man's breeches and 
waistcoat light, coat (with a collar) dark, looking 
front, turned to left, his left arm over lady's left 
shoulder, he holds her right hand by the finger- 
tips with hia ; her hair plain, looking right, white 
gown caught under bosom with a jewel, belt orna- 
ment of pearls and three cut gems round waist ; 
child looking front, short hair, holding a stick 
across her in both hands ; background the Palla- 
dium at Bath and garden vase. 

Lady, sitting, looking to front, dark hair, with a 
bandeau and bow on top, has a fur-edged cloak 
on, tied at throat, playing on a guitar on lap. 

Gentleman, three quarters, looking to front, 
slightly turned to right, right arm on pedestal, left 
hand on hip, ermine over shoulders, red below, also 
jtoat, sword-belt red, and sword. 

Group of gentleman, lady, and child, right, 
centre, and left respectively ; man looks left, stand- 
ing, left arm akimbo, coat open, dark clothes, 
right arm resting on dado of column behind 
head ; the lady looks to front, standing, low 
bodice, powdered hair, lace fichu, shawl over left 
arm, left hand on child's left shoulder, right arm 
holds up a shawl ; the child sits on a low stool, 
close cap on and a necklace, her right hand holds 
flowers in lap, one foot shows front. 

Youth and gentleman ; man sits on right, looking 
to left, hand on thigh, left thumb in open coat, 
three buttons fasten the coat at waist ; youth, plain 
hair, long at back, holds a book open ; background, 
a library, books on round table, a paper on this 
with " in London, 1759," on it. 

A gentleman in uniform, standing, looking front, 
laced hat under left arm, and fingers on cane top, 
right arm on hip. This I believe to be Thick- 

I beg to acknowledge the assistance I have re- 
ceived in my attempt to unravel this tangle from 
' Anecdotes of Painting,' by E. Edwards ; Rose 
Anderdon's illustrated catalogues ; * The Great 
Painters of Christendom,' John Forbes Robert- 
son ; Redgrave's 'Dictionary of Artists'; ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography'; Chalmers's' General 
Biographical Dictionary'; and Bryan, Graves, 
Smith, and Evans's Catalogues. From Mr. Algernon 
Graves, Mr. Scharf, Mr. Sidney Colvin, and Mr. 
Sketchley I have had much aid, and, indeed, 
wherever I have asked I have received a courteous 
help, so in accordance with the high culture that 
art happily carries with it. 


"To FOIL"=TO FOUL, DEFILE. I was out 
shooting recently with a certain baronet, who raised 
a discussion during lunch as to the risk of rearing 
pheasants on ground used for the purpose in previous 
seasons. My host and his son, who hail from 
Yorkshire, both spoke of pheasants ** foiling " the 
ground, an expression I had never before come 
across, either generally or in the special circum- 
stances of pheasant - rearing, with which I am 
tolerably familiar. It has a particular interest in 
connexion with the passage in Spenser's ' Faerie 
Queene,' V. xi. 33, 

and foil 
In filthy dirt, and left so in the loathly soil, 

and also in Shakespeare's 'Cymbeline,' II. iii. 118, 

and must not foil 
The precious note of it, with a base slave, 

which editors, previously misunderstanding, have 
invariably changed to "soil." 


MASTON, NEAR READING. I think the following 
cutting from the Reading Mercury of Dec. 16, 
1893, is worthy of being preserved in ' N. & Q.': 

"A large number of the villagers assembled in the 
Schoolroom on Monday last, on the occasion of the letting 
of the ' Church Acre,' a piece of meadow land of about 
two and a half acres in extent, which was bequeathed 
some centuries ago to the Vicar and Churchwardens of 
the parish for Church expenses. The Vicar (the Rev. 
P. R. Horwood) presided, arid there were present Mr. 
C. E. Keyser, Mr. W. Keep (Vicar's Churchwarden), 
Mr. J. T. Strange (Parish Churchwarden), Messrs. 

Phillips, Cambridge, &c The letting of the ' Church 

Acre ' for a period of three years was then proceeded 
with in the following manner, in accordance with an 
ancient custom. A candle was lighted, and one inch 
below the flame duly measured off, at which point a pin 
was inserted. The biddings for the reiital of the land 
now commenced, and continued till the inch of candle 
waa consumed, when tbe pin dropped out. The first 
offer waa 51. per annum, and this sum gradually rose by 
subsequent bids to 71. 5s. Mr. Hunt, of the Furze Bush 
Inn, Aldermaston, beinn the last bidder before the fall 
of the pin, was declared by the Chairman to be the 



MILTON'S " FLEECY STAR." In a note on ' Para- 
dise Lost,' iii. 557-60, in which Milton speaks of 
Satan's gaze extending 

from eastern point 

Of Libra to the fleecy star that beara 
Andromeda far off Atlantic seas 
Beyond the horizon, 

Mr. Masson interprets the " fleecy star " to mean 
Aries, in allusion to a ram being covered by a fleece 
of wool. I would rather take the word fleecy in 
its literal sense, and suggest that the allusion is to 
the magnificent cluster of stars in the sword-handle 
of Perseus, which is visible to the naked eye and is 
said to have been first detected by Hipparchus. 

8 8. V. FEB. 10, 'S4.] 



It is not far from the Milky Way, of which Her- 
scbel regarded it as a sort of offshoot or protuber- 
ance. Milton is full of mythological allusions, and 
if a constellation may be said to bear off Andro- 
meda, it surely would be her deliverer Perseus. 

W. T. LYNN. 


" The fire brigade was not established [in Paris] on a 
firm basis by M. Morat until from 1770 to 1780. Pre- 
vious to that time, the principal assistance was civen at 
fires by the mendicant orders; it WHS the Capuchin 
monks who climbed on the roofs, rescued from the flames 
those who were in danger of death, and saved the most 
precious chattels just as they were about to be consumed. 
The first fire-pumps belonged to these religious com- 
munities, who themselves dragged them to the place of 
danger." ' Memoirs of Chancellor Pasquier,' edited by 
the Due d'Audiffret-Paequier, translated by Chas. E. 
Roche, 1893, vol. i. p. 490, foot-note. 

12, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow. 

The following letter appeared in the Times. The 
information may be useful to readers of ' N. & Q.': 

" I should like, with your permission, to point out to 
ignorant Radical cavillers that in recent times, only a 
hundred years ago, the Duke of York, second son of the 
reigning Sovereign of Great Britain, to whom un- 
doubtedly he owed allegiance, was, at the same time, 
a British peer, with the right, never disputed, to sit and 
vote in the House of Lords, and, as Bishop of Osnaburgh 
(more properly Oanabriick), a member of the Germanic 
Body and a Sovereign Prince entitled to sit and vote 
among the Princes in the Diet of the Empire, where the 
Bishop's place was marked before those of Hesse Cassel, 
Hesse Darmstadt, Wurtemberg, &c. That he had the 
attributes of sovereignty (under, of course, the Empire) 
is certain. In 1764 the Chapter of Osnaburgh an- 
nounced to George III. the election of his son Prince 
Frederick ' as Bishop and Sovereign of that See.' In 
1773 the King, acting, not as Elector of Hanover, but as 
tutor to the Bishop, his son, ordered the execution at 
Osnaburgh of the Pope's Bull for the suppression of the 
order of the Jesuits. A Royal patent, dated November 2, 

1802, notifying to the 'canons, knights, vassals 

and subjects of the late Bishopric of Osnaburgh ' that, in 
consequence of the arrangements come to at Luneville 
and Rttiabon, King George took possession of ' the said 
principality,' contains the following passage : ' As we 
have agreed with respect to its cession and evacuation 
with its Sovereign, our beloved Prince Frederick Duke 
of York and Albany.' It appears to me that this his- 
torical case is exactly analogous to the dual position of 

Duke of Saxe-Coburg, Duke of Edinburgh, which has 
been made the subject of frivolous and vexatious ob- 
jections. EDWARD BERRIES." 


PARISH COFFINS. These articles of church 
furniture, referred to under 'Body Snatching/ 
3. iv. 630, were not " mort-safe?," but coffins 
in which the shrouded bodies were carried to 
church for burial. For several instances, and 
further information, see * Durham Parish Books,' 
Surtees Soc., vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 169n, 201. 

T T' TT 

Winterton, Doi. caster. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

u FERRATEEN." In ' Kenil wortb,'cb. xxiv., Way- 
land Smith reviles Master Goldthred, the mercer, 
as, "Thou false man of frail cambric and ferrateen" 
Where did Scott find this word ; and what does it 
mean 1 It is hardly likely to have been evolved 
from a confused remembrance of ferrandine. 


6, Worcester Gardens, Clapham Common. 

" METHERINX ": " OLDERNE." In preparing a 
volume of the * State Papers' of 1588 for the Navy 
Records Society I have come across these two words, 
of which I can find no satisfactory explanation. 
I shall be grateful to any friendly reader who 
can assist me. Metherinx occurs in a victualling 
account of the Eoebuck, along with beef and Irish 
fish. Its price was twenty-four shillings. Olderne 
was a coin current in Cadiz, apparently worth nine 
ducats, or, in round numbers, forty shillings Eng- 
lish. J. K. LAUOHTON. 

PORTRAIT OF WM. ROSCOE. I should feel obliged 
if any reader of ' N. & Q.' could say where the bust 
may be from which the portrait of William Roscoe 
which appears in the 1846 edition of his ' Leo X.' 
is taken. A small bust in gypsum, which I take 
to be a copy only of the original bust, but a very good 
likeness, has come into my possession. There is 
no cine to be obtained from the engraving in 
' Leo X.' as to the whereabouts of the original. 

SWIFT AND STELLA. In ' Remarks on the Life 
and Writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift,' by John, 
Earl of Orrery (1752), I read, if my informations 
are right, she was married to Dr. Swift in the year 
1716, by Dr. Ashe, then Bishop of Clogher. Is 
there any record of such a marriage 1 



his friend and biographer Thomas Bellamy, was 
the son of a carpenter, was born Feb. 29, 1736, in 
Bow Lane, Cheapside, educated at St. Paul's School, 
and, at the age of fifteen, was in the office of Sir 
Henry Cheese, a surveyor. ' The Georgian Era ' 
says that he was born in Maidstone in 1735, and 
apprenticed to an apothecary. Whence is the in- 
formation supplied in the * Georgian Era ' derived 1 
What was the date of Parsons's admission to St. 

Paul's School 1 


grateful for information as to the approximate date 



V. FEB. 10, '94. 

when the Talmud was first completed. Which 
are the most recent English or American trans- 
lations giving detailed indexed information as to 
the contents? I have Herahon's books on the 

30, Sussex Square, Brighton. 

CHARLES I. What was the exact route (in 
detail) along which Charles I. was taken by the 
Scots army from Newark to Newcastle-on-Tyne in 
May, 1646 ; and what was the exact route (in 
detail) of Charles from Newport, Isle of Wight, to 
Worsiey Tower, and from Hurst Castle to Wind- 
sor, in December, 1648 ? C. M. 

READING DUTCH TO MILTON. In a letter from 
Roger Williams to John Winthrop the younger 
(afterwards Governor of Connecticut), dated Pro- 
vidence, July 12, 1654 (see Elton's * Life of Wil- 
liams,' p. 104), Roger Williams writes: "The 
Secretary of the Council M r Milton, for my Dutch 
I read him, read me many more languages." When 
or where did Roger Williams learn Dutch ? How 
was he so proficient in Dutch as to read Dutch to 
Milton, Milton being a great linguist ? Did Roger 
Williams visit Holland before coming to America ? 

B. P. 

New York. 

FREEMASONRY. Can any reader of * N. & Q.' 
inform me who is the author of the longest poem 
on Freemasonry ? LEWIS. 

ETNUS : HAINES. In the voyage of Sir Walter 
Ralegh to Guiana in 1595 I find mention of a 
Capt. Eynas or Eynos. Is there any other account 
of this voyage where I can get further information 
of this personage ; and does he appear elsewhere ? 
I am in search of traces of a certain Haynes (Eynus, 
Haines, Hayne, &c.), who is said to have taken 
part in some buccaneering enterprise at the end of 
the sixteenth century or a little later. Old atlases 
used to show a river named Haines River, on the 
east aide of Africa, near Somaliland. Can any of 
your readers inform me after whom this river was 
named ; and why the name has since been changed ? 


CUMING FAMILY. Is anything known regard 
ing the family and connexions of William Cuming^ 
M.D., of Dorchester, Dorset, save what can be 
found in Hutchins's ' History of Dorset ' (thirc 
edition, ii. 391, 392), and in Dr. Cuming's will? 
According to the former authority he was the son 
of James Cuming, "an eminent merchant in 
Edinburgh (who died 1736), by Margaret, only 
daughter of George Hepburn, merchant in the 
same city." William Cuming was the younges 
of eight sons, only three of whom reached man'i 
estate. From his will (dated April 16, 1787), we 

earn that his " late brother James Gaming mer- 
hant in Edinburgh" left a daughter, named 
Charlotte Helen, who was then James's only sur- 
viving child. She married "Pelhatn Maitland, 
Esq., of Edinburgh." 

1 n a copy of the Caledonian Mercury (No. 3892, 
Edinburgh, Monday, Sept. 23, 1745), which pro- 
bably belonged to Dr. Cuming, I find that " Lieut. 
Ouming," of Guise's regiment, was taken prisoner 
y Prince Charles's forces at the battle of Preston 
Pans. Dr. Cuming's pocket-book for 1766 (the 
ole remaining one, alas !) records payments " to 
my nephew." W. G. BOSWKLL-STONE. 

22, Fox Grove Koad, Beckenham, S.E. 

SMALL-POX. I have heard it stated that the 
jractice of small-pox inoculation, which prevailed 
n England during the last century, originated in 
[ndia as an act of religious worship. It was a form 
f self-sacrifice to the goddess of small-pox (whose 
name I forget) ; and the devotee hoped by this 
act of submission to get off with a mild attack. 
Can any one give me authorities for this state- 
ment ? A. W. H. 

DORSET FAMILY NAMES. Mr. Hardy, in his 
powerful story ' Tess of the D'Urbervilles,' states 
that the surnames Debbyhouse, Durbeyfield, and 
Priddle, found among the peasantry, are survivals 
of the ancient and noble names De Bayeux, 
D'Urberville, and Paridelle (pp. 302, 4, and 164, 
fifth edition). Is this a part of the romance, or 
sober fact ? A. SMYTHE PALMER, D.D. 


TRANSLATION WANTED. Can any one tell me 
where that paraphrase of Walter de Mapes's drink- 
ing song is to be found of which the first verse runs 
thus ? 

In a tavern let me die, 

And a bottle near me lie, 

That every one who sees may cry, 

" God's blessing on this toper." 

I do not find it mentioned in the previous 
correspondence in ' N. & Q.' on the subject. 

W. F. M. P. 

BROWNING'S 'EPILOGUE.' Can any of your 
readers inform me what legend, from what book of 
Arctic travel, is referred to by Browning, in his 
'Epilogue to Dramatis Personae,' third section, 
" As, in Arctic seas, they said of old," &c. ? 

T. S. 0. 

one give me information regarding the parentage 
of James Lawrie, or tending to show his connexic 
with William Lawrie, "tutor" of Blackwood 
Both figure somewhat prominently in Covenant- 
ing times. R. B. L. 

BAYHAM ABBEY. A stone built into one of th< 
walls says that the house was founded by Clara de 

8"> S. V. FEB. 10, '94. ] 



Sackville, and the ground was given by Sir 
Richard de Thorngham. Another authority states 
that the house owed its immediate erection to Sir 
Robert de Turneham, one of Coeur de Lion's 
knights. Are these statements contradictory ; or 
how are they reconciled ? H. 

Details wanted as to the parentage of Sir Thomas 
Rtiwlinson, Lord Mayor of London in 1753, who 
died in 1769. By his marriage with Dorothea, 
daughter of the Rev. Richard Ray, of Haughley 
and Wetherden, Suffolk, he had two children. 
The daughter Susanna married Sir George Womb- 
well, Bart., in 1765. The son, Sir Walter Rawlinson, 
of Stowlangtoft, Suffolk, became Alderman of 
London, and died March 13, 1805. His wife, who 
died Aug. 17, 1816, was a daughter of Sir Robert 
Ladbrooke, another Lord Mayor of^London. What 
was her Christian name ? 


In the chapter house, which is part of old Birken- 
head (Birket) Priory, the only tablet is to the 
memory of Richard Parry Price, Esq., of Bryn y 
Pys, Flintshire, who died on May 14, 1782, and 
was buried in the vicinity of the tablet. His wife 
was Anne Puleston, of Emral, Flintshire, and 
through her the son succeeded to the estates of 
Puleston, taking also the name. Could any one 
inform me what relationship there was between 
this family and the Prices who were lords of the 
manor of Birkenhead ? The latter owned the 
ferry for upwards of five hundred years, and early 
in this century Mr. Francis Richard Price sold 
the property that borders the river, and from that 
time the family seems to have disappeared. 

Some connexion there must have been between 
the Emral Prices (or Pulestons) and the Prices of 
Birkenhead, for in the old part of St. Mary's 
Churchyard is a square tombstone to the memory 
of Evan George, late butler to Sir Richard Pules- 
ton, Bart., of Emral, who died in 1819. As 
about that period there were only four houses in 
all Birkenhead, this man would most probably 
have died while his master was visiting the Prices 
at the Manor House. HILDA GAMLIN. 

Camden Lawn, Birkenhead. 

LONDON MAGAZINE.' Can any corre- 
spondent of <N. & Q.' say when the London 
Magazine was first published ? One volume of it, 
I am aware, was in print in February, 1754. Did 
this publication give much news in connexion with 
Ireland 1 DELLBROOK. 

11 HARO." In a pedigree copied at the British 
Museum in tabulated form, the words " filia et 
harg" are written after some of the names. I 
shall be glad of an explanation of the word harg. 


(8 th S. iv. 49, 192.) 

My thanks are due to MR. MOOR for his answer 
to my note. Any attempt at a reply is better than 
none at all, though it is slightly disappointing to 
get a stone in lieu of a loaf. But let me convert 
MR. MOOR'S indigestible pabulum into a more 
nutritious commodity. 

(a.) Cathedrals. In my previous note I re- 
quested an explanation of the absence in Ireland 
of cathedrals in ruin or in use equal in architec- 
tural grandeur to those in England. In reply MR. 
MOOR says, " It is clear that if the bishops had 
previously resided in monasteries as their chaplains, 
then the monasterial churches were their cathe- 
drals." I am afraid the clearness is confined to 
the region of his own mind. The argument has 
every appearance of a post hoc ergo propter hoc 
fallacy, which leads to darkness rather than light. 
Besides, though it is quite certain that prior to the 
Norman invasion Irish bishops acted universally 
as " monastic chaplains," it is also quite as certain 
that " the monasterial churches were [not] their 
cathedrals." Their very number (frequently seven) 
in each monastery precludes such an hypothesis. 
Dr. Healy (' Ancient Irish Church,' p. 46) is my 
authority for their multiplicity : 

" The spirit of clanship led the people to cling to their 
leader, that ia, the abbot, and put the bishop in the second 
place. The result was that the office of bishop was 
entirely dissociated from territorial authority he had no 
diocese and the cases were numerous where he was 
under the control of the abbot, exercising episcopal func- 
tions only under bis direction. This, in its turn, led to a 
further increase in the number of bishops. As 
none of them had a see in the modern sense of the word, 
and therefore there was no possibility of one prelate inter- 
fering with the jurisdiction of another, it began to be a 
matter of pride in some monasteries to have a number of 
bishops amongst their inmates. In some cases it seems 
to have been the usage to have seven belonging to the 
same establishment. In the ' Litany of ^Engus the Cul- 
dee,' said to hive been composed in the ninth century, 
there ia a list of one hundred and forty-one places in 
Ireland where this institution of seven bishops existed." 

Of course these episcopal chaplains ordained and 
otherwise officiated in the churches of the abbeys 
or monasteries in which they lived, but the said 
churches were not thereby metamorphosed into 
cathedrals. Ecclesiastically the bishops were the 
abbots' superiors, socially they were subordinate to 
them, and an inferior would hardly usurp his 
officer's title. Besides, seven bishops claiming one 
cathedral and that in multiplied instances would 
be an utterly absurd anomaly in Church history. 
One hears of a bishop being ' ' the husband of one 
wife " (t.., bis church or diocese according to some 
interpreters), but hardly of the "one wife" re- 
joicing in seven episcopal husbands simultaneously. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.v. FEB. 10/94. 

The prevalence then of the monastic over the dio- 
cesan system accounts sufficiently for the absence 
of cathedrals in pre-Norman days, while the dearth 
of any ruins of cathedrals on a par with those of 
England, and dating from diocesan and post- 
invasion times, can only, I again submit, be ex- 
plained by national poverty and disintegration. 
MR. MOOR'S contention that " popular devotion 
would continue to centre upon the ancient monas- 
teries and their coarbs or abbots, rather than upon 
the newer cathedrals and their bishops," is but a 
lame apology for the lack of grandeur in Irish post- 
Norman cathedrals, for "popular devotion" (by 
^hicb, I presume, is meant as much practical, i. e. 
pecuniary, offerings as interest) would be wasted on 
huildings already erected and sufficiently em- 
oellished. The " newer cathedrals " were wanting 
in the magnificence which is the glorious distinction 
of their English sisters simply by reason of the 
wretchedness and Norman apathy of the times. 
And many of them were built under the shadow of 
the abbeys and friaries, but never reached the 
splendour of their monastic rivals. The sum total 
of the whole matter is, therefore, I repeat, that 
abbots succeeded where bishops failed. 

(6.) MR. MOOR quarrels with my parallel between 
Irish and English monastic ruins, and asks, " Is it, 
However, really the case that the monasteries were 
architecturally so much the richer?" It may 
seem ungrateful to convict an opponent ex ore suo, 
but if "popular devotion" was centred upon the 
ancient monasteries, it is very likely they would 
be ; and as a matter of fact they were. Even 
Fergusson, as quoted by MR. MOOR, qualifies his 
statement of "smallness" by the admission that 
they are "rich in detail," which in itself would 
render them a "conspicuous success" compared 
with the mediaeval Irish cathedrals in ruin or in 
use. Not one of these latter is any better in size 
or adornment than an ordinary English parish 
church, while (to reiterate my contention) the ruins 
of the former vie successfully with any similar re- 
mains from Land's End to Melrose. Furthermore, 
MR. MOOR'S supposition that the earlier Irish 
churches were both monastic and episcopal involves 
him m an awkward petitio principii, or, worse 
still, a circulus mtiosus, by questioning, even for 
discussion, the superiority of either the one or the 
other. A thing can hardly be either superior or 
inferior to itself. 

But as facts are the most cogent arguments, let 
me adduce a few in support of my point. MR 
MOOR admits the architectural beauty of Mellifonr* 
but sneers at Monasterboice (Murray, I observe, ia 
evidently his meagre informant re the latter). 
What will he say to and of the following ? 

1. Timoleague Abbey, co. Cork. Mr. D. Frank- 
lin, J.P., in a paper printed in the Journal of the 
Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Sept 
1892, writes : 

"On neiring the small town of Tirnole^gue, by the 
railway which rung alongside the river Anyadun, the 
striking ruins of Timoleague Abbey at once arrest 
the attention. Father Mooney calls it 'one of the 

noblest houses of the Franciscan Order in Ireland.' 

Jt is impossible to see these venerable ruins without 
reflecting how splendid the building must have been in 

its prime The size and strength of the ruins attest 

what violence must have been used to reduce them to 
their present state." 

2. Holy Cross Abbey, co. Tipperary. In the 
Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland, vol. ix., 1889, p. 18, men- 
tion is made, inter alia, of " the beautiful western 
end of the church." 

3. Ennis Abbey, co. Clare. In the same volume, 
p. 44, of the Journal just quoted, Mr. T. J. 
Weatropp, M.A., contributes a paper entitled 
' History of Ennis Abbey, co. Clare, 1240-1693,' 
in which he says : 

" The remains, though much damaged, cover a large 
extent of ground. They consist of the chancel, lit by 
graceful lancet windows, the east being large, lofty, and 
handsome. A very fine canopied tomb with a plinth, 
richly carved with New Testament subjects, com- 
memorates Pierce Creagh, of Adare and Limerick City, 
who was transplanted to Dangan, and died soon after the 
Restoration. Opposite it a canopy, beautifully groined, 
and decorated with foliage and flowers in very low relief 

the nave is altered past recognition, but the transept 

with a small chapel and four richly traceried windows 

remain The whole ruin is overgrown with ivy and 

elder, and is much defaced." 

4. Manister Abbey, co. Limerick. From an 
article by the same author in the same volume 
(p. 232) I excerpt the following respecting the 
Abbey of Manister or Monaster-Nenagh, Groom, 
co. Limerick, built between 1148 and 1151 : 

' In plan, Manister closely corresponds to Clairvaux, 
Kirkstall, and other great abbeys of this Order (Cis- 
tercian); the only parts now standing are the church, 
the chapter-house, and three fragments of wall ; but the 
foundations of the cloister and domicile are very apparent 

in the green field south of the church The church, 

before its retrenchment [probably in the fifteenth cen- 
tury], was a noble edifice, cruciform, with two aisles. 
Five lofty arches rose on each side, the belfry piers being 
very large columns, with finely carved capitals and 

moulded pillars, and arches from 25 to 27 feet wide 

The transept arches have fine semicircular pilasters, their 
capitals carved with flowers and foliage, while the pillars 
of the chancel are square, with rounded shafts at the 
angles, and Norman capitals, with leaves instead of 
flutings. The chancel arch was pointed. O'Donovan 
says, ' I had no idea the Irish had built such splendid 

arches before the arrival of the English.' The 

neglected state of the ruins defies description, and calla 
for remedy." 

5. Kilcooley Abbey, co. Tipperary. The Rev. 
W. Healy, P.P., contributes a paper to vol. i. for 
1890 of the same Journal, headed * The Cistercian 
Abbey of Kilcooley, co. Tipperary/ from which I 
quote brief passages : 

" Kilcooley ruins may be taken as comprising a church, 
monastery, and fortress. The two former are moated 
on the east and south sides The beautiful east window 

.<>8.V. FEB. 10, '94.] 



of the chancel consists of six lights with strong stone 
mullions between ; plainly chamfered. The tracery is 
exquisite, and appears like a blend of various pattern*. 
The larger window in the north transept and both 
window* in the south transept are in the flamboyant 
tyle with the peculiar feature of the Tudor within a 
Norman, and both within the Gothic arch." 

After a lengthy and minute description of the 
peculiarities and beauties of this abbey the essayist 
concludes thus : 

" I have ever he'd in highest veneration the ruins of 
Kilcooley since my firt inspection of them. It was here, 
nigh twenty years ago, I received my earliest archaeo- 
logical inspiration, and learned to admire the artistic 

tastes of the 'wonderful monks' of old The present 

proprietress, and most estimable and accomplished lady 
of the noble House of Duneany, the Hon. Mrs. Ponsonby, 
has already done much to prolong the existence of this 
beautiful old abbey. So far, she has done and is doing 
her part to preserve the distinctive features of its fading 
glories. We on our part shall, as far as possible, make 
an imperishable record of such worthy efforts, as well 
for the grateful acknowledgment of present society as for 
the admiration and applause of those who in future 
times shall admiringly gaze upon the ruins." 

6. Mucross Abbey, near Killarney. Windele, 
in his exquisite and now rare ' Historical and 
Descriptive Notices of the City of Cork and its 
Vicinity,' writes of this charming ruin (p. 377): 

" Its ' grey, but leafy walls, where ruin greenly dwells,' 
yet continue in excellent preservation ; a beautiful 
memorial of the piety, the skill, and the taste of the 
Irish of the Middle Ages; and a shrine to which the step 
and the wishes of many an admiring and venerating pil- 
grim have continued to be directed for centuries, alike in 
its prosperity as in its decay, without cessation or in- 
terruption ; whilst time has but the more endeared it to 
the population of the district, of which it is not, in their 
minds, the least cherisl ed glory." 

These appreciative words were penned many 
years ago, and from a visit to Mucross nine years 
since I can fully endorse what Windele says of it. 

7. Kilcrea Abbey, co. Cork. "The ruins are 
extensive," writes J. O'Mahony (Journal of the 
Cork Hist, and Arch. Society, p. 253), 

" the walls, columns, and arches of the transept, aisles, 
and choir remaining. The belfry, where the rooks build 
m ivied crevices, rises gracefully to a height of eighty 
eet. Among the traces of the early beauty of the build- 
ing, which have survived vandalism and the ravages of 
time, are still to be seen four ribbed arches springing 
from a single column a unique piece of architecture." 

Windele owns that 
" although the architecture is rather plain and homely, 

t some good subjects for the pencil are afforded which 
the Cork artists have not failed to avail themselves of." 

By the way, Geoghegan's magnificent dramatic 
poem ' The Monks of Kilcrea ' is given in extenso 
immediately after Mr. O'Mahony'a article, and is 
a fine treat to those fortunate enough to come 
across it. 

Finally, with reference to MR. MOOR'S sneer 

rlonasterboice, Wakeman (as quoted by Murray) 

speaks thus of the three famous crosses which 

form part of the archaeological glories of that fane : 

" The crosses of Monasterboice may be regarded not 
only as memorials of the piety and munificence of a 
people whom ignorance and prejudice have too often 
sneered at as barbarous, but also as the finest works of 
sculptured art of their period now existing." 

But enough, and more than enough to substantiate 
my original theses that abbots succeeded where 
bishops failed, that nowhere throughout Ireland 
can traces be found of cathedrals equalling in 
splendour those of England, and that Irish monastic 
ruins are on a par in beauty and magnificence with 
those this side the Irish Sea. J. B. S. 


"The overthrow of church buildings mentioned by 
Sidney and Spenser may be accounted for by their being 
generally turned into fortresses by the queen's troops ; 
' for in the churches dedicated to the saints it was 
most usual for them to,reside,' says an Irish chronicler. 
And as the Irish loved no strong places upon their 
borders, they made no scruple, when occasion served, of 
burning and destroying them like the other castles of 
the English. We have seen how the cathedrals of Derry 
and Armagh fared in the wars of Shane O'Neill ; and 
about the same period (1576) the church of Athenry, in 
Galway, was laid in ashes by the Mac-an-Earlas, sons of 
the Earl of Clanrickard ; and when men cried out sacri- 
lege and parricide, for their mother lay buried there, one 
of them fiercely answered, ' If his mother were alive in 
the church he would sooner burn her and it together 
than any English should fortify there.' " ' Life of Hugh 
O'Neill,' by John Mitchel, p. 53. 


"VENTRB-SAINT-GRIS" (8 th S. i. 453; ii. 49, 
131, 232, 289, 398, 529 ; iii. 354; iv. 346, 435). 
When I said at the penultimate reference that 
" we may assume that the trouvkre sounded all the 
letters of ' Crist,' " I was arguing against myself. 
For I had previously shown that the present 
orthoepic distinction between "Christ" and 
" Je'sus-Christ " was in futurity in 1580, the date 
of Claude de Saintlien's tractate 'De Pronun- 
tiatione Linguae Gallicse,' the pronunciation being 
Ori in both cases which is nowhere better evi- 
denced than at p. 165. I therefore thank DR. 
BREWER for noticing my private letter, though he 
has misunderstood me on one point. It is true 
that Saintlien distinctly denotes the pronunciation 
of "Christ en Dieu" with the s silent (p. 171), 
but " Jesus Christ en Dieu " is a creation of my 
own. The correction, however, has no bearing on 
the question at issue. The important fact is that 
"Christ" was pronounced CVi, easing as it does 
the change into " Gris," pronounced Gri. 

I cannot go with DR. BREWER when he contends 
that venire is for corps. This appears to me to be 
sufficiently disproved by comparison with the oaths 
venire Dieu and corps Dieu. On a former occasion 
I cited the oath Par la rate Dieu; and if the 
belly, a part of the body, is to be taken as equal 
to the whole body, why not the spleen? On 
swearing by parts of the Lord's body, see Prof. 
Skeat's ' Chaucer,' iii. 150, 157-8. 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 10, 14. 

The quotation which I sent DR. BREWER touch- 
ing Cree-church is not from a book entitled 
'Notices,' &c., as it is made to appear, but from 
a survey of Middlesex, London, and Westminster 
printed in 1721 according to an indication on 
p. 115 6. The title-page has gone. 


MR. ADAMS has shown that "Saint Christ" 
really was used in the thirteenth century. He 
does not say, however, what he takes Saint here 
to mean ; but, as in the discussion about " Ventre- 
saint-gris," every one, with the sole exception of 
M. RAMBAUD (8 th S. ii. 530),* took Saint to mean 
the English Saint, 1 conclude MR. ADAMS under- 
stands it in the same way here. If so, I must 
express my entire dissent. The French language 
is much poorer in words than English, and has 
only the one word saint where we have saint 
(borrowed from the French) and holy, and I take 
the Saint in " Saint Christ " to mean holy. I do 
this because, in the first place, I do not believe 
that the word saint in the English meaning was 
ever applied to Christ. DR. BREWER does, indeed, 
cite St. Saviour as analogous, but I am inclined to 
take this as having arisen from confusion between 
the two meanings of the French saint, seeing that 
Saint Sauveurf may mean both Holy Saviour and 
St. Saviour. In Italian also there seems to have 
been similar confusion. At Rome there is the 
"Basilica del Santo Salvatore" (Petrocchi), where 
Santo evidently means holy ; whilst at Lugano 
there is the mountain San Salvadore, where the 
San evidently means Saint. Comp. also the 
church called St. Cross, near Winchester, with the 
Church of the Holy Cross in London (Kelly, 1882). 

In the second place, in other languages kindred 
to French I find the term " holy," but not " Saint," 
applied to Christ. Thus the Italians have the 
exclamation, "Ma Cristo Santo!" where Santo 
means holy, just as much as it does in the other 
exclamations, "Dio Santo !" and "Santo Diavolo !" 
In Provencal, too (and Provenil well merits to 
be cited, seeing that, to judge from Henri IV.'s 
use of " Ventre-saint-gris," that oath may well 
have originated in the South of France), I find 
"Grand Sant Crist," of which Mistral (s.v. 
"Crist") says, "Exclamation usite"e en Provence." 
Here, again, it is difficult to believe that S 
means Saint, whilst as for the grand, it serves 
merely to give a superlative meaning to the adjec 

* M. RAMBATJD suggested as a possible rendering 
" Ventre-eaint-gris " " Par le ventre saint du Christ," in 
which, at any rate, he gave the word taint the meaning 
of holy. 

f Lacurne, s.vv. " Sauveur " and "Sacre," tells us that 
" La Saint Sauveur" in Old French=" La Fete du Saint 
Sacrement" or "La Fete-Dieu," which looks as i 
" Saint-Sauveur " (=our St. Saviour) ia not precisely equi 
valent to Christ, and, at all events, aa if saint mean 
rather holy than Saint. 

;ive, just as in Italian they say, " Una gran bella 

But if Saint in " Saint Christ " means holy, then, 
f it can be shown that Christ ever became Gris in 
French, we should have a very good meaning for 
' Ventre-saint-gris," viz., " the womb of Holy 
Ohrist," for, as I said in former notes, this is the 
sense which I would give to ventre in this con- 
nexion. I certainly have seen "Par le ventre 
Marie " in Old French (though I cannot now say 
where), and this is the same idea expressed in 
different words. But will it ever be shown that gris 
s a corrupted form of Christ ? I doubt it. Still, 
to encourage DR. BREWER in his researches, I will 
Doint out that Lacurne, in his 'Diet.,' gives 

Criz" as used bv St. Bernard in his sermons = 
hrist, and also " Cris " as used in the same sense, 
though, in the single passage which he quotes, he 
-xplains it to mean "Chretien." 

In conclusion, whatever the Saint in " Saint 
Christ " may mean, it is evident that later on 
(possibly through confusion) the Saint in " Ventre- 
saint-gris" was taken to mean Saint. This is 
shown by the other forms quoted by MR. ADAMS 
and myself, viz., " Ventre Saint George," '' Ventre 
Saint Pierre," &c. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

P.S. But though unwilling, from want of evi- 
dence, to admit the corruption of Christ into gris, 
I am by no means unwilling nay, I am quite dis- 
posed to believe (now that Saint Christ has been 
found) that, just as bleu was substituted for Dieu, 
so gris may have been substituted for Christ, as 
being sufficiently like it in sound and altogether 
different in meaning. And, curiously enough, bleu 
and gris are not only colours, but allied colours, 
and so the adoption of the one may possibly have 
led to the adoption of the other. This new view 
of mine is altogether in agreement with the view of 
Ventre-saint-gris which I have taken all along. 
The only difference is that, whereas I formerly 
took the saint-gris to be the name of a saint (real 
or supposed) used euphemistically instead of Dieu, 
I now take gris to be used euphemistically instead 
of Christ, and saint to mean holy. 

DR. BREWER says "that Cree Church = Christ 
Church is indubitable." Perhaps; but it is as 
well to point out that, at first sight, Creizker (pro- 
nounced Crees-caer), the name of one of the churches 
at St. Pol de Leon, in Brittany, is, of course, 
Christ Church. A little inquiry, however, dis- 
covers that the full name is "Notre Dame de 
Creizker," the latter word in Breton meaning 
"centre" or "crossing of the town." Otherwise, 
in Welsh, croes caer. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

In ' Galerie de 1'Ancienne Cour, ou M^moires 
Anecdotes pour servir a 1'Histoire des Regnes de 
Henri IV. et Louis XIII.,' tome i. p. 10, is the 
following : 

8' h S. V. FEB. 10, f 



"Ce prince [Henri IV.] avoit pris 1'habitude d'ein 
ployer cette expression ventre-Saint-Gris, comme un 
espece de jurement. Lorsqu'il 6toit encore enfant, ee 
Gouverneurs craignant qu'il ne s'habituat a jurer, comm 
faisoient taut d'autres, lui avoient permis de dire ventre 
Saint-Grin, qui e"toit un terme de derision qu'ils appli 
quoient aux Moines. surtout aux Franciscains, nomman 
ordinairement Saint-Franc.ois Saint Gris, de la couleu 
de leur habillement." 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

" HOODLUMISM " (8 th S. Hi. 449 ; iv. 17, 157 
274, 337). MR. MALONE seems to speak with 
authority, and I am unable to aver that I eve 
heard the term " hoodlum " before the American 
Civil War. It is, however, very many years sinc< 
I heard it explained as derived from a most par 
ticular loafer and ruffian called Muldough, whos< 
nainewritten backwards is Hguodlum = "hoodlum.' 
Though f cannot support this with any evidence, ] 
certainly did not invent it. 


(8 th S. iv. 449). M. H. GAIDOZ does not seem to 
have referred to the English edition of my * Ancient 
Bronze Implements/ otherwise he would have 
found, at p. 37, at the end of chap. ii. (not xi.), a 
reference for this lecture to the Journal of the 
Royal United Service Institution, vol. xiii., 1869 
The reference is not given in the French transla- 
tion. JOHN EVANS. 

TIM BOBBIN, THE YOUNGER (8 th S. iv. 448). 
The second number of the Manchester Monthly, 
December 20, which began to come out on 
November 15, 1893, contains the 'Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Border : a Study of the People and 
their Dialect/ by Tim Bobbin, Jan., pp. 29-32, to 
be continued. In "Answers to Correspondents" 
it was intimated to him, " M. Collier P. (a descend- 
ant of Tim Bobbin) sends us two contributions 
which we esteem, but they were unfortunately too 
late for our present number." 

Perhaps he could best answer COL. FJSHWICK'S 
question as to who was the late Tim Bobbin, 
jun. The 'Dictionary of National Biography/ 
vol. xi. p. 348, in a notice of John Collier, " Tim 
Bobbin," says: 

" Collier's eldest eon, John, was settled for many 
years as a coachmaker at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and there 

Uished ' An Essay on Charters, in which are particu- 
larly considered those of Newcastle, with remarks on its 
Constitution, Customs, and Franchises ' (1777, 8vo. pp. vi, 
*) an d 'An Alphabet for Grown-up Grammarians,' 
1778. 8vo. His second son, Thomas, printed at Penrith, 
in 1792, a pamphlet entitled, ' Poetical Politics,' but the 
whole impression was seized and burnt with the excep- 
tion of a single copy. Charles, his third son, was a por- 
trait painter. All three were very eccentric men, and 
the eldest became hopelessly insane long before his 

John Collier, jun., was born February 24, 
1744/5, died 1815, married twice, 6rst Elizabeth 
Rankin, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and had two 

daughters, and secondly Elizabeth Howard (alias 
Forster), of Rochdale, and had issue an only son 
Edward, whose son was then living in 1862. 

He was descended from one John Collier, who 
was commonly called " the Chevalier," and married 
one of the family of Beeley. 


30, Rusholme Grove, Ruaholme, Manchester. 

There was a " Tim Bobbin the second," author 
of " Plebeian Politics ; or, the Principles and Prac- 
tices of certain Mole-eyed Maniacs vulgarly called 
Warrites. By way of Dialogue betwixt two 
Lancashire Clowns. Together with Several Fugi- 
tive Pieces Printed by Cowdroy & Slack, 

No. 33, Bury Street, Salford." 

Facing the title-page is his portrait, "Tim 
Bobbin the second, bom July 27, 1728." It re- 
presents an old white-haired man. 

Some time or other I have made the following 
note in my copy: "Tim Bobbin the second = 
Robert Walker of Audenshaw (according to a 
bookseller'* catalogue)." It is bound up with 
"The Miscellaneous Works of Tim Bobbin, Esq. 

Salford: Printed by Cowdroy & Slack, No. 4, 

Gravel Lane, 1812"; and with " Truth in a Mask ; 
or, Shude-hill fight : being a short Manchestrian 
Chronicle of the Present Times, 1757. Salford 
re-printed by Cowdroy & Slack, 33, Bury Street, 

FORDSHIRE (8 tb S. iv. 189, 315). The following 
may interest the REV. JOHN PICKFORD. In 
1691-2 the churchwarden of Fulham, noting the 
collections made in the church on briefs in respect 
to fires, writes "County of York," "County of 
Brecon," "County of Kent," but "County of 
Southamptonshire." CHAS. J. FfeftET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

CURSE OF SCOTLAND (8 th S. iii. 367, 398, 416, 
453 ; iv. 537; v. 11). There certainly seems to be 
something wanting explanation with regard to the 
circumstance connected with the Battle of Culloden, 
and the supposed order of the Duke of Cumber- 
and's not to give quarter which was said to 
oe written on the nine of diamonds. Now, on 
-he morning when the Lord Kilmarnock was be- 
leaded, Lord Balmerino sent a message to him 
desiring an interview, at which Lord Balmerino 
asked Lord Boyd "if he knew of any order being 
made before the Battle of Culloden for giving no 
[uarter to the Duke's army," at the same time 
leclaring " that he himself knew nothing of any 
uch order." Lord Kilmarnock replied "that he 
cnew nothing of any such order, but that since 
he Battle of Culloden he had been informed that 
here was some order to that effect, signed George 
Murray, and that it fell into the hand of the 
)uke immediately after the battle." Lord Bal- 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 10, '94. 

merino up to his last moments denied any know- by the quantity of iron used in ships, and that 

ledge of the message or command alluded to, and 
said "that he would not knowingly have acted 
under such order, because he looked upon it as 
unmilitary, and beneath the character of a soldier." 
Here, then, on the one band it is asserted the 
Duke sent an order to give no quarter to the insur- 
gents, and on the other we have the same charge 
made against the latter in respect to the Royalists. 

Fairfield, Poundfald, near Swansea. 

(8 th S. iii. 88; 
v. 18). As I had ceased to hope for an answer to 
my question respecting Charles Lamb, I am doubly 
grateful to W. H. C. for his information. I shall 
now be very much obliged if any correspondent 

watches were affected by the great quantity of iron 
used in tramcars. As is well known, a watch can 
be stopped and permanently injured by a powerful 
magnet being applied. 

There may be a modicum of truth in the account 
of the roc and its egg, of which we frequently 
read in the same book of wonders. On the autho- 
rity of the Daily News, December 1, 1893, it is 
stated that another egg of the Epyornis, a gigantic 
long-lost bird of Madagascar, has been brought 
recently to this country. It is equal to no fewer 
than six cstrich eggs, and is said to be 33 in. in its 
longest circumference. This can be best appreciated 
oval in paper 13 in. in length and 


to be 

rery mucn any corre onoen , Q/ ha fc h f ^ ftuk of which there 

acquainted with the locality can tell me where ' fo ftg . kn ^fcty-nfoe specimens in 

Kingsland Row was, Kingsland Road there ^ has fetched ' as muc ' h a8 228 ^ B ut the 

but no Row. In an article on Haunted Hoxton, dimensions of the cannot alwayB be used as an 

!L2rtfei fiE^A&SPLJ"! ft2 * P* Berculem & estimating 'the size of any 

occurs, "from distant Shackle well, where Lamb 
loved to retire when desiring repose." I should 
infer from this that Kingsland Row must have 
been near the still existing Shacklewell Lane. 

Belle Vne, Bengeo. 

The Athenceum of February 14, 1891, under the 
title of * The Footprints of Charles Lamb,' gives 
the names of nineteen localities in which he re- 
sided. They are furnished by Mr. Charles Kent 
from his popular Centenary Edition, 1875, of 

71, Brecknock Road. 

THE MAGNETIC ROCK (8 th S. iv. 502). My 
correction had merely reference to the narrator of 
the legend of the mountain of adamant, and not to 
the legend itself as told in that book of marvels 
the ( Arabian Nights' Entertainments.' How well 
I remember the copy of my childhood, which was 
in three small 12mo. volumes, closely printed in 
very small type, and 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The magnetic rock appears again in the story of 
Ogier the Dane. I know the tale only in Mr. 
Morris's version ('The Earthly Paradise'), in 
which the locality of the rock is not indicated, but 
I take it for granted that he follows the old legend 
of the * Chansons de Gestea.' His description of 
the rock, or rather of the sea that beats upon it, 
is in his best style : 
The sun is setting in the west, the sky 
Is clear and hard, and no clouds come anigh 
The golden orb, but further off they lie, 
Steel-grey and black with edges red as blood, 
And underneath them is the weltering flood 
Of some huge sea, whose tumbling hills, as they 
Turn restless sides about, are black, or grey, 
Or green, or glittering with the golden flame ; 
The wind has fallen now, but still the same 
The mighty army moves, as if to drown 
This lone, bare rock, whose shear [sic"] scarped sides of 

d having a small engraving Cast off the weight of waves in clouds of spray. 

I used to read the tales with ' The Earthly Paradise,' 1872, ii. 283. 

on each title-page, 
implicit belief, and wish to travel with Sindbad 
the Sailor, and make nocturnal rambles in Bag- 
dad with the Caliph Haroun Alraschid and his 
Grand Vizier Giafar, and Mesrour the chief of the 
eunuchs. But now, as the Oxford Prize Poem 
All, all are gone, the wild Arabian tale, 
Aladdin'a lamp and Sindbad's magic sail. 

In * Martin Chuzzlewit ' Mr. Pecksniff speaks of 
the Eastern tale told by the one-eyed almanac. 
" 'Calender,' said Tom Pinch, correcting his master. 
* I apprehend,' said Mr. Pecksniff, ' that a calendar 
and an almanac are the same thing.' " The story 
of the magnetic rock or the mountain of adamant 
occurred to me when going out to Norway in the 
Ceylonin 1885 to see the midnight sun,for I had heard 
that ships' chronometers and clocks were affected 

C. C. B. 

VERSES (8 th S. v. 29). S. A. will find this 
stanza, and I think some others also, with some 
particulars of their history, in one of the earlier 
volumes of ' N. & Q.,' speaking from memory, 
in the third volume of the first series. The title 
is The Irish Patriot,' and the date 1844 ; the 
reference is the name of the poem. W. H. Q. 


508). Whenever we meet with the title ' Remark 
able Showers,' we generally find a fall of whea' 
among the number. Your correspondent MR. 
FYFE has given the earliest reference to such a fa' 
that I have come across. In the Proceedings ' 
the Royal Society, June 26, 1661, Col. Tuke gav 

S* 9. V. FEB. 10, '94.J 



a brief account of a supposed rain of wheat on the 
30th of the preceding May. It appears that Mr. 
Henry Pickering, son to Sir Henry Pickering, of 
Warwick, brought some papers of seeds resembling 
wheat to the king, together with a letter written 
by Mr. Halyburton, in which he says : 

41 Instead of news, I send you some papers of wonders. 
On Saturday last, it was rumoured in this town that it 
rained wheat at Tuchbrooke, a village about two miles 
from Warwick. Whereupon, some of the inhabitants of 
this town went thither; where they saw great quantities 
on the way, in the fields, and on the leads of the Church, 
Castle, and Priory, and upon the hearths of the 
chimneys in the chambers. And Arthur Mason, coming 
out of Shropshire, reports that it hath rained the like in 
many places of that country. God make us thankful 
for this miraculous blessing." 

Col. Tuke brought some papers of the seeds, 
together with the above letter, to the Society of 
Gresham College, but the Fellows would not con- 
sider the matter until they had been better in- 
formed of the fact. Whereupon Mr. H. Picker- 
ing was requested to write to the Bailiff of War- 
wick, and to the ministers and physicians for 
further details. The bailiff, in his letter of June 3, 
affirmed that " himself with the inhabitants of the 
town were in great astonishment at this wonder." 
But, the Colonel adds, 

" before the next day of our meeting I sent for some 
ivy berries, and brought them to Gresham College, with 
some of these seeds resembling wheat ; and taking off the 
outer pulp of the ivy berries, we found in each of the 
berries four seeds ; which were generally concluded by 
the Society to be the same with those that were sup- 
posed and believed by the common people to have been 
wheat that had been rained ; and that they were brought 
to these places where they were found bj starlings; 
who, of all the birds that we know, do assemble in the 
greatest numbers ; and do at this time of the year, feed 
upon those berries ; and digesting the outward pulp, they 
render these seeds by casting, as hawks do feathers and 

I cannot say that this explanation is satisfactory, 
but as to the quantities of the seeds, we must 
allow for great exaggeration on the part of those 
who report what they believe to be miraculous 

The eminent surgeon Sir Astley Cooper was 
fond of a practical joke. On one occasion he 
ascended the church tower of a village in Norfolk, 
taking with him one of his mother's pillows, and 
finding the wind blow directly to the next town, 
he let off handfuls of feathers until he had 
emptied the pillow. The local papers reported 
this ".remarkable shower" of feathers, and offered 
various conjectures to account for it, and the 
account was copied into other papers, and was pro- 
bably received as a perfectly natural occurrence. 

llighgate, N. 

MR. FYFK will find accounts of the class he 
mentions in the following books. They do not, 
however, give the same amount of information as 

quoted from Averell. The old chronicles record 
wonderful sights, &c. * Prodigiorum ac Ostentorum 
Chronicon,' by Conrad Lycosthenem, Basilese, 1507 
(numerous woodcuts) ; * The General History of 
Earthquakes/ &c., by R(ichard) B(urton), London, 
1734 ; 'Natura Prodigiorum : a Discourse Touch- 
ing the Nature of Prodigies,' &c., by John Gad- 
bury, London, 1660. It gives a list of strange 
events from A.D. 5 to 1660. 


The Puritan Philip Stubbes, in his ' Anatomy 
of Abuses/ says : 

" Hath he not caused the earth to tremble and quake ? 

Hath he not ctused the elements and skyes to send 

forth flashing fire ? To raine downe wheat, a wonderfull 
thing as ever was barde 1 "Ed. 1836, p. 225. 

A rain of wheat is also mentioned in Philip 
Henry's 'Diary* (p. 104) and in Thoresby's 
* Diary ' (vol. i. p. 373). EDWARD PEACOCK. 

In Cox's 'MagnaBritannia,'" Wiltshire, Hundred 
of Warminster," the following paragraph appears : 

" In the year 1696 or thereabouts it was a report in 
Bristol and thereabouts that it rained wheat about this 
Town and six or seven Miles round and many believed it. 
One Mr. Cole being curious to find out the Truth of the 
odd Phenomenon procured several Parcels of it; and 
upon diligent Examination of them with magnifying 
Glasses, judged from the Taste, Figure, Size, and Smell, 
that they were Seeds of Ivy berries, driven by a strong 
Wind from the Holes and Chinks of Houses, Churches 
and other Buildings, where Starlings and other Birds 
had laid or dropped them : but if so, tis strange that 
they should fall in so great Quantities in so many Places." 

Mere Down, Mere, Wiltshire. 

I should advise MR. FIFE to read Burton's 
4 Admirable Curiosities, Rarities, and Wonders in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland.' He will find in 
that little book numberless accounts of agricultural 
and other wonders. One of them describes a sup- 
posed fall of wheat. The story is told in the follow- 
ing words : 

"About April 26, 1661, at Spalding, Bourne and 
several other Places in Lincolnshire, it rained Wheat, 
some grains whereof were very thin and hollow, but 
others of a more firm substance, and would grind into 
fine flower, several Pecks of it were taken up out of 
Church Leads, and other Houses that were leaded : 
Several Inhabitants who were Eve-Witnesses brought up 
a considerable quantity to London." 

This quotation is from the second edition, pub- 
lished in London, 1684, p. 139. 

Bengeo Hall, Hertford. 

If we may believe the statements made by 
Julius Obsequens, in his book ' De Prodigiis/ it 
was wont in classic times to rain almost every con- 
ceivable article, from blood to brickbats ; but he 
does not mention wheat. Blood seems to have 
been the most usual stillation, and was considered 
to foretell disaster and death. Matthew Paris 



[8" S. V. FEB. 10, '94. 

records a fall of blood in 1198, which was thought 
to be an omen of Richard I. 'a death. 

E. S. A. 

"THE GOOD OLD TIMES" (8 th S. iv. 527). There 
is an apparent reference to such a phrase in Eccles. 
vii. 10, " Say not thou, What is the cause that 
the former days were better than these ? for thou 
dost not enquire wisely concerning this." On 
which verse Cornelius a Lapide refers to the 
"golden age," as he also cites such passages as 
these : 

" Laudat praeteritos, praesentea deepicit annos." Corn. 
GalL De Arte Poet.' 

"Vitium est malignitatia humanae, ut vetera semper 
in laude, praeaentia sint in faatidio; et vetera anti- 
quaque miremur, nostrorum temporum atudia rideamus 
et contemnamus." Tac. ' De Orat.' See xviii. 

Et, nisi quae terria semota aui-que 
Temporibus defuncta videt. faatidit et odit. 

Hor. ' Epist.' ii. Ep. i. 21, 22. 

I will quote one more from elsewhere : 

Laudamus veteres, sed noatria utimur annis : 
Mos tamen est aeque dignua uterque coli. 

Ov. Fast.' i. 225. 

This, at least, has the merit of bringing the sub- 
ject within the rule of practical common sense. 

For an examination of the "Respect due to 
Antiquity," see Dr. Fowler's ' Elements of Induc- 
tive Logic ' (" Of Fallacies "), Oxf. 1872, pp. 313- 

The nearest other allusion to the sentence in Eng- 
lish which I can point to is : " Say not that the time 
that our forefathers lived in was better than the 
present age," the source of which is obvious 
' Politeuphuia,' 1688, p. 252. ED. MARSHALL. 

Byron in ' The Age of Bronze ' uses the phrase : 
The good old times all times when old are good 
Are gone. 


PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD (8 th S. iv. 327, 412, 
475 ; v. 14). I had a book, published, I think, 
about 1820, containing a life of the young Pre 
tender, under the title of * The Young Ascanius.' 
Why so called I do not know. 


THE SARUM MISSAL (8 th S. v. 48). The Sarum 
Use continued all through the reign of Mary Tudor 
She and Cardinal Pole died on the same day. I 
say Sarum Use, as preferable to the phrase Sarum 
Rite ; for in truth the Sarum Use was simply 
the Roman Rite according to the Use of Sarum 
It was but an English edition, or recension, of the 
Roman Liturgy. Indeed, it might be in use now 
had not the Reformers destroyed to a great extent 
the Sarum books, and so rendered copies rare 
Naturally priests, obliged to be educated abroad 
found themselves familiar with the Roman Mass 
books, and brought these to this country. Bu 
parts of the Sarum Missal (and of other Missals 

are still used on the feasts of certain English 
aints. These will be found in the appendix for 
England in the Missals and Breviaries now in use. 
lutton (' Anglican Ministry,' p. 108) says ; 
' Elizabeth succeeded, professedly as a Catholic, 
>eing crowned with the full rites of the [Sarum] 

Pontifical, and sending to the Pope the customary 

announcement of her accession." 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

HANGING IN CHAINS (8 th S. iv. 447, 514). 
After all, need we suppose that much irony, un- 
conscious or intended, is in the remark ? Travellers 
ong experienced in the beastliness and brutality of 
savage life might well rejoice in seeing such an 
evidence of good government, even if they had 
read St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans (ch. xiii.) of 
Christian civilization. The namby-pamby senti- 
mentalism which is shocked at Wordsworth's 
Sonnets,' and which thinks that one man may 
murder another and be rather virtuous than other- 
wise for the act, but that the law is barbarous if it 
takes the murderer's life, is of later date (despite 
what Bacon wrote) than St. Paul, Drake, or Swift. 


TALBOT : TOWNSEND : DADE (8 th S. iv. 485). 
May I point out some errors in the dates mentioned 
in the above query ] In the first place, no George, 
Earl of Shrewbury, existed in 1735 ; the earl of 
that date was Gilbert, formerly a priest of the 
Roman Catholic Church, who died in 1743, and 
was succeeded by his nephew George, who was 
married, but died s.p. in 1787. 

The father of the latter, George Talbot, died 
before his brother Gilbert, so never succeeded to 
the title, but he had six sons, of whom George was 
the eldest ; and the lady mentioned as Mary Tal- 
bot, niece of George, Earl of Shrewsbury, is not 
given in any of the notes on his brother's families. 
Of these, Charles, the second brother, was twice 
married, and had, by his first wife (Mary, daughter 
and coheiress of Robert Alwyn), a daughter Mary, 
who is said to have died in 1771 ; and, as no men- 
tion is made of her marriage, she is not likely to 
have been the lady inquired for, who married 
Henry Darn all. 

By his second wife, Charles Talbot had eight 
daughters, none of whom married a Darnall, ac- 
cording to Burke. 

The sixth brother, Francis Talbot, had four 
daughters, and the name of Darnall is not men- 
tioned ; the other three brothers of the earl, John, 
James, and Thomas, died unmarried. 

In the 'Visitation of Shropshire,' 1623, it is 
Thomas who is said to have been the ' ' p'son of 
Ridnall " (not Riddall), and there is no brother of 
the name of Robert ; those mentioned are William 
Baldwin, of London, grocer, and Henry, of the 

8 h S. V. FEB. 10, '94.] 



Exchequer or Exchange, in London ; and there is 
nothing to show that William Baldwin of London 
is the same person as William Baldwin of North- 

Sir William Langhorne, Bart. , left his estate to 
the Conyers family, Sir Christopher Conyers having 
married his niece Elizabeth. Unless his will men- 
tions another niece Mary, or a brother Needham, 
I should much doubt if this Sir William Langhorne 
can be the same as the one related to Mrs. Robert 
Townsend. There were Langhornes in Pembroke- 
shire and in the North of England. The Lang- 
hornes of the former county were related to Bar- 
badian families, and as "Needham" is a name 
found in the West Indies, a search in that direction 
might prove useful. 

In Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, vols. i. 
and ii., second series, edited by Dr. J. J. Howard, 
there are many genealogical notes refening to the 
family of Dade. I find very few of the name of 
John Dade in the registers printed in these that 
would correspond with the date of the birth of the 
John Dade of America ; but there is a will of John 
Dade, a merchant, who died at sea (a bachelor), 
Admon., April 11, 1660, proved by his brother, 
Richard Dade, bis father Thomas renouncing. 


MUGGER" (8 th S. iv. 460). Here is one of the 
earliest uses of this expression : 

"Why wouldest thou auoide to haue al the world 
priuie to it, and laboureat in any wyse to haue a matter 
of open court to be doen secretly in hugger mugger, aa- 
aured there not to escape or auoide the siniatre, ruistruat- 
ing of al the countree, yea although thouehak cast thine 
aduersary, and haue the matter rightfully to pHsse with 
thee?" 'The Apophihegmes of Erasmus.' 1542, pp. 
362-3, reprint, 1877. 


TUDHOPE (8 th S. iv. 527). This as a surname 
can hardly be very common in England ; it does 
not appear in the London, Manchester, Birming- 
ham, or Bristol directories, and only once in that of 
Liverpool. In Glasgow, however, there are eight 
instances, and I therefore conclude it is of Scotch 
origin possibly a corruption of Dudhope, a castle 
in Forfarahire. The nearest English approach that 
I can find is Tudhoe, a chapelry to Whitburn, co. 
Durham ; but I do not discover the surname under 
any guise in either Durham or Northumberland. 
On the whole, I think that H. may safely con- 
clude that Tudhope is a name of Scottish origin, 
probably local. 

Eden Bridge. 

Two COMKT QUERIES (8 th S. iv. 488, 538). 
MR. LYNN thinks the appearance of the comet in 
the winter of 1865 the " only recorded one," and 
that it is due in 1899, which he calls (in Know- 
ledge) " the last year of the present century." I 

submit that it is only the last but one. More- 
over, that this comet appeared in the summer of 
1366, and that Hind has deduced its perihelion 
passage in that year, Oct. 21. We have, there- 
fore, a much better period than any that might be 
found in 1899. From 1366, Oct. 21, to 1866, 
Jan. 11, are 499 years and 72 days, for fifteen revo- 
lutions. This gives for the average period 33'28 
years at least. Le Verrier's calculation for the 
encounter with Uranus in A.D. 126 is therefore 
entirely exploded. Fifty-two times the difference 
between 33'25 and 33 28 gives 1'56 years, in which 
time Uranus would travel about a sixtieth of his 
whole orbit indeed, more than our distance from 
the sun, and a thousand times the distance at 
which the comet would be turned aside. Unless 
a close approach be proved in one of the sixty -two 
previous cometary periods, I see no reason against 
my identification thereof with Lot's wife's destroyer. 

E. L. G. 

WHITE JET (8 th S. v. 8). It is a pity that MR. 
BOUCHIER is unable to consult larger French dic- 
tionaries than those he mentions. He would have 
found in Littre*, as the second meaning of jais, 
" Verre qu'on teint de differentes couleurs, et qui 
imite le jais. Du jais blanc. Du jais bleu." It 
would seem, therefore, that jais blanc is an ordi- 
nary French expression, and was not invented by 
Victor Hugo. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

' Le Dictionnaire de 1'Acad^mie,' after describing 
the bituminous substance usually known as "jet," 
gives a second meaning of jais, namely, " II se dit 
aussi de certaine verre qu'on teint de differentes 
couleurs, et dont on fait divers ouvrages. Du jais 
blanc. Du jais bleu." CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

LATIN QUOTATIONS (8 th S. iv. 524). The first 
of the quotations was made use of by John of 
Salisbury (A.D. 1110-1180) in the prologue to his 
' Policraticus,' p. 4, Lug. Bat., 1595 : 

" Haec quoque ipsa, quibus plerumque utor, aliena 
sunt, nisi quia quicquid ubique bene dictum est, facio 
meum, et illud nunc meia ad compendium, nunc ad 
fidem et autoritatem, alienis ezprimo verbis." 

This is a more honest confession than one some- 
times meets with. ED. MARSHALL. 

SIR HUGH MYDDELTON (8 th S. iv. 527; v. 73). 
R. R. is not quite right in bis facts. It was not 
the Rector of BucknaU's son who had a living near 
Melton Mowbray ; it was the Rector of BucknaU's 
father who was Vicar of Melton Mowbray, and 
also Rector of Twyby, in Lancashire. My grand- 
father, the Rev. John Myddelton, Rector of Buck- 
nail, was the only brother of Robert Myddelton, 
D.D., of Gwaynynog, near Denbigh. On the 
decease of Dr. Myddelton's son, in 1876, without 
leaving issue, my father and his descendants were 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.v. FEB. 10/94. 

the only male representatives left of the Gway- 


BROTHER-IN-LAW (8 th S. iv. 528). In some 
parts, if not everywhere in Scotland, he is called 
"gude brither"; sister-in-law is "gude sister"; 
mother-in-law, " gudo mither," corresponding 
somewhat to the French beaufrere, &c. I have 
never heard the origin of the title "good" or 
" gude," as thus applied. A. F. B. 

ODE TO TOBACCO (8 th S. iv. 528; v. 54). Were 
it not perfectly certain that Mr. Calverly referred 
to Bacon, the celebrated tobacconist in Cambridge, 
when he wrote his * Ode to Tobacco,' one might 
quote ' Dr. Syntax's Tour,' vol. i. canto 26 : 
Hail social tube ! thou foe to care ! 
Companion of my easy chair ! 
Formed not, with cold and Stoic art, 
To harden, but to soothe the heart ! 
For Bacon, a much wiser man 
Than any of the Stoic clan, 
Declares thy power to control 
Each fretful impulse of the soul ; 
And Swift has said (a splendid name 
On the large sphere of mortal fame), 
That he who daily smokes two pipes 
The toothache never has nor g s. 

Abington Pigotts. 

" EXCEPTIO PROBAT REGULAM " (8 th S. Hi. 409 ; 

iv. 16, 495). It is clear from the following passage 
in Boswell how Dr. Johnson understood this pro- 
verb : 

" One of the company observed that there had been 
instances of some of them [i. e. t woodcocks] found in 
summer in Essex. Johnson. Sir, that strengthens our 
argument. Exceptio probat regulam. Some being found 
shows that, if all remained, many would be found." 

0. 0. B. 

ACCURATE LANGUAGE (8 th S. iii. 104, 196, 
309, 455; iv. 191). I inquired of the head mis- 
tress of a girls' school why she so frequently made 
use of the adjective nice; she replied, "Because 
it is such a useful maid-of-all-work adjective, 
and saves one the trouble of thinking ! " " Then 
you teach your girls to be inaccurate ? " "I don't 
think it is being inaccurate. The word in most 
cases expresses my meaning better than any 

A relative of mine reproved one of her nieces 
for her liberal use of " awfully jolly." The young 
lady replied, " Oh, aunt, do not deprive me of that 
awfully jolly expression. If I were deprived of it, 
I shouldn't know what to say." 

The frequent use of the expletive " you know 
was justified to me on the ground that it keeps the 
listener's attention awake. 

The fashionable novel presses into its service 
these flowers of speech. In Mr. Norris's ' Countess 
Radna' (published in the Cornhill Magazine) a 

young gentleman thus addresses a young lady, 
"I'm so awfully sorry that you are going to 
desert us." " I 'm awfully sorry to have to go," 
replied the girl composedly, " and my parents will 
be awfully sorry to see me." 

Of this young lady's two lovers the author him- 
self declares in the same chapter (xxiv.) that one 
was much " nicer " than the other. In chap, xxxvii. 
the nicer one, in declining an invitation, says, 
" Thanks awfully; but I 'm afraid I can't." 

In attempting to point out such abuses as the 
above in the use of our noble language, I counted 
on the sympathy of the men of culture who give 
their valuable aid to ' N. & Q.' But instead of 
support I have met with opposition, misrepresenta- 
tion, and even obloquy, under the idea that my in- 
tention was to snuff out all the poetry and beauty 
of the language, and to exterminate hosts of words 
that originated in the fancy and imagination of the 

I certainly did not think it necessary to explain 
to literary and scientific men that that wonderfully 
complicated plastic machine, language, adapts itself 
readily to the varied states of the human mind 
and the requirements of advancing knowledge. 
The language of science keeps pace with the growth 
of science itself. The language of affection once 
truly expressed remains for ever true. " His very 
foot hath music in 't when he comes down the 
stair"; "Out of the abundance of the heart the 
mouth speaketh," and such similes as these will 
always be felt to be heart-spoken. 

Oh ! my love is like the red, red rose, 

That's newly sprung in June ; 
Oh ! my love is like the melody 
That 's sweetly sung in tune. 

Such similes as these may be literally untrue, 
artistically untrue, since they cannot be painted, 
but no one will deny that they are poetically true. 
And this is the case with many similes and meta- 
phors, although attempts to paint them have been 
made. No painting, for example, could represent 
Waller's lines, which are nevertheless poetically 
true : 

The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decayed, 
Lets in new light through chinks that Time hath made. 

When our great dramatic poet created such cha- 
racters as Ariel, Oberon, Titania, Puck, &c., he 
was in sympathy with his audience, who believed 
in the existence of fairies. We who have renounced 
this belief suffer no loss, since the real poetical 
beauty of the characters remains. They are for 
us poetically true, and any epithets derived from 
them are true also. No one of sane mind would 
think of abolishing the word sprightly from the 
language because sprites exist only in the poetical 
imagination. True poetry furnishes true epithet?, 
and the thoughts of the past assist in moulding 
the present and preparing the present for the 

8- h S. V. FKB. 10, '94.] 



By sympathizing with the modes of thought and 
belief of the people we get a true picture of the 
people themselves. Thus the work known as the 
* Thousand and One Nights' exhibits the din and 
bustle of a great city many hundred years ago, 
painted with lifelike simplicity and truth. But 
the people had a profound belief in magic, and in 
order thoroughly to enjoy the book we must be in 
sympathy with that belief. But when the poet in 
his description of a thunderstorm sets in motion 
the wrathful angel of the wind, " the inflaming 
Bulphur flashing from his wings," he is using 
inaccurate language, for it is neither poetically 
nor scientifically true, any more than when an 
aerolite is mistaken for a thunderbolt. 



St. Ronan's Well. By Sir Walter Scott. Edited by 

Andrew Lang. 2 vol. (Nimmo.) 
THE opinion seems to be almost equally divided whether 
'St. Ronan's Well' is the best or the worst of the 
"Waverley Novels." Not wholly confined to Scotland 
is the opinion that ranges it among the foremost. Sydney 
Smith, as Mr. Lang shows, expressed his conviction 
in 1823 that it was the best of the series that had 
appeared for some time. Mr. Lang also gives publicity 
to a " legend or fable " that a number of distinguished 
men determined to write down the name of their 
favourite among the " Waverley Novels," and were unani- 
mous in the selection of * Waverley.' This seems 
scarcely to be Mr. Lang's opinion, since, though he 
admits the merit of the Scotch pictures, which do not 
appeal to Englishmen so forcibly as to Scotchmen, 
his tone is generally apologetic. He holds that Scott 
was unable to write the domestic novel, but thinks that 
passages in 'St. Ronan's Well' are on the highest level 
of poetic invention and that at points Clara rank-* 
with Ophelia. English readers, he opines, were well 
pleased to trace in the novel signs of decaying power. 
Englishmen as a rule do not care for tragic endings, 
and ' The Bride of Lammermoor* itaelf is leas generally 
esteemed this side the Border than ' Guy Mannering,' 
' Redgauntlet,' 'Rob Roy,' ' Quentin Durward,' or 
' Anne of Geierstein.' Quite admirable are the illustra 
tions to the present volume by Sir G. Reid, P.R.S.A., 
Mr. Macbeth, A.R.A., Mr. Hole, R.S.A., and other 
artists. Our favourite is ' Preparing for the Duel,' a 
splendidly dramatic design. The picture of Meg Dods 
which forms the frontispiece to the first volume is also 

The Dedication of Books. By Henry Wheatley, F.S.A. 


To his own series, "The Book-Lover's Library," Mr. 
Wheatley contributes a pleasant chapter in literary his- 
tory. His subject is, in fact, not easily exhausted. He 
has written an introductory chapter on dedications in 
general, and has then dealt with dedications in the order 
cf time. Very pleasant reading is his volume, and it is 
full of instructive matter. Shakepeare, Dryden, and 
Dr. Johnson are the only writers who occupy a chapter 
to themselves. Exactly the book i this to take up for 
a vacant hour, and a dip into it is sure to be remunerative. 
The presence of a few misprints is to be noted. The 

worst of these occurs p. 189, where the puzzling sub- 
ititution of " hairy " for hoary produces the remarkable 

Whose hairs grow hairy as his rhymes grow worse. 
The omission of the marks of sonnet lines in the dedica- 
tion to Dickens by Forster of the ' Life of Goldsmith' 
is also to be regretted. 

A Journal of the Conversation* of Lord Byron with the 

Countess of BUssinglon. (Bentley & Son.) 
To the student of Byron the work Messrs. Bentley have 
now reprinted in a revised edition, and with new and 
valuable features, has long been dear. It first saw the 
light in the Ntw Monthly Magazine, the property of 
Messrs. Colburn & Bentley, whence it -was reprinted 
n 1834. It contains a mass of interesting information, 
and supplies a picture of the man euch as only a woman 
of keen insight and fine intuitions will furnish. A sketch 
of Lady Blessington by her sister, which now sees the 
light, depicts with much animation the curiously romantic 
life of this loveliest and least disciplined of women. A 
second memoir, supplied expressly for this edition, is 
well written, gives still further particulars, and is indis- 
pensable to an accurate knowledge of the writer. The 
intimacy with Lord Byron was, of course, far from 
being the only claim of the countess to distinction. Her 
house in London rivalled Holland House in its attraction 
for literary society, and her close intimacy with Count 
D'Orsay and her patronage of Charles James Mathews 
are well known. The reprint is sure of a warm welcom*. 
Among the illustrations are a portrait of Lord Byron, 
from a sketch by Count D'Orsay in 1823 ; an engraving 
of W. B. West's picture of the same ; one of the Countess 
of Lovelace, " Ada, sole daughter of my house and 
heart "; one, after West, of the Countess of Guiccioli ; 
and others of Sheridan, Canning, Lamartine, and George 
Cclman the younger. 

MR. HERBERT SPENCER supplies to the Fortnightly an 
all-important paper on 'The late Professor Tyndall.' 
" Constructive imagination "is one of the special gifts with 
which the professor is credited. Prof. Goldwin Smith's 
' Oxford Revisited ' is a little disappointing. Lady Jeune 
has much to say concerning ' The Revolt of the Daughters.' 
A very curious paper, and one likely to attract a good 
deal of attention, is that of Prof. Earl Pearson on 
' Science and Monte Carlo.' According to this, roulette, 
as played at Monte Carlo, is not a game of chance, but 
a series of miracles. Mr. G. Bernard Shaw is amusingly 
paradoxical and assertive in dealing with ' The Religion 
of the Pianoforte.' ' Antarctica : a Vanished Austral 
Land,' by Mr. H. O. Forbes, has much scientific interest. 
Mr. Walter Armstrong writes on ' The Life and Work* 
of Rembrandt.' Of the non-political articles in the 
Nineteenth Century that by Lady Catherine Milnes- 
Gaskell on ' Old Wenlock and its Folk-lore ' will be the 
most interesting to our readers. Many wonderful super- 
stitions flourish in old Wenlock in their full glory. Sir 
Herbert Maxwell has an admirably readable and sensible 
paper on ' Bores.' Another paper that will be read with 
great delight is Mr. Reginald Brett's ' The Queen and 
her Second Prime Minister.' Noticeable books are 
reviewed by Prof. Goldwin Smith, Mr. H. D. Train, 
Mr. Theodore Watts, and other writer*. Prof. Max 
M tiller expatiates on ' Mohammedanism and Christianity/ 
and Mrs. Frederic Harrison has much to say on ' Mothers 
and Daughters.' The contents of the number are plea- 
santly varied. A singularly interesting contribution to 
the New Review is ' The Theatre Libre ' of Marie Belloc. 
The manner in which the scheme was wrought out by M. 
Antoine is very striking, and the judgments pronounced 
by writers of eminence upon a scheme which, beginning 



[8 h S. V. FEB. 10, '94. 

in dubiety and mistrust, has seriously influenced dra- 
matic literature deserve to be read with attention. The 
illustrations are inferior to the text. From Brantome 
and others Mr. Egerton Castle has extracted materials 
fora good paper on 'Historic Duels.' Mr. Crane con- 
eludes his rather disappointing 'Impressions of America.' 
Stepniak replies to previous papers on Nihilism, and 
four eminent "clerks" respond to Count Tolstoi's 
arraingment of modern churcbes. Dr. Williamson 
writes on 'John Locke's Pocket-Book.' The Century 
opens with a delightful account by Mrs. Gosse of 
Laurens Alma- Tadema, accompanied by an excellent 
and most characteristic portrait and views of bis resi- 
dence, as well as reproductions of some of his best-known 
pictures. A posthumous paper of James Russell Lowell 
on ' Criticism and Culture ' follows. In this is a trans- 
lation by Lowell from ^Escbylus which is not very suc- 
cessful. The 

unnumbered smile 
Of ocean's ridges 

will scarcely be accepted as an adequate or poetical 
rendering of the first and best rhapsody ever written on 
the sea, and the best-known passage in the * Prometheus.' 
A second Dutch master counting Mr. Alma-Tadema as 
one is discovered in Nicolaas Maes. 'A Romance of 
the Faith ' is finely illustrated, and ' Hunting with the 
Cheetah' has genuine interest. An English painter, 

* Edward Burne- Jones,' heads also Scribners. Mr. Cosmo 
Monkhouse supplies the letterpress, the reproductions of 
pictures being by many different hands. Most of these 
are good, and some of them are specially welcome. 
Jean Geoffrey's ' Prayer of the Humble ' makes a beauti- 
ful frontispiece to the number. An excellent paper on 

* Orchids,' with abundant illustrations, is likely to arrest 
and repay attention. ' The Sea Island Hurricanes ' gives 
an animated account of the dangers to be faced by those 
Jiving near the South Atlantic. 'On Piratical Seas' 
deals with an approximately similar subject. The 
English Illustrated opens with a paper on The Queen 
of Italy as a Mountaineer,' containing descriptions and 
illustrations bound to be new to most. Mr. Phil 
Robinson's 'The Zoo Revisited' is this month espe- 
cially humorous. Mr. George Moore gives a series of 
recent ' Impressions of Zola.' Mr. E. Clodd deals with 
'Edward Fitzgerald,' and Mr. W. Laird Clowes with 

* The New Navies.' The letterpress, as a rule, is good, 
aud the illustrations are very numerous. Macmillan's 
opens with what is practically a eulogy of the House of 
Lords. Vernon Lee dwells on the pleasures and rewards 
of travelling, and is pleasantly descriptive and a trifle 
paradoxical. ' Some Thoughts on St. Francis ' and ' The 
Story of the Inscriptions' deserve to be read. Mrs. 
Brookfield's ' Early Recollections of Tennyson ' do not, 
in Temple Bar, present the late Laureate in a wholly 
attractive light, but will be read with avidity. A pleasant 
defence of Hannah More ia supplied, and there are 
excellent papers on ' The"ophraste Renaudot'and 'The 
Gauchos at Home.' The Gentleman's has a second con- 
tribution by Mr. Percy Fitzgerald on ' Some of our Old 
Actors,' and an account of the ' Prince Consort's Univer- 
sity Days.' To Longman's A. K. H. B. sends an account 
of ' Dean Stanley of Westminster,' which cannot easily be 
overpraised. It is one of the best magazine articles we can 
recall, equally pleasant in tone and vivid in portraiture. 
A good paper on 'Colour' is also supplied. ' Winter 
Assizes,' in the Cornhill, gives some curious and sadden- 
ing pages. 'A Mahogany Forest' is an admirable bit of 
descriptive writing. In Bdgravia is a contribution on 
Thomas Hood. 

IN the Journal of the Ex-Lilris Society the valu- 
able contribution ' On the Processes for the Production 

if Ex-Libris ' is continued. Many notable plates from 

he collection of the secretary, Mr. W. H. K. Wright, 

are reproduced, and the announcement is made of the 

erieral meeting and exhibition, to be held in St. Martin's 

Town Hall on Wednesday next. 

CASSELL'S Gazetteer, Part V., ends at Billingford. It 
las an excellent account of Belfast, and deals with 
nnumerable Bens. Cassell's Storehouse of Information, 
Part XXXVII., has a coloured plate of the flags of 
various nations. The range of subjects covered by the 
work is very extensive. 

THE sixth part of Mr. Palgrave's Dictionary of 
Political Economy, "Drengage" to " Eyton," has been 
saued by Messrs. Macruillan. 

J. & M. L. TREGASKIS have issued a large-paper and 
llustrated edition of their recent catalogue, which book- 
overs will do well to secure. The books described are, 
n many instances, rare and choice, and the illustrations 

of bindings, title-pages, and the like render the whole 

well worthy of preservation. 

MR. RUPERT SIMMS has supplied us with proof-sheets 

f portions of his ' Bibliotheca Staffordiensis,' now rapidly 

Approaching completion. It contains a bibliographical 

and biographical account of books and persons connected 

with Stafford, is alphabetical in arrangement, and is 

ikely to be of great and permanent interest and value. 

Mr. Simms will be glad of further information addressed 

:o him at Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

MR. WM. JACKSON PIGOTT, Dundrum, co. Down, seeks 
:o know if any successor exists to the print-selling busi- 
ness carried on by J. R. Smith in Soho Square and 
Brighton. See ante, p. 87. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
rate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

E. T. M. "Hope told a flattering tale" is in the 
opera of ' Artaxerxes,' by John Wolcot (Peter Pindar). 
It was sung by Madam Mara at the King's Theatre, 

A. F. ("To pour oil upon the troubled waters "). This 
query has been frequently asked, without a definite reply 
having been elicited. See Indexes to ' N, & Q.' 

ERRATA. P. 95, col. 1, 1. 16 from bottom, for "Gray- 
don" read Grendon ; and 1. 10 from bottom, for " Moyer " 
read Mayor. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8th s. V. FEB. 17, '94.] 





NOTBS : A Parochial Pawn Shop, 121 Parish Councils and 
Parochial Records, 122 Primate McGauran, 123 Thomas 
Miller " Creeper " " Dearth "=Dearness, 124 Tobacco 
' Le Chambard' Bhurtpore Nicaragua Canal, 125 
Peat _ Buss Double Sense Nursery Rhyme New 
Words, 126. 

QUERIES : Shakspeare v. Lambert Heraldic Oaths 
Jacobite Societies Godfrey Elizabeth Jennens, 127 
Cake-bread Houses on Piles Protestants of Polonia 
Prote Edward Grey The Kraken Richard King" Who 
goes home?" 128 Fortescues of Fallapit Sir James 
Craufurd Eltweed Fulham Volunteers Authors 
Wanted, 129. 

REPLIES : The Man with the Iron Mask, 129-William 
Parsons " Level best," 130 Bayham Abbey Vicar of 
Newcastle Plots of Dramas Wragg Family, 131 Counts 
Palatine Name of Watchmaker " Tib's Eve" Little 
Chelsea Holt=Hill Burial in Point Lace, 132 Palmer- 
Sir E. Frewen St. Thomas of Canterbury "Carbonizer" 
Extraordinary Field, 133 " Bother "Jay St. Peters- 
burg" To quarrel "Abbey Churchea Mark wick Hats 
in the House of Commons, 134 Parallels in Tennyson 
Charles Owen Creole, 135 Juvenile Authors" Chacun 
a son gout "Sinclair Sir W. Bury Dulcarnon Armorial 

1 Bearings, 136 " Gingham" " Ondoye," 137 Miniature 
Volumes Arms of Cities Udal Tenure, 138 Portraits of 
Edward I., 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Funk's 'Standard Dictionary' 
E. V. B.'s ' Book of the Heavenly Birthdays 'Grant's 
Greece in the Age of Pericles ' Bellezzas ' Proverbi 
Inglesi 'White's ' Book-Song.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


John Cambridge, who was Alderman, Sheriff, 
and Mayor of Norwich, died in 1442, and left in 
his will a bequest of ten pounds, which was to be 
kept in a chest behind the altar in St. Anne's 
Chapel, in the Church of St. Andrew, Norwich, 
to be lent to parishioners on approved security. 

He made a long will, which contains minute 
directions as to the carrying out of his bequests. 

He desired that the money should be kept in 
the Chapel of St. Anne, in charge of two persons, 
who were to be chosen upon his " yereday." If 
the borrower left a sufficient security the cus- 
todians might lend not more than forty shillings, 
and for not longer than three months. At the 
time of borrowing, and also at the time of paying 
back, the key-keepers were directed to charge the 
borrower to say a paternoster, an ave, and a crede 
for his soul, and for the souls of his relatives. He 
also left a bequest for a " Dirige " to be said on 
the Tuesday in Easter week, and on the Wednes- 
day for a mass to be said by six priests, to whom 
the two persons in charge of the chest were to pay 
fourpence each. In addition he requested that 
after the "Dirige" the two persons should buy 
four pennyworth of bread, eight gallons of ale, two 
gallons of wine, " to cheren with my neighboures 
and the pore pupill "; and a torch of the value of 
"vs." was to be given to the church. For all 

the trouble they would have during their year o 
office the clavers were to divide four shillings, and 
a bequest was left for the purpose. 

The old book in which the accounts were kept 
was lost, and the new book begins at 1555, in 
which year the amount of money which might be 
borrowed at one time was increased to five pounds, 
and the time for repayment extended to six months. 
Ten years later the amount of money in the chest 
was one hundred pounds, towards which John 
Underwood, the first suffragan bishop (he was 
suffragan to Bishop Nix, and degraded Bilney, the 
martyr), had left five pounds, and Thomas Codd, 
who was mayor at the time of Kett's rebellion, 
gave ten pounds. In 1566, the parish, being short 
of money, borrowed five pounds on the security of 
the " best cope of cloth of Tyssew, and j cope of 
whyght damask." It is easy to understand that 
whenever the pariah was in want of money it went 
to the chest for it. It does not appear from the 
entries that the parish returned the money 
promptly, nor that the pledge was forfeited in 

Amongst other curious items mentioned by Mr. 
Beecheno is Robert Thompson's bill relating to 
Mr. Yates, who will be remembered in connexion 
with the Montagu controversy : 

Pinned into the leaf under date 1616 is one Robert 
Thompson's bill : 

payd for charges the 9 of maye for bring of m r yattes 
from walden to norwihe 

manes meate & horsse meat from Walden to Bartten 
Mills, 3*. 3d. 

at Attellborow & BO home to Norwich, 5s. 5d. 

for 12 nights grass for m r yatea hia horse when he 
cam vpon tryell, 5$. Qd. 

provender ISd. saddle mending id. slicing the horsse, 
4d., 2*. 2rf. 

lent to m r Cock which he did send in the name of the 
parrish to M" Yattes for tocken the some 22*. Orf. 

Mr. Yates appears to have been a great favour- 
ite with the parishioners, who, in 1617, gave him 
"a gratewety"of 101. 13*. 4d. towards removing 
to Norwich, and because he had been to Yorkshire 
with Mrs. Yates. 

In 1650 there was in the chest only fifty pounds, 
while six years later the money " was found to 
have been misappropriated, and an order was made 
for its restoration in ten days." The stock in 
1668 was five pounds, but three years later the 
amount had risen to twenty-two pounds. 

In 1739 there was ten pounds in the hands of 
the churchwardens, but what became of the money 
or the chest no one seems to know. 

I have applied for information on this point to 
the vicar, and also to a gentleman who was for 
many years churchwarden of St. Andrew. Canon 
Copeman knows nothing of its ultimate destination, 
and the gentleman to whom I refer tells me there 
is no trace of it. One may shrewdly suspect that 
during one of its periods of necessity the ten pounds 
was borrowed for use for the church. 



[8i S. Y. FEB. 17, '94. 

* fU* mLvrimini n this note I am argument, but it will be, parish by parish, very small, 

For most of the particulars m this J J an B d the Authenticated copies will be more useful for 
indebted to Mr. Beeoheno s Cambridge Unest lo<jal reference than the originals, which are often diffi- 

PAUL BIBRLEY. cult to decipher. No serious diminution in the small 
revenues now derivable by the incumbents from 

(privately printed). 

(Concluded from p. 63.) 


fearg of the c i ergy O n this score, a scheme might be 

Tbe House of Commons has now amended the clause devised wne reby, for a fixed term of years, fees on the 
dealing with parochial records, so as to epecihcally old gcale for consulting the registers might, when the 
exclude the parish registers, both new and old^ from the bookg are depoe i te d in the Record Office, be payable to 
control of the parish councils. Mr. Macdonas amend- the officia i 8 there, and handed over, in whole or part, to 
ment to remove the registers dating before 1857 to the tne i ncum bents of the parishes concerned. 
Public Record Office after the parish councils snouia j n tbe propoga i to transfer the registers to a central 
have made authenticated copies was, I learn, ruled to home tbere ig nothing revolutionary. In 1854 Parlia- 
be beyond the scope of the Bill, and was, therefore, not ment d j rec t e d that all parochial registers in Scotland 
considered. The existing system, which makes the in- before 1824 ahould be deposited with the Registrar- 
cumbent the sole custodian of all church registers, thus Q enera i j n Edinburgh, where they are now safely 
remains for the time unchanged. I have already shown bouaed an d rea dily accessible to the public. Moreover, 
that under this system the registers are neither as safe b Acta of p ar ii amen t, dated respectively in 1840 and 
nor as accessible as is needful to the prosecution of his- 185g 3^55 registers of earlier date belonging to Non- 
torical research. I am, moreover, informed that the conformi8t bodies (including the Wesleyan and Gal- 
present system often proves unsatisfactory to solicitors, vini8t i c Methodists and Quakers) were removed to 
whose claims to consideration will be acknowledged by a Somer8efc House. 

wider public than the one interested m historical r In p rance an d Germany, I am told, every provision 

search. Mr. Macdona has undertaken to introduce a ig adopted by the State to keep all local records in safety 

Bill on the lines of bis suppressed amendment, and such and duly acce 8Bible to the public. Successive English 

an effort to ensure the safety and accessibility of an in- Q overnraen t 8 have, so far, recognized the obligation 

valuable portion of the national archives ought to ]ying on them of ren dering safe and accessible State 

command general support. . papers, wills, legal documents, the parochial registers of 

No question of party politics is involved. It is true g cot i an d, and English Nonconformist registers of births, 

that a few of the clergy threaten opposition to any death8) and marr i a ges. It therefore seems reasonable 

change in the methods of keeping the registers, but to expect that any Government on whose attention the 

that attitude is inconsistent with the traditions of a matter ia adequately pressed would recognize as impera- 

Church that has at every period reckoned eminent his- tiye ft duty f n regard to English parochial registers 

torians among her leaders, and those who speak with before 1837, which have hitherto suffered unaccountable 

authority on her behalf show, as far as I can learn, every neg i ec t. A Bill, introduced into Parliament by Mr. 

desire to reform a system that is calculated to obstruct w c Borlase in 1882, dealt with the question in many 

the progress of historical learning. wayg satisfactorily, but its promoters failed to adequately 

That the English parish registers before 1837 are impre8g the Government of the day, and it was dropped. 

purely ecclesiastical documents, and should therefore be p er h apa a conference of those who sympathize with 

vested P erpetually in the bands of tbe Church, is an up- endeavours to draw public attention to the need of the 

tenable proposition. Instituted by civil ordinance in re f orm m j g bt now determine on an effective mode of 

1538, they were expressly devised to supply a system of action> j B hould be glad to hear from any who share that 

registration that should include every resident within yiew _g JDNET LEE, Dictionary of National Biography, 

the parish. Practically no other system of registration ^ Water i 00 pi ace , S.W. 

was recognized in the Law Courts for nearly three cen- p g _j fce . ht to mention a recen t incident, 

turies. Despite the spread of sectarian differences the - "gJV it to teH a in8t 

advantages of parochial registration were consequently & t B of contention. Mr. Urwick, a Nonconformist 
extended for a long period to all who claimed them, cl r rffvman . and a distinguished historian of Noncon- 

extended for a ong pe no ..; f c "y clergyman, Mid a distinguished historian of Noncon- 
whether or no they adhered to the beliefs and practice . *? > recently refused access to the registers of 

in * / - 

of the Established Church. The registers thus contain cb whh ^ - n 184Q by p arUamentary 

entries affecting many persons who were not members of removed to Somerset House. It seems that 

the Church of England, and in the burial-books the fact f i reisters like the 

, e onconorms g, 

that the deceased was a Roman Catholic or Dissenter is ma y 7 Registry, or the State papers in the 

often noted, especially in cases where religious rites at J ffi ^ ^, y &cces ^ e v io literary 

r disensed with either at the wish of 

the funeral were dispensed with, either at the 

the family or by order of an overscrupulous incumbent. 

Till the beginning of this century '.furthermore, it was 

at once reasonable and 


B . , t question in the House of 
m' " o } , guggested by Mr. Urwick's treat- 

the habit of many incumbents, with the concurrence of ^5g| A ^ ith ftated last Friday that the Registrar- 
the Bishops to enter m their registers mtereBting tacts g ^ Withdrawn this privilege, owing to "want 

respecting the secular history of the parish and neigh- <<tbe iaifce Btaff> To a i ayman 

bourhood-the object, as B sh White ^ Eennet both p obatacle8 8eem 8uperab le in a great public depart- 
18 to increase the utilit of the registers for interest. The 

case by those 

Ilation respecting the registers is that, 
P P 8 ed to the care of 


bourhood-the object, as B sh White ^ Eennet bothobatacle8 8eem 8uperab le in a great pu 
stated in 1718, to increase the utility of the registers for a88umab ly conducted in the public int 

posterity. Since 1837 the nguten, m the presence of a however, to be drawn from this ca 
civil system of registration, have ac qu ired a more dis- JJ ^ Illation respecting the regi 


character, and there , maj r be no 

the cost of the proposed transcripts may be open to 

H. T. 

V. FEB. 17, '94.] 



(Concluded from p. 6.) 

The foregoing despatch is of the greatest possible 
importance, and proves conclusively that it was the 
Primate who was the prime mover in the rising 
and gathering of the great northern chiefs and 
their clans ; and that Gamden, in his ' Queen 
Elizabeth,' published 1675, p. 478, was so far cor- 
rect in stating that 

" MacGuire, a powerfull Lord in Fermanagh, was the 
next after O'Donell that was put forward to strike up 
his drums. He brake into the neighbouring countries to 
plunder them and entered Connaugbt accompanied with 
Gauran, a priest, who was by the Pope designed Primate 
of Ireland. This priest exhorted him to rely upon God 
and trie his fortune, promising him assured victory." 

O'Donovan's 'Four Masters,' second edition, 1856, 
under the year 1593, records the fulfilment of the 
promise, but states incorrectly that Edmond Ma- 
guaran, Primate of Armagh, happened accidentally 
to be along with Maguire on this occasion, inferring 
that the revered bishop took no part in the 
rising. The reference, however, to his being slain 
is quite correct, although the date given is July 3 
(see also the Abbe MacGeoghegan's ' History of 
Ireland, 1 translated by O'Kelly, 1846). Sir R. 
Byngham writes to Burghley, vol. 1890, p. 103, 
dated June 6, 1593 (forwarded by Sir H. Bagenall). 
" One M'Gawran who terms himself Primate, doth 
much mischief riding on his chief horse, with his 
staff and shirt of mail. Tirone's own foster brothers 
at the burning of Ballymote." Evidently proving 
that the Primate, whilst wielding the sceptre of 
Irish Catholicism in our " island of saints" also 
held high military command. The Lord 
Deputy and Sir Geff. Fenton (vide 1890 vol., 
p. 105) to Burghley : " Have written to Maguire, 
Tirone, and Art M 'Baron to come to meet them 
at Dundalk," dated June 9, 1593. The authorities 
seemed to fear the confederate chiefs, and tried to 
induce them to come to terms of peace.* And at 
p. 110, Sir R. Bingham writes to Burghley, "the 
killing of the arch-traitor M'Gawran, a venomous 
person, who hath chiefly contrived all these mis- 
chief?," dated June 28, 1593. 

And again, on June 30, ibid., pp. 110-112, the 
Lord Deputy and Council inform the Privy Coun- 
cil, " the traitorous titulary Bishop Magawran, with 
seven or eight of the Maguires,t slain in the Mag- 

* And by this means ultimately get them to allow 
Lngluh sheriffs to enter their countries. Up to this time, 
and for a few years later in Ulster, tbe Irish continued 
to elect their own chiefs, and the law of the Brehon 
reigned supreme, and not that of the Saxon. 

The list of those slain on the side of Maguire is 
ful| er m th e> ' C. 8. P. I.,' vol. 1890, p. 136 than that of 
. M., viz. : "Names of the principal men slain 
by Sir R. Bingham, on Midsummer Eve, in the encounter 
with Maguire. The Primate Magawran, the Abbot 
Magwire, M'Elan, the chief leader of the Scots, M'Caffry, 


1. " A Declaration by Patrick M'Arte Moyle M'Mahon, 
of the assemblies sworn by M'Gawran, the titular Pri- 
mate, to help the Spaniards, who would arrive before 
mid-May, 1593, April lltb, Monaghan." 

2. " Declaration of Patrick M'Arte Moyle M'Mahon 
before the Lord Deputy and Council. Bishop M'Gawran'a 
promise of forces out of Spain. The messages sent to 
him by Henry Oge O'Neill not to expose himself to 
danger, 1593, June 15th, Dundalk." 

6. " Declaration of Thadie Nolan, one of Her Majesty's 
pursuivants. The Earl of Tirone's great hatred to Mar- 
shal Banennll. Assistance to Maguire. Tbe O'Hagans 
who killed Phelim M'Tirlough are conversant with the 
Earl of Tirone. 180 Scots landed. M'Sweeny Ne Doe 
doth join Maguire with 400 galloglas. The North 
standeth altogether at the pleasure of the Earl and the 

S re tended Primate Magawran, 1593, June 13th, Dun- 

7. "Certain things told to Marshal Bagenall. The 
Earl of Tirone's command for wasting the barony of 
Cremorne. Confederacy between O'Donnell, Maguire, 
the titular Primate M'Gawran, and the Earl of Tirone, 
1593, June 18th." 

Hugh O'Neill married the Marshal's sister, 
against the English commander's wishes ; he also 
gave evidence as to O'Neill taking part in the 
rebellion before the Government authorities. These 
were the reasons which occasioned the ill-feeling 
referred to above. 

10. " Declaration of William Moate, that the Earl of 
Tirone, O'Donnell, Maguire, and Primate Magawran, 
received the sacrament together at Strabane, 1593, 
June 20, Dundalk." 

12. " Deposition of Sir Morish O'Cullen, Chancellor of 
Armagh, Thurlough O'Boile has got the treasurersbip of 
Armagh from the Primate M'Gawran, 1593, June 25, 

The English ever since the partial conquest of 
Erin by Henry II. had tried to foment internecine 
quarrels amongst the native chieftains and their 
sub-chiefs. The selection for the chieftaincy 
(elective from the ruling family of the respective 
clans, any member being eligible), according to the 
law of tanistry or succession (differing from that 
of primogeniture, the Irish always wanted a man 
capable of leading them to battle), presented 
numerous opportunities to their enemies of setting 
a supposed injured party against the elected ruler 
of the tribe, thereby weakening his power, and 
thus gave the English an opportunity to seize the 
territory. Had the chiefs only remained united 
against the common invader their success was as- 
sured. The death of their beloved and trusty 

chief of his name, Turlough M'Caffry's two sons, 
M'Thomas, M'Turlough Moile Magwire, son to the Lord 
of Clancally, James M'Turlough M'Philip Magwire, 
Cuconnought M'Hugh Magwire's son, and Con M'Tur- 
lough O'Neill. An eminent English gentleman was 
killed on the other side. MacGeoghegan calls him 
Guelfert and the ' Four Masters ' Clifford, together with 
several others, after which the Saxons were defeated. 

I Maghery. The Irish authorities state that the 
battle took place at Sciatha-na-Fearta, near Tulsk in 



S. V. FEB. 17, '94. 

archbishop was a severe blow to the national cause 
His Grace exercised great command over the Irish 
leaders, thereby preventing open hostilities. I 
the heroic Primate had lived another decade, it is 
easy to conjecture what the result would have 
been. In conclusion, I may say that it was 
owing to a hint received from his Eminence 
Cardinal Logue, some few years ago, that I 
prosecuted my researches amongst the Irish 
State Paper?,* which have, I am delighted to 
remark, terminated so successfully. Not only will 
the members of the clan McGauran or McGovern 
of Tullyhaw hail the information with joy, but 
every Hiberno-Celt throughout the universe will 
henceforth venerate the name of the saintly Primate 
as one of their greatest patriots. And it is to be 
hoped that ere long a suitable monument will de- 
note the place where our warrior bishop died, a 
martyr to faith and fatherland. 


It is stated of Edmund Macgauran that " it is 
impossible to gather from historians much more 
than that there was such a prelate, and he was 
killed on the battle-field." The ' Diet, of National 
Biography /*.v. "Magauran," devotes two columns 
to this prelate. A. F. P. 

THOMAS MILLER was a farmer's boy and a 
basket-maker in early life, but was led by the 
success of his first production, ' A Bay in the 
Woods,' to turn his attention to literature. He 
has contributed much to the newspaper press 
(Illustrated London News, &c.). His works are 
numerous, but now fading from memory. Amongst 
them may be found * JRoyston Gower,' ' Fair Rosa- 
mond,' 'Lady Jane Grey,' 'Country Year Book,' 
'Sketches of London,' * Gideon Giles.' He has 
also written lives of Turner, Girtin, Beattie, and 
Collins, and a history of the Anglo-Saxons. His 
latest story, 'The Old Park Road' was commenced 
in 1870. 

When he came to London he moved in good 
society. Rogers, the poet, befriended him, and en- 
abled him to start in business as a publisher ; but 
he failed to succeed. He then plied his pen, and for 
a time worked in conjunction with Birket Foster. 
He wrote some time for the Illustrated London 
News, and supplied matter for several of its inter- 
esting almanacks. 

A life of Miller would be interesting, if the 
materials could be got together ; but at this dis- 

* The future historian of old Banba can gather highly 
interesting materials from these original documents, not 
previously printed or referred to. I was quite disap- 
pointed, on perusing that eminent Irish scholar's (Dr. 
Joyce) recent work on ' The Hist. Ireland,' to find that 
he had not even mentioned the name of our distinguished 
prelate. He also must Lave overlooked Mr. Hamilton's 
' Works,' and their originals in the Public Record Office. 

tance of time it would be difficult to search them 
out. He rests in Norwood Cemetery ; but whether 
a stone has been erected I am uncertain ; if not, 
he should not be allowed to lie in a nameless 
grave. W. WRIGHT. 


P.S. In his declining days he did some work 
for Geo. Routledge & Sons. 

" CREEPER." In the Standard, Jan. 1, there 
appears a letter entitled ' Ceylon Tea-Planting 
a Warning,' and signed " An Ex-Creeper." The 
correspondent sends a cutting from a recent issue 
of a Ceylon daily paper a paragraph headed 
" Creepers Galore." From this extract it appears 
that " creeper " is the name given in Ceylon to pay- 
ing pupils who go out there to learn tea-planting. 
The Ceylon writer protests against the wholesale 
importation of " paying pupils," otherwise known 
as " creepers," in some of our planting districts. 
As this use of the word does not appear to have 
been recorded in the dictionaries, I make a note of 
its occurrence in a London newspaper for the bene- 
fit of future students of outre-mer English. 



"DEARTH" = DEARNESS. I have lately 
noted some examples of this word used in anti- 
thesis to " cheapness." The earliest occurs in the 
' Coventry Mysteries' (p. 148): 

And if }e wyl owght have, telle me what 30 thynk ; 

I sal not spare for schep nor derthe. 

This passage passed the understanding of the 
editor (Halliwell), for "schep" is put in the 
glossary without an explanation. " Schep," how- 
ver, is a miswriting of "chep,"and the phrase 
" for dearth nor for cheap " occurs in Tusser's 
1 Husbandry ' for May (ed. 1812, p. 152). 

There are several instances in the 'Dialogue 
between Pole and Lupset' (E.E.T.S., Extra Ser., 
No. xii.), though the editor, Mr. Cowper, glossing 
;he word as "dearth," seems not to have grasped 
the meaning. Thus (p. 87, 11. 638 sqq.) we read 
of "the grete lake [lack] of vytayle and the 
skarsenes therof, and darth of al thyng workyd by 
mannys hande." There was a direct connexion 
)etween the dearness of food and the value of 
the artisan's wares, which is thus enunciated at 

; When vytayl ys dere, then they craftysman must 
node sel hys ware aftur the same rate ; for hyt costyth 
ym more in nuryschyng hys famyly and artyfycerys 
therof then before hyt was wont to dow. And so, con- 
sequently, of thys rote spryngyth al darth of al tbyngya 
wych we schold haue by the dylygence and labur of the 

My last example is from a Royal Proclamation 
read in the Star Chamber on July 1, 1596 : " The 
presente dearthe (for I hope it is not scarcitye) to 
be prouyded for," &c. F. ADAMS. 

8 th S. V. FEB. 17, '94.] 



One would expect to find some notice of the weed 
par excellence in the first half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury; but the earliest I know of is that contained 
in the ' Novae Novi Orbis Histories ' of Benzo or 
Benzon, of Milan, printed in 1578. It may be that 
the passage is well known, but I append a free 
translation, on the chance that it may not be 
familiar : 

" In this island [Hispaniola], AS in some other provinces 
of the New World, are found shrubs of moderate size 
resembling reeds; they bear leaves like those of the nut, 
or rather larger. These are held in great esteem by the 
natives, who first introduced the custom about to be de- 
scribed, and by the negroes whom the Spaniards brought 
hither out of Africa. They bind the ripe leaves into 
bundles and hang them in a ' fumarium ' till dry. 
When they desire to use them they entwine one 
leaf of the plant with one leaf of the corn grown 
in the country, so as to make of them one tube or 
pipe, lighting one end of which they .put the other in 
the mouth and draw in the breath and air, and at last 
inhale so much of the smoke as to fill their mouths, 
throats, and heads, and patiently continue the process as 
long as the pleasure which they derive from it is not of 
the nature of a penance ; and so intoxicate themselves 
with this unpleasant [immitis] smoke that their senses 
are in time almost out of the mind's control. There are 
some who smoke so greedily and furiously as to fall life- 
less to the ground, arid lie there for the greater part of 
the day or night like persons stupefied or deprived of 
their senses. Some, on the other hand, smoke more 
temperately until they merely become giddy, and carry 
the process no further. What a pestilential and hurtful 
thing, to be sure, is this Tartarean poison. I have myself 
in my journeys through Guatemala and Nicaragua often 
entered the house of some Indian who was smoking this 
weed (which they call tobacco in the Mexican language) 
and have been compelled by the stink of this diabolical 
smoke to make a speedy exit." 


' LE CHAMBARD.' In the Standard of Dec. 16, 
1893, a Paris telegram, dated Dec. 15, states that 
"a new Anarchist journal has made its appear- 
ance to-day. It is called Le Chambardz word 
not to be found in dictionaries, but significant 
enough in revolutionary slang, where ' chambard ' 
means ' Look, wreck, and plunder ! ' " I wonder 
f any good-natured Anarchist would be kind 
enough to tell us in the columns of 'N. & Q.' how 
happens that this innocent-looking French 
rord has come to bear such a savage esoteric mean- 


BHURTPORE. I send you the following spirited 
lines, written by an officer who was present at the 
siege and capture of Bhurtpore, in 1826. I write 
from memory, as it is more than sixty years since 
I heard them sung by my brother, who was also an 
[facer at the same siege. I do not think he ever 
told me the name of the author. 

There was a tradition that the city could not be 
captured until the water in the ditch was swallowed 
by an alligator, and the prophecy is said to have 

been curiously fulfilled, for when the usurper 
seized the city he had the bank of the river 
Jumna (?) cut in order to fill the ditch ; but Lord 
Combermere, the Commander-in-Chief, by a forced 
march was enabled to close the breach before more 
than two feet of water had flowed in. His name 
was pronounced " Oommeer " by the Indians, that 
being the Hindu for alligator. Whether or not 
that story is true, I know 1 have read it and heard 

I think the song is worth preserving, and that 
it would be a pity to let it die with me, though ib 
is, of course, quite possible there are others who 
may have heard and remember it besides your 
octogenarian correspondent : 


To arms ! to arms ! the trumpets loudly call 
To meet the proud and vaunting foe again ; 
Th' auspicious hour 's arrived to 'venge the fall 
Of friends, relations, dearest comrades slain. 

See ! on those walls their hated ensign waves ! 
And shall it still pollute the hallowed bier? 
Soldiers, reflect ! it floats upon the graves 
Of many a gallant British Grenadier. 

Though on that spot our destinies decreed 
Th' unwilling drum for once should sound retreat, 
Still the bright raya of many a valiant deed 
Gave Britons lustre even in defeat. 

And shall they still bid defiance 'round ? 
Shall on our laurels any speck remain ? 
Soldiers ! once more upon that sacred ground 
Renew the charge, and wipe away the stain ! 

Let them exult in menacing array ! 
In darkness soon their sun shall disappear; 
Those vaunting threats they vainly use to-day 
To-morrow's dawn shall change to abject fear ! 
Soon shall our thunder shake their tow'ring walls; 
Soon shall their flag be doomed to wave no more. 
Soldiers, rush on ! for Victory's trumpet calls 
To seal for e'er the fate of proud Bhurtpore ! 

Y. S. M. 

THE NICARAGUA CANAL. At the present time, 
when anything relating to the projected Nicaragua 
Canal is of interest, I should like to call attention 
to a monograph and map on the subject, and also 
ask information as to the author. 

The article and map referred to are found buried 
in a three-volume work, which I judge is seldom 
read now, and is entitled " Histoire ahregde de la 
Mer du Sud. Par M. de Laborde," 3 vols. 8vo., 
Paris, P. Didot 1'aine, 1791. 

At the end of vol. iL is attached the monograph 
of seventy pages, with the title, " Memoires sur la 
possibilite, les avantages et les moyens d'ouvrir 
un canal dans 1'Amerique septentrionale, pour 
communiquer de la mer atlantique, ou du nord, a 
la mer pacifique, ou du sud." 

The author is mentioned in the preliminary leaf 
as Martin de la Bastide, " ancien secretaire de M. 
le Comte de Broglio." 

At the end is a folded map, lU in. by 21 in., 
entitled "Carte da lao de Nicaragua et de la 



. V. FEB. 17, f y4. 

riviere St. Juan sur laquelle on a marque lea deux 
passages proposed pour faire communiquer I'oce'an 
UaMerduSud, 1791." 

Any information on the past history of a great 
undertaking, which when accomplished will rank 
with the Suez Canal in commercial importance, I 
feel assured will be of much interest on the other 
side, as it is on this. 

In 1884, on a trip I made across the Isthmus 
of Panama, the remark I heard from an old 
sea captain who well knew the country is worth 
mentioning, as showing the feelings existing at 
that time near the canal as to its construction. 
ft Why, sir," he said, in continuation of a long 
dissertation on the subject, "it would take all the 
money in Europe and America, and all the men of 
China, before it could be accomplished." 


Washington, D.C., U.S. 

PEAT. It may be well to put on record in the 
pages of * N. & Q. 1 that the Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society for December, 1893, p. 777, 
contains a bibliography of works relating to peat 
and its products. It seems to me to be imperfect, 
but is nevertheless very useful. E. P. D. E. 

Buss. I suppose that few readers of 'N. & Q.' 
are aware that this term denoted, three centuries 
ago, a very different locomotive from the bus or 
buss of to-day. In the ' Pictorial History of Eng- 
land,' bk. vi. ch. iv. p. 795, we read in an Act of 
Parliament (1499 A.D.) of " the great innumerable 
riches that is tint (i.e., lost) by fault of ships and 
busses." In Bailey's * Dictionary ' the word buss 
is explained as " a small sea vessel used by the 
Hollanders for the herring fishery, &c." 



DOUBLE SENSE. In reading over my reply re 
Sir Thomas Parker (ante, p. 30) I am struck by 
the double meaning conveyed by my words 
" nearly missed being Countess of Macclesfield." 
From the context my intention is apparent ; but 
otherwise might they not read "just missed"? When 
we speak of " nearly missing a train " we mean 
that it almost went without us ; but were Dr. Plot 
permitted to revisit this earth for the purpose of a 
railway journey (which Heaven forefend), he would 
undoubtedly say that he "nearly missed" the 
train if he saw it steam out of the station before 
him. " Nearly missed " is not, however, the ooly 
phrase that may be read in a double sense. For 
years I used the petition, " Reward us not after 
our iniquities," without having any idea of its real 
meaning ; and I grieve to say that I had attained 
man's estate before the full signification of the 
divine injunction, "Drink ye all of it," flashed 
upon my mind. A sister of mine was long accus- 
tomed to think that the words of Bishop Ken, 

" The grave as little as my bed," had reference to 
her own nightly couch. And yet we are not more 
stupid than the rest certainly not more so than 
the Scotch journalist who, on reading in the Times 
that Mr. Parnell would receive "indifferent 
justice" at the hands of an Edinburgh jury, re- 
garded it as a slight upon his nation. 

We may possibly always remain in the dark as 
to the significance of Pilate's remark about truth, 
but a list of phrases which may be read in a double 
sense would be interesting, and not, I should think, 
unsuitable to these columns. 


Eden Bridge. 

NURSERY RHYME. I have never heard this 
rhyme since I was quite a youngster, though it 
was common enough with us in our district (Brad- 
ford, Yorks) : 

My father died when I was young, 

And left me all his riches : 
A stewed stool foot, an old top hat, 

And a pair of leather breeches. 
It is not in the * Nursery Rhymes of England/ 


NEW WORDS. Journalism has lately given 
two new specimens of types already familiar to us, 
which, while not deserving the advertisement of a 
heading in ' N. & Q.' and a place in its index, may 
be usefully mentioned in way of warning. La- 
boucherese is a word to be thankful for, as showing 
us what we may arrive at if we once begin to find 
substantives for statesmen's styles ; Dodoesque, as 
indicating the accelerated multiplication of words 
that may arise if, after accepting the principle of 
conferring on novelists adjectives expressive of 
their characteristics, we extend the honour to their 
heroes or heroines. 

What are we to think of Maisonette ? It catches 
the eye from big black boards in Belgravia, among 
other words of undoubted English. Maisonnette 
we know ; but that is French, and means a little 
house. Maisonette, I learnt, by inquiry on the 
spot, to mean several floors in a house of consider- 
able size, which were to let, the remainder being 
otherwise occupied. The word, however, may 
meet a commerical want. No such justification 
can be given of Nomme de plume, which I find 
unmistakably in the society column of a Sunday 
paper of January 28. Nom de plume, we are 
often told by Frenchmen, is pure English, although, 
as has been noticed, a French newspaper has lately 
used it, adopting it perhaps from English. At all 
events, the last alteration does not constitute an 

Not long ago, a nice new English word was pre- 
sented to the * N. E. D.,' for which Mr. Stevenson 
was held responsible ; but it was only the printer, 
as a correspondence elicited, who had changed 
ocean" into brean. If Homer had lived long 
enough, he would have found his printers some- 

8 ih S. V. FEB. 17, 'J>4.] 



times uod, and a similar correspondence wonl 
doubtless result in tracing to a similar source th 
nice new Latin word pirare, suggestive of pirac] 
which appears on p. 77 of the present volume o 

As for Laboucherese and its congeners, Wh 
not use them for our dinner-table talk and evenin 
paper paragraphs? "Cur nobis etiam sit [para 
goge] fugienda non video, si quando sententi 
postulabit: Syllaturire, pro eo quod est, Syllae 
mores imitari velle." Jut to; but save us from 
our friends who, catching up the worthless token 
of our temporary coinage and knocking loudly a 
the door of the Scriptorium, clamour for their ad 
mission into the treasury which contains the ster 
ling metal of the English language. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

SHAKSPEARE v. LAMBERT. If among your 
correspondents there is any member of the Bar 
versed in the obsolete learning of fines, who at the 
same time has a taste for Shakespearian researches 
(the two being apt to go together) there is a ques 
tion to which I should like to call his attention. 
In the earlier editions of 'Outlines,' Halliwell- 
Phillipps accounted for the fact that Shakespeare 
was made a party to the attempted compromise oi 
his parents' suit against Lambert, upon the theory 
that he must have had a vested interest in his 
mother's Asbies estate under a " marriage settle- 
ment." This conjecture was afterwards silently 
abandoned, and disappeared from the later editions, 
presumably because, after diligent search, no trace 
of any such marriage settlement could be found. 
But in examining the fine levied to consummate 
the Gibbe's lease of the Asbies' estate (see ' Out- 
lines,' ninth ed., vol. ii. p. 202) it will be found to 
be what was known as a " double fine," that is, 

ties were brought in who were strangers to the 
ntle (Webb and Hooper) and a double fine appears 

have been used, for technical reasons, now 
ilmost unintelligible, where the estate was entailed, 

a single fine" having been the form appropriate 

to an estate in fee simple (West's 'Symboleo- 

graphy,' ed. 1627, "Fines and Concords," fol. 10, 

I am right in this, the conjecture of Halli- 

illipps was correct in substance although 

; m form ; and Shakespeare, as the eldest son, 

I have a vested interest under the entail, and 

the necessity of his being a party to the 

>roposed compromise, by which it was agreed that 

ipon the payment of an additional twenty pounds 

Lambert he should have a release of all claim 
the Shakespeares to the Asbies' estate. This 

fact of Shakespeare having a hand in the abortive 
settlement referred to, connected with his sub- 
sequent management of the three suits against 
Lambert growing out of its failure, has been 
strangely slighted by the biographers, although 
they all complain of the scantiness of material, 
and although nothing connected with him is better 
authenticated by judicial records. If you have 
any correspondent competent to form an opinion 
on the subject, and interested enough to examine 
it, I should be glad to hear from him through 
your columns or personally. 

Baltimore, Maryland. 

HERALDIC. On the roof of the choir of the church 
of Northorpe, a little village about three miles from 
here, is a boss, probably fifteenth century, on 
which is sculptured an armorial shield : Quarterly, 
1 and 4, a garb ; 2 and 3, an object like a capital 
T inverted, thus J_. Can any one tell me what 
this object is intended for ? 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

OATHS. Can any of your readers inform me 
(1) when the expression "As they come up to 
the book to be sworn " was first used by clerks of 
assize and clerks of the peace when informing 
prisoners of their right to challenge jurors ; and 
was the book kissed or the right hand laid on it ? 
It is supposed that kissing the book was first 
practised by those taking oaths at the end of the 
sixteenth century, not before. Why was this? 
Did it mark any particular occurrence ? (3) Why 
ias the uplifted hand been the mode of adjuration 
n Scotland and the Channel Islands as persistently 
is kissing the book in England and Wales ? 

F. W. L. 

[See l"t S. viii. 364, 471, 605; ix. 45, 61, 402; x. 271 
xi. 292; and Indexes generally to ' N. & Q.'] 

JACOBITE SOCIETIES. I should be obliged by 
reformation concerning the Jacobite societies now 
xisting in London and elsewhere, the names of 
he secretaries, &c. (Miss) CoNWAY-GoRDON. 

Longley House, Rochester. 

GODFREY. Of what family of Godfrey was Col. 
Charles Godfrey, who married Arabella Churchill, 
ister to the great Duke of Marlborough ; and 
what were the names of his father and mother ? 
Stagbury, Bamtead, Surrey. 

ELIZABETH JENNENS. Can a reader of ' N. & Q.' 
irect me to anything throwing light on the report 

have recently come across, that the genuine 

lizabeth Jennens (b. 1665), the outcast daughter 

f Humphrey (b. 1629, d. 1690), was married, 

hile staying with Sir R. Hotham, at Bognor to 

. Our family tradition says he was a Birming- 



ham surgeon. This surreptitious marriage, coupled 
with her conversion to the Roman Catholic faith, 
was the cause of her father's undying anger. The 
ignorant Elizabeth, who has been set up as a sort 
of Perkin Warbeck person ator of this lady, does 
not agree in year of birth, nor was she married 
during Humphrey's lifetime. 


CAKE-BREAD. In a treatise on 'The Assyrian 
Monarchy, its Rise and Fall,' by John Gregory, 
Chaplain of Christ Church, Oxford (d. 1646/7), 
the following passage occurs : 

"This custom of offering cakes to the Moon [Jere- 
miah vii. 18], our ancestors may not seem to have been 
ignorant of; to this day our women make cakes at such 
times ; yea, the child itself is no sooner born, but 'tis 
baptised into the name of these cakes, for so the women 
call their babes cake-bread." 

In what part of England did this superstition 
prevail ? Gregory was a native of Berkshire. 

J. H. W. 

by lolo Goch, the mansion of Owain Glyndwr, at 
Sy earth, is said to be built in the Neapolitan style, 
and on piles. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' kindly 
inform me whether the houses at Naples are, or 
were about 1400, constructed on piles ? 


last year of his life, appears to have taken up the 
cause of certain persecuted Protestants of Polonia. 
I find in the churchwardens' books that the " De- 
claration " of his Highness the Lord Protector was 
published in Fulham Church, April 25, 1658, 
"for a collection for j* persecuted Protestants in 
Polonia w** collection was made accordingly y e 
second of May ffollowinge in y parish of fful- 
ham," &c. We all know, of course, that the 
Protector befriended the Waldenses of Piedmont ; 
but who were these persecuted Protestants of 
Poland? CHAS.JAS. F&RET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

PROTE. In Dean Alford's excellent work 
'Chapters on the Poets of Ancient Greece' he 
quotes a beautiful sonnet, beginning : 

Prote, thou hast not died, but thou art fled 

Into some better land of joy and rest. 

Dean Alford fittingly says of the sonnet that, 
although " without an owner, it will be remem- 
bered as long as poetry shall live. " I should like 
to know who Prote was, for I fail to find the name 
in any other work. 

Winder House, Bradford. 

EDWARD GREY, OF GRAY'S INN. I shall be glad 
of any information of the birth, marriage, or death 
of Edward Grey, of Gray's Inn, 1675. Raine, the 

historian, makes him identical with a younger son 
of Sir Ralph Grey, of Chillingham, by his second 
wife, Dorothy Mallet. W. B. T. 

THE KRAKEN. In an old collection of tales of 
natural curiosities, which I lost long ago, an animal 
named the kraken was described. As I remem- 
ber, it was a gigantic, slow-moving animal, fabled 
to appear at long intervals in Norwegian seas ; at 
each appearance it remained stationary for a long 
time. Its effluvia attracted immense quantities 
of fish, on which it fed. On this account, its 
appearance was welcomed by fishermen, who 
moored their boats to it, occasionally using its 
huge back as a terra firma. Will any reader favour 
me with a fuller description of this legendary 
animal, with references? Milton ('Par. Lost,' 
i. 205) refers to a storm-driven sailor, who moors 
his boat during the night to a marine monster. 
References are sometimes given to Olaus Magnus 
(' History of the Northern Nations') and Hakluyt. 
Do these writers name the whale, or is the monster 
the kraken ? J. H. HUDSON. 

Padiham, Burnley. 

[In his chapter concerning the " Horrible Monsters 
of the Coast of Norway," Olaus Magnus says that "they 
are reputed a kind of wales." The first allusion to the 
kraken in English literature seems to be in Goldsmith's 
'Animated Nature.' Pontoppidan, 1698-1764, describes 

RICHARD KING. In or about the year 1771 a 
work entitled ' The New London Spy ' was pub- 
lished without the author's name, but subsequently 
a work entitled * The Cheats of London ' was pub- 
lished under the authorship of "Richard King, 
author of * The New London Spy.' " Can you or 
any of your readers tell me whether Richard King 
was an assumed name or not ; or who he was ? 
G. J. Cook, of the "Shakespeare Head," was the 
publisher. A. C. T. 

" WHO GOES HOME ? " As is generally known, 
the announcement of each day's adjournment of 
the House of Commons is made in the members' 
lobby by the chief doorkeeper, who, stepping from 
his seat to the centre of the doorway leading into 
the legislative chamber, cries, " Who goes home ? " 
a call which is immediately taken up by the police- 
men in the various corridors. It is understood, 
of course, that the custom has come down from the 
time when members used to rally at the call and 
go home in batches, in order to avoid the risks of 
troubled streets ; but is there any record of when 
it earliest came into use, and whether it was be- 
cause of any specially disturbed period ? I may 
add, as a further custom derived from olden days, 
that at a brief interval after the question, u Who 
goes home ? " the chief doorkeeper makes the 
additional announcement, "Usual time to-morrow," 
or whenever the next assembling day may be an 
obvious survival from a period when verbal an- 

8" 8. V. FEB. 17, '94.] 



nouncements sufficed, though the need for such i 
now obviated by the circulation among member 
every morning of the official Orders of the Day con 
taining the precise time of the next meeting. 


FORTESCUES OF FALLAPiT. I should be gla( 
to learn what became of the issue of Sir Edmum 
Fortescue, of Fallapit, Bart. His son, Sir Sandys 
is said to have had a daughter ; but I can find n< 
record of her marriage. One of Sir Edmund'i 
daughters married William Colmar, of Gomhay 
but apparently died without issue, and her two 
sisters, Elizabeth and Sarah, do not appear to hav 
married at all. I should like to know who is the 
present representative of Sir Edmund Fortescue in 
the direct line. DEVONIENSIS. 

SIR JAMES CRAUFURD. Mr. FitzPatrick, in his 
* Secret Service under Pitt,' states that he inquirec 
as to Sir James Crawford, who was in communi 
cation with the informer Turner at Hamburg abou 
the year 1798, in your columns, but elicited no 
reply. The proper spelling appears to be Crau 
furd, which may account for the fact. Was he any 
relative of the late Rev. C. H. Craufurd, of Old 
Swinford, whose sermon on the occasion of his 
second marriage has probably interested many oi 
your readers ? M. 

ELTWEED. Can any one give me an example of 
the use of this name, or any similar form, either as 
a surname or as a Christian name, in the sixteenth 
or seventeenth century ? 


FULHAM VOLUNTEERS. Can any reader say 
when the first corps of volunteers was established 
in Fulham? Mr. Meyrick, of Peterborough 
House, Parson's Green, took a very active part in 
forming the Fulham Light Infantry in 1803; but a 
friend of mine possesses a colour print by Row- 
landson, headed "Fulham Volunteer, No. 27, 
Ground Arms, 2nd Motion, &c., London, Pub., 
July 10, 1790, at Ackermann's Gallery, No. 101, 
Strand." I should be glad to know, also, when 
the Fulham Light Infantry were extinguished. It 
must have been soon after 1807. 


All the passions in the features are. 
And while abroad so prodigal the dolt is, 
Toor spouse at home as ragged as a colt is. 

? Dryden. 

Seu linguam canals acuit, seu civica jura, 
Kespondare parat, seu condit amabile carmen. 
The public envy, and the public care. 

Generosua nascitur non fit. 

Vivit post funera virtus. 

Virtutem titulis, titulos virtutibus ornana. 

G. A, 



(8 th S. iv. 506; v. 29.) 

In the * Memoirs of the Court of France during 
the Reign of Louis XIV.,' by the French eccle- 
siastic M. Anquetil, there are two references to 
the Man with the Iron Mask. My quotations are 
from a translation published in Edinburgh, in 
1791, by Bell & Bradfute : " The Abb<5 Lenglet 
du Frenoy," says M. Anquetil, 
" in his visits to the Bastille had often seen this man. 
About the year 1754 he related to me nearly all that is 
commonly told of his moderate stature, the sprightliness 
and elegance of his wit, and the respect with which he 
was treated by the Governor. From this conversation 
he inferred that he had travelled through almost all 
Europe. He talked very well of public affairs, politics, 
history, and religion. When I pressed the Abbe to tell 
me whom he took him to be, he replied : ' Would you 
have me sent a ninth time to the Bastille ? ' Lenglet 
died in 1756 or 1757 at the age of eighty-two." Vol. i. 
p. 163, note. 

The second reference is in the form of a quota- 
tion from the Leyden Gazette. Readers will be 
struck both with resemblances and discrepancies in 
this account as compared with that given by DR. 
DONELAN. In both accounts the Marquis de Lou- 
vois is made to play a prominent part; in both the 
prisoner is spoken of as having been in the service 
of the Duke of Mantua, the one calling him 
" secretary," the other "first minister" to that 
prince ; while, on the other hand, they differ both 
as to the name of the prisoner and as to the cause 
of the resentment on the part of Louis XIV. which 
wreaked so cruel a revenge : 

" ' Some curious anecdotes on this subject are now 
found at Turin, in the library of a nobleman lately 
deceased, who had them from his ancestors. They prove 
:hat celebrated victim of arbitrary vengeance to have 
n Girolomi Magni, first minister to the Duke of 
Mantua, who had incurred that punishment for his 
laving framed or aided at framing the League of Augs- 
burg against Louis XIV. The Marquis de Louvois, to 
ilease his master, with the assistance of the French 
Ambassador at Turin, contrived to seize on that Minister, 
who was still in the bloom of youth. They laid hold on 
)im one day when he was hunting ; and to prevent his 
>eing known, or the possibility of his remonstrating, they 
udged it proper to put upon him a mask of iron. These 
memoirs, it is said, contain the most satisfactory and 
listinct account of the behaviour of that prisoner, when 
detained at the Isle of St. Margaret, and during his long 
confinement in the Bastille. It would appear that the 
)eraon who writes them had some hand in that stroke of 
clitics' (Supplement to No. 67 of Leyden Gazette, 1786"). 
Vol. i. p. 422, note. 


Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

The paragraph in the Western Morning News 
efers to a book just published at the Librairie de 
I'irmin Didot et Cie. in Paris, " Le Masque de 
'er : Reflation de la correspondance chiffrde 
e Louis XIV., par Emile Burgaud et Command* 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 17, '04. 

ant Bazeries." It is ingenious, though not con- 
vincing ; and its excellent facsimiles give it a very 
real value. On the whole, it seems doubtful whether 
M. Loiseleur has not said practically the last word 
on the subject in his * Trois Enigmes historiques ' 
(Paris, Plon, 1882). 0. E. D. 

I have no intention of offering any remarks on a 
subject that I have not studied, especially after 
reading DR. DONELAN'S excellent article. There 
are, however, some curious details on this subject 
in ' Ma Biographie, ouvrage posthume de Be*ran- 
ger,' Paris, 1857. The author in his youth 
became intimate with an old royalist, Le Chevalier 
de la Cauterie, who regarded Louis XVIII. and his 
family as usurpers : 

"Avant Louis XIV. et son frSre le due d'Orleans, 
4nne d'Autriclie eut un fils, qui n'est autre que le 
llaeque de Fer. Ce sont sea droits qui ont ete trans- 
portes fallacieusement auz enfans illegitimes de la reine." 

For further details I must refer to M. Be*ranger's 
book, pp. 42-47 and 166. 0. TOMLINSON. 

WILLIAM PARSONS (8 th S. v. 107). In N. & Q.,' 
6 th S. vii. 607 ; viii. Ill, 112, much valuable in- 
formation is given of this celebrated comedian. 
The statement in the 'Georgian Era' may have 
arisen from the fact of Parsons's mother having 
been connected with Maidstone, where she died ; 
and in Parsona's will he mentions " a small free- 
hold house and land at Berstead, near Maidstone." 
Most of the actor's biographers assign Bow Lane 
to him for his birthplace ; but it should be noticed 
that his intimate friend Thomas Bellamy does 
not state that Parsons was born in London, but 
merely gives the date of his birth, and goes on to 
say that "his father followed the business of a 
carpenter in Bow Lane." A little special pleading 
either side might favour London or Maidstone, but 
the probability is certainly in favour of the former. 
I have (though I cannot immediately lay my hand 
upon it) a print of Frog Hall, Parsons's eccentric 
retreat in St. George's Fields described by Bel- 
lamy, and alluded to by Michael Kelly, who speaks 
of the actor's " little drawing-room and the beauti- 
ful landscapes," his handiwork. He mentions, 
too, a pretty instance of Parsons's modesty, who 
in reference to his performance of Corbacio in 
* The Fox,' maintained Shutei's superiority to him 
as " Mount Vesuvius to a rushlight." Mr. Alger- 
non Graves's * Diet. Artists,' 1760-1880, reports 
three exhibits by Parsons, all fruit pieces ; he 
gives his period from 1763 to 1773, and mentions 
fruit as his speciality. Redgrave adds archi 
tectural subjects and landscapes, I have a very 
pretty specimen, water colour, of Parsons's work 
formerly in the possession of John Bannister a 
distant view of the City and St. Paul's from fch 
" Spaniard's," Hampstead. The detail is admirable 
His friend Thomas Bellamy died in 1800. Th< 
Monthly Mirror was projected to assist his neces 

ities, and he appears to have baen the only person 
ho derived any pecuniary benefit from the under- 

aking in its early stage. For various engraved 

jortraits of Parsons, see J. 0. Smith's ' British 

Mezzotint Portraits,' index. 

Ware Priory. 

William Parsons, aged thirteen, son of William 

Arsons, carpenter, of College Hill, in the parish 

f St. Michael Paternoster Royal, London, was 

admitted to St. Paul's School April 7, 1749. 

Rev. Robt. B. Gardiner's ' Admission Registers 

of St. Paul's School,' 1884, p. 91). 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

"LEVEL BEST" (8 tt S. v. 47). When I was in 
Cornwall, twenty-six or twenty-seven years ago,. 
;his was an expression in general use then, and I 
had never heard it before anywhere else. Now 
one hears it dropping from every one's lips and sees 
it in all our diurnal literature. Only the other day,, 
at Hereford, at the " Mitre Hotel " there, I heard 
a clerical gentleman use it, and I said, '* Where 
did you get that expression ? " and he said, " It is 
an Americanism." If it is an Americanism, it is 
more likely that it was there adopted from Corn- 
wall than that the Cornish got it from America ; 
indeed, it it not the only Cornishism I have found 
incorporated with the American language ; the ex- 
pression "forth and back," for "backwards and 
forwards," is also one, and I dare say there are 
many others. These, taken with some prominent 
traits in the American character, favour the idea 
that a large proportion of our early American 
colonists came from the great south-western pro- 
montory of England. JOHN FIDDLESTICKS. 

There are two other uses of the word level which 
should be nailed to ' N. & Q.V barn door 
"level headed" and "a low level look." The 
former seems to describe a head from which the 
qualities of veneration, benevolence, and self- 
esteem are absent ; the latter, a serpent's glance 
from a human eye. 


Hilfield, Yateley, Hants. 

The expression was familiar to me in, I think, 
Mark Twain or "Hans Breitmann" as early as 
1866. There was a poem by one of these authors 
with a line " He done his level best." Does the 
phrase mean the best of all possible bests, or a 
best sustained all along the line ? 



The expression " level best" is not an American 
invention. I have heard it used very many times 
during forty odd years, and "level best" means 
the best a man does his work all of one quality, 
no matter what the occupation may be. I have- 

S' 8. V. FSB. 17, '94.] 



heard men say on the completion of a job, par- 
ticularly if satisfied with the work : " There, 'ar 've 
done ray level best." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


It occurs to me whether the introduction of the 
epithet level in this phrase does not owe its raison 
d'etre to the sport of athletic running. To do 
one's level best = to do one's best on the level. 

A. C. W. 

BATHAM ABBEY (8 th S. v. 108). Probably H. 
is aware that the Chartulary of Bayham Abbey, 
or rather its remains, beautifully mounted, may 
be seen in the British Museum. Also a volume of 
excerpts and epitomes from it in MS. Will any 
one supply a clue to the Chartulary of Leeds 
Priory ? P. 

1* VICAR OP NEWCASTLE (8 tb S. v. 8, 54). The 
Vicar of Newcastle inquired after by MR. HOOPER, 
and mentioned by thefstrong-minded Margaret in 
Foote's comedy of * The Devil on Two Sticks,' was 
the famous John Brown, D.D., poet and man of 
letters. He was born at Rothbury, Northumber- 
land, in 1715, where his father was curate. After 
his father had become Vicar of Wigton, young 
Brown was sent to Wigton public school, and then 
to St John's College, Cambridge. After taking 

1757 appeared the famous work alluded to by 
Foote, ' An Estimate of the Manners and Principles 
of the Times.' It was a strong philippic against 
national vices, and created a great clamour. Seven 
editions in little more than a year marked] the 
height of public excitement, and testified to the 
power and genius of the author. Among his 
other numerous works, mention may be made of 
one or two to show the versatility of the Vicar of 
Newcastle : ' The Curse of Saul, a Sacred Ode,' set 
to music ; ' A Dissertation on the Rise, Union, 
and Power of Poetry and Music '; ' Thoughts on 
Civil Liberty, on Licentiousness, and Faction*; 
' Female Character and Education'; also 'Twelve 
Sermons on Various Subjects/ &c. 

He was passionately fond of music, and was 
fortunate in having as organist for his church the 
famous Charles Avison, of whom Browning, 
in his ' Parleyings,' sings : 

Of worthies who by help of pipe and wire, 
Expressed in sound rough rage and soft desire, 
Thou, whilome of Newcastle Organist. 

The vicar in the midst of his great literary 
activity was invited by the Empress of Russia to 
there and organize a system of public schools. 
He accepted the offer, and on receipt of 1,0002. to 
defray his expenses from the empress, he pro- 

his bachelor's degree, in 1735, he was ordained by ceeded to London, and was, on the eve of embarka- 

the Bishop of Carlisle, and four years later obtain- tion seized wi * Q aQ attack of rheumatic gout, 

ing his degree of M.A., was admitted into priest's a Border to which he had been frequently sub- 

orders, and received a minor canonry and lecture- U ect - The dela y P* e yed upon his mind, he fell 

ship in Carlisle Cathedral. Being reproved for infco one of those melancholy moods which had 

omitting to read the Athanasian Creed, he threw often afflicted him, and could not rally; he took his 

up his preferment, and remained in comparative own life wifch a razor afc his lodgings in Pall Mall, 

obscurity till the rebellion of 1745. During the September 23, 1766. A portrait in oil of this 

siege of Carlisle he acted as a volunteer, and when famous divine and man of letters hangs in the 

at a later period, some of the rebels were tried vesfcr y of St Nicholas Cathedral, Newcastle-upon- 

there, he preached two sermons which brought him T y ne - 

under the notice of Dr. Osbaldiston, who induced 
the Dean and Chapter to give him the living of 
Moreland ; and in 1747, when Dr. Osbaldiston was 
raised to the see of Carlisle, he made him one of 
his chaplains. He had, previous to his going to 
Moreland, printed a poem on 'Honour.' His 
next effort, an ' Essay on Satire, 'occasioned by the 
ath of Pope, made him famous in the world of 
letters. This was followed by his ' Essays on the 
Characteristics of the Earl of Shaftesbury.' His 
nthful friend the Bishop of Carlisle now pre- 
snted him to the Vicarage of Lazonby; from 

Delavel House, Choppington Street, Newcastle. 

PLOTS OF DRAMAS (8 th S. iv. 527). I have such 
book, which I shall be pleased to place at the 
service of DRAMATICDS. It is entitled 'The 
Dramatic Souvenir,' published by Tilt, 1833, and 
has two hundred engravings and an excellent 
introduction. F. E. MANLEY. 

Stoke Newington. 

WRAGG FAMILY (8 th S. v. 7). Though I can 
give no help to MR. GREEN in his researches, I 
must express gratitude to him for rescuing from 

there be had conferred upon him the living of contempt a patronymic which Mr. Matthew Arnold 

Great Horkesley ; and then, finally, he was offered held U P to derision, as showing " what an original 

the position of Vicar of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in shortcoming in the more delicate spiritual percep- 

1761. tions is shown by the natural growth amongst us 

He was a voluminous writer in both poetry and of 8Uch hid eous names, Higginbottom, Stiggins,. 

we. His principal works were, 'Liberty' a Bu 8." and primarily "Wragg !" ('Essays in 

** ; < Barbarossa, a Tragedy,' which was acted Criticism,' p. 23.) 


in London in 1754. Garrick wrote both prologue 

id epilogue ; the play was a great success. This 

was followed by another tragedy, 'Athelstan.' In 


There are numerous references to the Wragg 
family in Foster's 'Alumni' and the same com- 



[8i S. V. FEB. 17, '94. 

piler's * London Marriage Licences.' Has MR. 
GREEN referred to the Quaker sources at Devon- 
shire House, E.G., and such books as the register 
of Ackworth Schools ? A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

v. 28). Reference to this swordbearer is to be 
found in Sir Peter Leycester's Historical Anti- 
quities ' (1673), and he quotes the passage referred 
to from Matthew Paris. Leycester believed, 

" For as in the Crown of England there is an inherent 
Right of Regality annexed, so here is given an inherent 
Right of Dignity in the sword. This is to hold as freely 
by the Sword, as the King holds by the Crown, only in- 
ferior to his King." 

Foundfald, near Swansea. 

NAME OF A WATCHMAKER (8 th S. v. 27). Of 
Cornells Uyterween, the watchmaker, I know 
nothing. As to his nationality, it was probably 
Brabant. Ghislain Uten Zwane was Lord of Lilloo 
in 1457 (' Inventaire des Archives de la Ville de 
Malines,' vol. iii. p. 177). I think that, in spite 
of variations of spelling common with Flemish 
names, the watchmaker must have belonged to 
the Uten z wane family. 


"TiB's EVE": "LATTER LAMMAS "(8 th S. iv. 
507 ; v. 58) These expressions are equivalent to 
the " Greek Kalends," or to a Yorkshire phrase, 
'To-morrow come never." According to Grose, 
'Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue,' third 
ed., 1796, " Saint Tibb's evening " is an Irish ex- 
pression, and means " the evening of the last day, 
or day of judgment," as " He will pay you on St. 
Tibb's Eve." "Latter Lammas" has a similar 
meaning, signifying a time which will never come, 
just as the Germans say, "Auf Pfingsten, wenn 
die Gans aufm Eiss geht." 

"Tib's Eve," like the " Greek Kalends " or the 
Millennium is used todenotean indefinite or unfixed 
period of time. It is often heard as an evasive. A 
gentleman who uses the expression says, " Tib's 
Eve is neither before nor after Christmas." 


LITTLE CHELSEA (8 th S. v. 29, 70). The follow- 
ing is intended as a supplement to the replies 
which have already appeared. In the 1811 edition 
of Paterson's * Roads,' the " end of Little Chelsea" 
is marked at two miles from Hyde Park Corner ; it 
must have extended somewhat further west. The 
second milestone is opposite the post-office at the 
present day. A little beyond this the Fulham 
Road was crossed by a stream the nucleus, so to 
say, of the Kensington Canal at Little Chelsea 

Bridge, now Stamford Bridge. Faulkner, who calls 
it Standford Bridge, takes this as the starting- 
point of his second walk, whence " proceeding 
eastward," he says, " we arrive at Little Chelsea." 
Passing Walnut Tree Walk (now Red cliffe Gardens), 
he comes to the premises where Loche'e formerly 
had his military academy, after describing which 
he continues, "Adjoining these premises is Holly- 
wood Brewery." In other words, the brewery was 
immediately east of the academy. The brewery is 
now a riding school, being No. 250, Fulham Road, 
right opposite the western end of the St. George's 
Workhouse Infirmary ; and I have received the 
following information from Messrs. Bowden & Co., 
Royal Brewery, 533, King's Road, Chelsea : 

"We occupied the premises now Preece's Riding School, 
as the West Brompton Brewery, and formerly called the 
Hollywood Brewery, from Midsummer, 1847, to Michael- 
mas, 1880. The house next to the brewery [eastward] 
was for many years a boys' school, conducted by Mr. 
Rowley. That was No. 248, and Noa. 252 and 254 [next 
to the brewery westward] were also schools, No. 252 for 
girls, and No. 254 for boys." 

The three houses, Nos. 252-256, are, singular to 
say, private houses with ample forecourts. Accord- 
ing to Faulkner's indications, LocheVs academy 
should have stood on the ground they occupy. 
Nos. 252 and 254, which have a somewhat anti- 
quated look, were used as schools before Messrs. 
Bowden took the brewery, and perhaps had never 
been otherwise used since LocheVa time. It is 
curious, too, that Stanley House, said to have 
been purchased by Loche'e in 1777, should also have 
become an educational establishment, under the 
name of St. Mark's College. 

As to the stretch of Little Chelsea, it seems in 
1845 to have included all the houses in the Ful- 
ham Road between Elm Terrace on the Kensing- 
ton side (or Union Row on the Chelsea side) and 
the Kensington Canal (see Kelly's ' Directory ' for 
the year named). " Little Chelsea " is marked on 
this section of road in a map published by Mogg 
less than thirty years ago. F. ADAMS. 

HOLT = HILL (8 th S. iv. 348, 392, 517; v. 15). 
With reference to PROF, SKEAT'S remark (ante, 
p. 15) that he wished he had described the use of 
holt for " wooded hill " as due to " popular use " 
rather than to " popular etymology," may I draw 
attention to the fact that Wormwood Scrubs was 
formerly always styled Wormholt Scrubs or Com- 
mon? The transition here from " holt "to "wood" 
is noteworthy. CHAS. J. F^RET. 

BURIAL IN POINT LACE (8 th S. v. 69). I re- 
member hearing one of Miss Clarke's young ladies 
say that she had seen her laid out after death, 
and the dress was only ordinary night attire. 
Many queer tales were circulated regarding her 
will, but I do not think they were carried out. 
She had a beautiful point lace dressing-gown, in 
which she sometimes received ladies at the Liver- 

8'" S. V. FEB. 17, '84.] 



pool establishment in a morning. She died very 
suddenly one Sunday, and was to have been pre 
sent next day at a wedding. In her Liverpoo 
show-room she had many valuable works of art 
taken from some of her customers to cover bac 
debts. It was she who gave the picture 'The 
Blind Beggar ' to the National Gallery. 

Camden Lawn, Birkenhead. 

PALMER OP WINGHAM (8 th S. v. 48). The 
ancestor of the Palmers of Wingham was Sir Henry 
Palmer, the second of the well-known case of 
triplets born to Sir Edward Palmer of Angmering 
and his wife Alice (daughter and heiress of Sir 
Richard Clement, of the Mote, Ightham) on Whit- 
sunday and the two following Sundays, 1487. 

His son, Sir Thomas, was created a baronet in 
1621, which creation became extinct upon the 
death of Sir Charles Harcourt Palmer, without 
legitimate issue, in 1838, and the representation 
of the family devolved upon the descendants of 
Anna Palmer (daughter and heiress of Philip 
Palmer, of Richmond, Surrey, and niece of Sir 
Charles Harcourt), who married, in 1758, my 
great-grandfather, James Landon, of Cheshunt 
(see Burke's ' Extinct Baronetage/ supplement). 

The principal sources of information concerning 
the family, apart from extinct baronetages, are 
(1) * The Pedigree of the Ancient Family of the 
Palmers of Sussex,' written in 1672, and privately 
printed in 1867 (this is reprinted in Miscellanea 
Genealogica, First Series, vol. i. p. 105) ; (2) Herald 
and Genealogist, vol. v. p. 378 ; (3) ' Visitations 
of Somerset/ privately printed, by Sir T. Phillipps 
(for earlier generations); (4) MSS. in the possession 
of Sir Alexander Hood, at St. Audries ; and (5) 
with caution, Davy's * Suffolk Families ' (Brit. Mus. 
Add. MSS., 19,144). PERCEVAL LANDON. 
Putney, S.W. 

SIR EDWARD FREWBN (8 th S. iv. 307, 412, 514 ; 
v. 59). I think the printers are responsible for 
two errors at the last reference. I said that in the 
deed, dated March 22, 1640, the Bishop of London 
leaiei, not " leaves," &c., and that the name of the 
daughter and heiress of John Wolverstone was 
Judith, not "Edith." It is important that both 
corrections should be noted. 


ST. THOMAS OF CANTERBURY (8 tb S. v. 29). 
The 'Calendar of the Anglican Church,' published 
Y J - H. Parker in 1851, states that sixty-four 
churches in England are dedicated to this saint, 
ten being in Devonshire, and two only in Kent 
In Sussex, the great church of Winchelsea is under 
us patronage; as also is Framfield Church, a 
h which once was a peculiar of Canterbury. 
At Slindon, where the manor was for eight cen- 
turies attached to the archbiahopric, there is a 

chapel of St. Thomas in the parish church. Beket 
was, it is said, dean of the collegiate chapel of Hast- 
ings Castle ; but among all the new churches in this 
town, the Roman Catholics only have one to his 
memory. The Church of St. Thomas-ye-Martyr 
at Oxford was once held by Burton, author of 
'Anatomy of Melancholy,' and from 1842 to 1892 
by a " lumen ecclesiae," the late Canon Thomas 
Chamberlain. Cumberland has one, Farlam. 


This list would include, I believe, most of the 
St. Thomas churches in England. There is in 
London one church and street of "St. Thomas 
Apostle," but only one. E. L. G. 

The Royal Latin School, Buckingham, originally 
founded as a chantry chapel, was of this dedica- 

Eden Bridge. 

" CARBONIZER," A NEW WORD (8 th S. v. 47). 
According to the 'Encyc. Diet.,' " carbonizer " is 
not a person, but a thing, and must therefore be 
improper^ grouped with victims of Sunday labour. 
This is the definition given : 

" A tank or vessel containing benzole or other suitable 
liquid hydrocarbon, and through which air or gas is 
passed, in order to carry off an inflammable vapour." 

The description is not remarkable for gram- 
matical precision, and no quotation is added to 
illustrate the use of the word. 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

This is no new word in the heavy woollen 
district of Yorkshire, where it signifies either a 
carbonizing machine or the man who tends one. By 
means of these machines an acid gas is generated 
which destroys the cotton or vegetable portion of 
mixed fabrics, and leaves the woollen part ready to 
be manufactured into cloth. E. S. A. 

EXTRAORDINARY FIELD (8 th S. v. 29, 97). I 
iave written to a relation living in co. Meath, 
[reland, and have received the following reply as 
to this field : 

It is quite true there is a field at Dunsany where 
cattle lose their hoofa if grazed there. I never heard 
about ' human animals ' losing their nails if they ate 
corn or potatoes planted there ; but it may be so. The 
atlier of the present Lord Dunsany planted the field with 
arch and pine trees, BO that it is now a wood, and pro- 
>ably no animals ever enter it. The railway Dublin to 
S T avan (Meath line) runs through it." 

JAS. CAMPBELL (Craignish). 
Callander, Perthshire, N.B. 

MR. JOHN MACKAT will be interested in hear- 
ng that there is a piece of ground on the Good- 

ood estate, near Chichester, which is as fatal in 
ts effects on animals as the field on the estate of 
jord Dunsany. The cause, in this instance, ap- 



[8> S. V. FEB. 17, '94. 

pears to be obvious, viz., that a large number of 
sheep which had died of some highly contagious 
disease were buried there. A friend of mine who 
occupied the land in question many years tells 
me that, even seventeen years after the burial of 
these sheep, it was not possible to allow animals to 
graze there ; and that after that lapse of time be 
placed cattle there, who at once fell ill, some of 
them dying, and all being saved with difficulty. 
In fact, this plot of ground is now recognized as 
poisoned, and has been fenced off and planted with 
trees. This certainly seems to prove that crema- 
tion would be a very desirable way of disposing of 
diseased animals, at any rate, and helps very much 
the argument of those who maintain that the only 
safe way to dispose of the dead is to burn them. 

E. M. S. 

BOTHER " (8 S. iv. 445). I have a suspicion 
that this is a miscopying of "Bocher." In the 
decipherment of ancient manuscripts, c and t, being 
so much alike, are frequently mistaken the one for 
the other. "Le Bocher Strete" would mean 
Butcher Street. My suggestion may help a local 
antiquary to a decision. F. ADAMS. 

JAY, THE STRONG MAN (8 th S. iv. 506). A 
short sketch of the life of this " Strong Man of 
Kent " appears in Kirby's * Wonderful Museum,' 
vol. i. p. 359. By this biographical notice, he was 
named Richard, was born May 2, 1675, at St. 
Lawrence, near Ramsgate, died May 18, 1742, 
and lies buried in St. Peter's Churchyard, twelve 
miles from Margate. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ST. PETERSBURG (8 th S. v. 67, 93). I do not 
think that D. is right. In all official documents and 
by the press the St. is always prefixed. Peter the 
Great, when he founded the city in 1703, named 
it thus after his patron St. Peter. SUBURBAN. 

It was dedicated by its founder to the Apostle 
St. Peter, from whom it takes its name. Peter 
the Great founded the town May 27, 1703, and it 
was made the seat of the government in 1711. 
Some time would elapse before the name and the 
importance of the place would be understood by 
chartographers. H. Moll, in his ' Map of Russia,' 
1727, and others printed early in 1700, give the 
name without the St. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

I question whether D. is correct in assuming 
that " Petersburg " is indifferently used for " St. 
Petersburg." The local name of this metropolis is 
Sanktpeterburg, in one word, but for letter head- 
ings, dates of newspapers, book-titles, and such 
like, the word is usually written S.-Peterburg, 
The form " Petersburg " generally appears in Stock 
Exchange lists, and also in the dates of telegrams 

rooi the capital to provincial newspapers, the tele- 
grams, however, being announced as from " St. 
^etersburg." The adjectival form is usually 
?eterburgsky. Sankt is not Russian, and as a pre- 
ix is indeclinable. " Saint " is sviatdi in Russian ; 
t is used to translate " saint " in such instances as 
' the island of St. Helena," when, of course, it is 
subject to inflection. J. YOUNG. 


"To QUARREL" (8 th S. iv. 404, 478 ; v. 76). 
[t is quite common in Scotland, at the present 
time, to use " quarrel" in the sense of to check or 
eprove. A sensation was caused in a pastoral 
district of Fifeshire, not many years aj?o, when it 
was reported that a park-keeper, with a strong 
sense of duty, had stopped a local dissenting 
minister when crossing his fields. " Did you hear 
that he had quarrelled the minister ? " was a com- 
mon form of query in the neighbournood ; and it was 
also said, on what seemed to be good authority, 
that the clerical trespasser had held his own, by 
asserting that in his professional position no keeper 
could touch him, seeing that " the earth was the 
Lord's and the fulness thereof." Be that as it may, 
the fact is undisputed, and probably indisputable, 
that the preacher was quarrelled for trespassing, 
even as if he had been the most ordinary layman. 
Jamieson gives several illustrations of this use of 
the word. " Of all mortals you should least quarrel 
Buchanan on this head," is quoted from lluddi- 
man's ' Vind. Buchanan,' p. 69. 


ABBEY CHURCHES (8 th S. iii. 188, 257, 349, 378, 
451 ; iv. 54, 113, 355). At the third reference 
Llantwit Major is put in Class III. If I am not 
mistaken, it belongs to Class I. At present the 
eastern half (formerly monastic) is known as the 
'new" church, and is used by the people. 
The "old" parish church was the western half, 
which was abandoned in favour of the other. 
Curiously enough, " old " and " new " have to be 
reversed when the age of the two halves is con- 
templated. The architectually older choir was 
" new " to the parishioners when they took posses- 
sion, and the architectually more recent nave 
became in popular speech the "old " church. 

C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

MARKWICK (8 th S. iv. 228). There is an old 
farm in the parish of Lamberhurst, Sussex, bear- 
ing the name of " Mark wick's." 



(8 th S. iii. 87 ; iv. 533). There is a painting by 
Hogarth, which has frequently been engraved, of 
the House of Commons, in which Arthur Onslow, 
the Speaker (1728-1761), is represented as wearing 

8S.V. FEB. 17, '94.] 



his three-cornered bat over his flowing wig. All 
the other members present are wearing the same 
kind of hat, for round hats were not then known 
On his right hand is standing the portly form of 
the great statesman Sir Robert Walpole, then 
Prime Minister, wearing a bag-wig and sword, but 
without a hat. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

PARALLELS IN TENNYSON (8 tb S. iv. 325). A 
simile quite analogous to that in ' The Princess ' 

Like some sweet sculpture draped from head to foot, 

is to be found in Manzoni's 'Promessi Sposi* 
(chap, viii.), " Poteva parere una statua abbozzata 
in creta, sulla quale 1'artefice ha gettato un umido 
pan no." In both passages a woman is treated of. 
The following verse in ' Merlin and Vivien/ 
The meanest having power upon the highest, 
is the reproduction, conscious or dot, of that verse 
in Parini's ' Caduta,' 

le porte 
Degl' imi che comandano a' potent! . 

The parallels were too close not to be pointed out 
to the readers of ' N. & Q.' PAOLO BELLEZZA. 
Milan, Circolo Filologico. 

157, 238, 498 ; iii. 355 ; 7 th S. vii. 398, 514). 
At the first of these references MR. ALLNDTT gives 
some account of Charles Owen and a list of publi- 
cations ascribed to him, but suggests that the list 
really represents the work of " two different men, 
perhaps father and son." This suggestion was 
adopted by Col. Fishwick in his "Lancashire 
Library," 1875 (see also * N. & Q.,' 7 th S. vii. 398). 
There is, however, evidence in the books them- 
selves which favours an opposite conclusion, and 
which it may, therefore, be worth while to state in 

Firstly, in " Religious Gratitude , by Charles 

Owen, D.D.," 12mo. 1731, which was not in MR. 
ALLNDTT'S first list, but was added by him in a 
later communication, there appeared two adver- 
tisements of "Books by the same author." 
Amongst these are mentioned : * The Life of James 
Owen,' which was published in 1709; Plain 
Dealing,' which was issued in 1715 ; and fourteen 
other works. 

Secondly, on the death, in 1746, of Dr. Charles 
Owen, minister of the Cairo Street Chapel in 
Warrington, his funeral sermon was published 
under the following title : 

The Chrintian'a Conflict and Crown. A sermon 

preach d at Warrin*ton, February 23 [1745/6], on 

the death of Charles Owen, D.D. By J. Owen. 

London. [8?o. n.d.] 

The sermon contains remarkably little definite 
information about the subject, even the year of his 

ath (inserted above in brackets) appearing only 
in the list of errata on the last page. But there is 

just one note which applies to the point in ques- 
tion. On p. 25 Dr. Owen is stated in so many 
words to be the author of ' Plain Dealing, 1 which 
is referred to as published " soon after the Rebel- 
lion in 15." 

It thus appears certain that the Charles Owen 
who in 1709 issued the 'Life of James Owen' 
was the Charles Owen who died in 1746. It 
follows also that he was responsible for all the 
works in MR. ALLNUTT'S list, for, although some of 
the pamphlets were published anonymously, they 
are all advertised as his, one time or another, in 
books bearing his name. The following should 
be added to MR. ALLNUTT'S list. The last three 
have already been mentioned in ' N. & Q. ,' but it 
may be convenient to repeat them here : 

Dissenting Ministry still Valid. 

Wonders of Redeeming Love. 1'Jmo. 1723. 

Conduct of the Stage and Masqueraden. 

The Interest of Great Britain. 

The Amazon Disarmed. Is this the same as 'The 
Amazon Unmasked,' which Owen himself refers to on 
p. 38 of 'Plain Dealing'] 

Religious Gratitude. 12mo. 1731. 

Character and Conduct of Ecclesiastics, from a MS. of 
Dr. Charles Owen. Shrewsbury. 12mo. 1768. 

Charles Owen also prefixed an address "To the 
Header" to James Owen's posthumous 'History 
of Images and of Image Worship,' London, 1709. 

Warrington Museum. 

CREOLE (8 th S. iv. 488, 535). I am unable to 
say whether having first seen the light in the West 
Indies, for instance, has any effect upon the colour 
of the skin, but I well remember at school (circa 
1845) a boy named Edward Sterling, who had been 
born in St. Vincent, having a kind of olive-coloured 
complexion. He was the son of John Sterling, the 
friend of Thomas Carlyle, and was born about 1831. 

I believe that the infusion of negro blood will 
linger for generations, gradually, of course, getting 
weaker with descent. Some thirty years ago I saw 
a drama presented on the stage called the ' Octo- 
roon,' in which the slave was nearly white. The 
taint lingers longest, I have heard, in the hair and 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" The name Creole does not of necessity imply coloured 
blood, as some persons imagine. It ia also applied to per- 
sons of perfectly pure ancestry born in the West Indies, 
and some of the best blood of England courses in Creole 
veins." ' Gunner Jingo's Jubilee,' by Major-General P. 
Bland Strange, late Royal Artillery, 1893, p. 98. 



The following sentence occurs in Dr. R. Hall 
Bakewell's evidence in reply to Question 3,564 
before the Vaccination Committee of the House 
of Commons : "I saw the case of a child last 
year, who, though a Creole of the Island of Trini- 
dad, is born of English parents, and is a leper." 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 17, ! 94. 

Dr. Hall Bakewell was at one time, and for many 
years, Vaccinator- General of Trinidad. 

Wolsingham, co. Durham. 

Having no special knowledge upon the subject, 
and no connexion with the West Indies, mine may 
be taken as a fair average opinion. I have always 
understood by a Creole the descendant of a 
European settler in the West Indies or neighbour- 
ing mainland of America, whether of mixed or 
pure blood. I do not know whether this agrees 
with the dictionaries, and refrain from looking. 

C. C. B. 

JUVENILE AUTHORS (8 th S. iv. 349, 490 ; v. 11). 
Abraham Cowley published his ' Poetical Bios- 
somes 1 in 1633, while he was a King's Scholar at 
Westminster. One of the pieces in this little 
volume of thirty- two leaves was dedicated to " the 
Worshipful, my very loving master, Mr. Lambert 
Osbolston, chiefe Schoolemaster of Westminster 
Schoole." G. F. R. B. 

My friend the Bishop of St. David's possesses a 
copy of the ' Juvenile Poems ' of his predecessor in 
that see, Dr. ThirlwalL E. WALFORD, M.A. 


" CHACUN A SON GOUT " (8 th S. iv. 245, 317). 
It does not seem to me, as MR. ADAMS says, " a 
very awkward ellipsis." We say in Italian " I 
figli dei gatti corrono a' topi," but often this pro- 
verb is written "I figli dei gatti corrono a topi." 
I believe it is exactly the same thing with the 
French proverb. Needless to say, the double 
version is produced by the similarity of a' and a 
(a and a) in French. PAOLO BELLEZZA. 

Milan, Circolo Filologico. 

SINCLAIR (8 th S. v. 69). In reply to Y. S. M., 
Alexander Sinclair died on Aug. 9, 1877, aged 
eighty - three. He bequeathed his books and 
genealogical MSS. to his nephew, the late Earl of 
Glasgow, to be kept as heirlooms in the family. 
They were deposited in Crawford Priory, and the 
earl printed a catalogue of the collection, in which 
he stated that it would always be accessible to 
students on application to the factor. Though most 
of the earl's things were dispersed at his death, I have 
no doubt that Sinclair's collection still remains in 
the Priory. J. BALPOUR PAUL. 

SIR WILLIAM BURY, KNT. (8 th S. iv. 461). 
Allow mo to correct two slight inaccuracies in my 
note. The register containing his will should be 
Coke, not " Cope "; his clerical descendants are six 
not "four." These gentlemen are the Vicar o! 
Tickhill, the rectors of Aisthorpe, Harlestone, 
Little Hadham, and Screveton, and the curate o: 
Belgrave. I would, moreover, add that their an 
cestor John Bury, of Hacketstown, is sty lee 
" Captain" in a tract of January, 1678/9, which 

jives his depositions in connexion with the Popish 
i>lot. It appears that he visited England in order 
o claim a debt due from the Crown to his father, 
Sir William Bury, for services rendered in Ireland, 
md after a somewhat curious adventure turned 
ring's evidence. 

Eden Bridge. 

DULCARNON (8 th S. v. 25). In my copy of 
Orayton's * Polyolbion ' the Arabic words referred 
10 by Selden are transliterated into "zuT kurnein." 
Dr. E. Cobham Brewer, in his ' Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable,' third edition (disreputably not 

dated by Cassell & Co.), throws the following light 

on the subject : 

" Dulcarnon. The horns of a dilemma (or Syllogismus 
cornutus) ; at my wits' end ; a puzzling question. Dul- 
carneiu is the Arabic dhu'lkarnein (double-horned, 
laving two horns). Hence the pons asinorum of Euclid 
s called the Dulcarnon, ' a pons asinorum to some good 
Grecians.' Alexander the Great is called Iscander Dul- 
carnein, and the Macedonian aera the aera of Dulcar- 
nein.' According to the Koran, c. xviii., ' Dulcarnein 
'Alexander) built the famous iron walls of Jajuge and 
Mftjuge, within which Gog and Magog are confined till 
;he end of the world.' Hence, to send one to Dulcarnein 
is to send one to the prison of Gog and Magog, to daze 
them [not " Gog and Magog "; " them "=" one "] with 
puzzles, to defeat them, especially in argument." 

Probably a reference to some critical edition of 
Chaucer (which unfortunately I have not) would 
furnish a further and more trustworthy elucidation. 



Although " Dulcarnon ' ; does not appear in the 
glossary of Bell's edition of Chaucer, there is a 
long note on the word in vol. iii. p. 148 in the 
edition of 1878, which gives, besides the remarks 
of Speight and Selden, cited by R. E., a quotation 
from Skinner, who says that Speight is " egregie 
hallucinatur," and proceeds to give a still more un- 
likely derivation. It is also stated that opposite 
this word in the Harl. MS. is written "i fuga 
miserorum," which is a translation of Pandarus's 
words in the next stanza : 

Dulcarnon clepid is " flemyng of wrecchis." 
Dulcarnon would appear to have been a mathe- 
matical problem or test question of the Middle 
Ages. E. S. A. 

See 1 st S. i. 254 ; v. 180, 252 ; 5> S. xii. 407, 
454 ; 6 tt S. v. 384 ; 7* S. iv. 48, 76, 130, 257. 

C. C. B. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS (8 th S. iv. 89, 335 ; v. 36). 
In D. J.'s reply there are one or two statements 
about the Fitzwilliams which I venture to correct 
by quoting the Rev. Joseph Hunter, who was un- 
doubtedly at home when dealing with the history 
of South Yorkshire families. In the ' Deanery of 
Doncaster' (vol. i. p. 334) he points out that the date 
quoted by D. J. ought to be 1217 instead of 1117. 

8 S. V. FEB. 17, '94.] 



He mentions also the resemblance between the 
arms of the Fitzwilliams, Bec-Crespin, and Gri- 
maldi, remarking at the same time the frequent 
occurrence of the name William in the Bec-Crespin 
family ; but, so far as I see, he says nothing about 
the Fitzwilliams being related to either family, 
although he does say the Grimaldis were a branch 
of the Bec-Crespins, and not vice versa, as stated. 
The parentage of Albreda de Lizour's son is given 
as follows : William fitz William, fitz Godric, 
fitz Chetelbert. G. W. TOMLINSON. 


Let me point out a still earlier instance than 
those as yet mentioned, i. e., from the ' Septem 
contra Thebas ' of ^Eschylus, represented B.C. 473, 
the scene of which is laid at Thebes, circa B.C. 
1216, thirty years before the capture of Troy. The 
different bearings of the chieftains on the shields 
are enumerated, those of Amphiaraus, Capaneus, 
Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus, Tycfeus, and Poly- 

An interesting book on the subject is * Curio- 
sities of Heraldry,' by Mark Antony Lower, which 
allow me to commend to the notice of your readers 
who are interested in the " gentle science.'' 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Though Homer mentions " devices on the shields 
of the Greek leaders," yet there is a far fuller 
description of them by ^Eschylus in the f Septem 
contra Thebas,' 360-670. E. WALFORD, M.A. 


"GINGHAM" (8 th S. iv. 386, 616). If, as 
PROF. SKEAT states, the Javanese word ginggang 
means perishable, the probability that gingham 
reaches us from the far East is not great ; but is it 
not the native name of the material itself ? Per- 
haps some Oriental scholar can say. There is 
evidence to show that the fabric known as ging- 
ham was originally brought from India, though 
we now send it there, the same as we do another 
fabric, for the name of which Calicut stands 
sponsor. I admit that the derivation of gingham 
and guingan from Guingamp is very plausible; 
but before we finally assent to the explanation it 
would be as well to inquire when and to what 
extent the manufacture of the material in question 
was carried on at the little French town. 

THE WORD ONDOY " (8> S. iv. 526). 
.Before speculating as to an analogy or even a con- 
nexion between the Jewish wave-offering and the 
ondmement of an infant, MR. ARNOTT should at 
least have asaured himself that there really is the 
notion of waving in the verb ondoyer when used 
of baptism. My own belief is that there is no 
such notion. MB. ARNOTT seems to think that 
because ondoyer, in a neuter sense, means "ae 

mouvoir en ondes" (Littre"), it must, therefore, 
when used actively, also and always contain the 
meaning of undulatory movement. But surely the 
original meaning of unda is " water ' (see Skeat, 
s.v. " Undulate"), and if so, the primary meaning 
of ondoyer is to water i. e., to wet with water or 
pour water on, and the undulatory movement is a 
secondary meaning. What the ceremony was in 
the seventeenth century is best seen from Da 
Cange (s.v. " Undeiare ") and from Manage (s.v. 
" Ondoyer "). They were contemporaries, and they 
both quote the following from a bishop's letter : 
" Cum igitur puer natus esset, nee posset sacerdoa ad 
baptizandum euin congrue reperiri, pater ejus immersit 
eum aqua, dicens : In nomine Patria et Filii et Spiritus 

And I believe any man or woman is competent 
to baptize a child (in case of necessity) by simply 
pouring water (holy, if possible) upon its head and 
pronouncing the above sacramental words.* At 
any rate, I have been told this by more than one 
Roman Catholic. I believe, moreover, that the 
Roman Catholic Church has also made provision 
for the case (which must be excessively rare) when 
no water can be had. I should not be surprised if 
spittle were used in such a case, for it is used (I 
suppose in imitation of Christ) by the priest in the 
ordinary Roman Catholic baptismal service for the 
baptism of the child's ears and nostrils. 


Sydenham Hill. 

The meaning of the word wave, as embodied in 
ondoye, is not that of oscillation, but metaphorical 
for the water of baptism ; in short, ondoye simply 
means " washed." Unluckily, I have not Littre"'s 
' Dictionary,' but my old Chambaud carefully dis- 
tinguishes between these two meanings of the verb. 
C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

" Ondoyer un enfant, c'eat le baptiser sans observer 
les cere'monieB de 1'Kglise. Lorsqu'un enfant nouveau-ne 
paroit etre en danger de mort, et qu'il n'est pas possible 
de le porter & 1'eglise pour lui faire donner le bapteme, 
on prend la precaution de Y ondoyer ; maig pour que le 
bapteme ainsi administre soit valide, il faut que la matiere 
et la forme potent exactement gardees. On trouve dans 
les rituels le detail des cas dans lequels on peut baptiser 
ainsi les enfants qui no sont pas encore entiereraent 
nes. Hors le cas de neceesite, on ne doit paa ondoyer, 
pans une permission expreese de 1'e'yeque. L'usae toit 
e*tabli en France d'ondoyer les princes a leur naiseance, 
et de ne suppleer les ceremonies que plusieurs annees 
apres ; le roi Louis XVI., par un motif de piete, a fait 

* When baptism is performed in the ordinary way 
by a Roman Catholic priest, water is gently poured or 
dropped upon the child's head three times in the form of 
a cross whilst the sacramental words are being pro- 
nounced once after each of the divine names. When 
the child is very ill the hand or the foot may be sub- 
stituted for the head, and it seems to me not unlikely 
that in certain cases the cross may simply be traced 
upon the head or forehead with the wetted thumb, for 
the thumb is evidently preferred to the fingers. 



[8 S. V. FEB. 17, '94. 

baptiser sea enfanta avec toutes lea ceremonies, imme- 
diatement apres leur naissance. 11 y eut autrefoia du 
doute pour savoir si lea adultes, qui avoient etc baptises 
au lit pendant une maladie, et quo Ton appeloit les 
cliniquci, avoient regu toute la grace du Sacremen t ; Saint 
Cyprien soutint I'affirmative." Bergier, ' Diet, de Theo- 
logie,' Paris, 1863, s. v. " Ondoyer." 


MINIATURE VOLUMES (8 th S. iv. 309, 374, 534). 
Among the small volumes recorded I think the 
following is worthy of notice, though it may per- 
haps be deemed a Triton among the minnows, as 
its leaves measure 45 millimetres by 30 milli- 
metres, and it is 20 m. in thickness. It is cer- 
tainly entitled to be classed as a squat little 
volume, if not a miniature. It is rather larger 
than the Thumb Bible in the British Museum, 
which is dated 1616, and entitled ' Verbum 
Sempiternum et Salvator Mundi.' This is the 
earliest of the kind recorded, and was written by 
John Taylor the Water Poet. 

Mine is a short history of the Bible, containing 
255 pages and 9 plates. Unfortunately, the first 
title-page is missing, but the second is as follows : 
"A Concise History of the New Testament. 
Lond. Printed for W. Harris, No. 70, St. Paul's- 
Church Yard, 1771." It is bound in red leather, 
gilt, with the initials W. G. on the cover, and was 
given to my great-uncle, the first Walter Crouch, 
in 1772, who gave it to me (the third of the name) 
about the year 1850, when he was eighty-seven 
years of age. It has thus been in our possession 
for 122 years. It is very likely that the little book 
was bound by him, for I know that both he and 
his brother (my grandfather) went to Cranbrook 
Grammar School, and the latter told me that he 
was taught there to bind and gild leather, and I 
have specimens of his work still in my possession. 
The plates are : 

Title-page (missing) ; p. 10. Fiat (the World) Creation ; 
Adam and Eve (no title) ; p. 52, Genesia xii. 

p. 23, 

(Moaea); p. 58, Shem and Isaac ;"p. 93, Aaron ; p. 149 
title-page, A Gonciae, &c., 1771 " ; p. 151, The Nati- 
vity; p. 173, The Epiphany; p. 221, Christ and Mary 
Magdalene (no title) ; p. 234, Joseph of Arimathaea. 

I remember many years ago being shown 
another copy by the late Mr. Overall, of the Guild- 
hall Library, but I cannot now lay hands on the 
note I made of it at the time. I fancy the book is 
somewhat rare. WALTER CROUCH, F.Z.S. 

Graf ton House, Wanstead, Essex. 

In my collection are ' Small Kain upon the 
Tender Herb/ London, K.T.S., n.d., one and 
one-eighth by one and a quarter inch ; ' The 
Smallest English Dictionary in the World,' Glas 
gow, Bryce, 1893. Size three-quarters by one anc 
one-sixteenth inch a wonderful book. 

In Mr. A. H. Bullen's edition of Peele's work 
is given a facsimile title-page of * The Tale o 
Troy : | By G. Peele | M. of Arts in | Oxford 
Printed by A. H. | 1604. The size is three 

uarters of an inch by one and one-eighth inch, 
iid only one copy seems to be known. 

W. H. C. 

All the miniature volumes which have been 
[escribed under the above heading seem to have 
teen published in the present century. Will some 
correspondent kindly state what are the smallest 
>ooks produced by the old printers which have 
survived to the present day ? I have a small 
volume which appears to be in the original bind- 
ng and measures 70m. by 44m., viz. 

Epicteti Enchiridion, et Cebetis Tab via, Graece & 
jatine. Ex Officina Plantiniana Raphelengii. H.D.OXVI. 
Pp. 247. 


Permit me to add to my former note the follow- 
ng description of such volumes, sold at Madame 

Q. 8 S ale at the Hotel Drouot, Paris, Dec. 26, 

1893 : 

120. L' Amour et les Belles, pour 1808. Hauteur 
O m .0266. 

121. Le Poete de 1'Enfance, 1829. Hauteur O m ,0222. 

122. Poete en miniature, 1849. Hauteur, O m ,0222. 

123. Petitea Heurea de 1'Enfance. Paris, chez Caillot. 
Hauteur, O m ,03. 

124. Petit Calendrier Anglais, 1824. Hauteur O m ,0224. 

Clarisford, Cowper Road, Dublin. 

(8 th S. v. 87). This information has been asked 
for on three occasions. The replies have furnished 
the names of works, both English and foreign, in 
which particulars may be found. See * N. & Q.,' 
" S. vi. 54, 161, 400 ; 5" S. i. 130, 195 ; 7 th S. 
vi. 149, 258, 334. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

UDAL TENURE (8 th S. v. 47). The udal tenure 
of land, which prevails in Orkney and Shetland, 
is entirely different from the feudal tenure, which 
prevails throughout the rest of Scotland. The 
peculiarity of the tenure in these islands is due to 
the fact that they were subject to the Kings of 
Norway until 1468. In that year James III., 
King of Scotland, married the daughter of Chris- 
tian I., King of Norway, and the islands were 
handed over to the Scottish king as part of the 
lady's portion. The lands held by udal tenure are 
subject to a Government tax called "skat." Ac- 
cording to what is still the law of Norway, they 
descend to the children in equal shares. They are 
held by natural possession, and without any title 
in writing. In this way they resemble the " folk- 
land" of the Anglo-Saxons, as distinguished from 
the " boc-land," terra libraria, of which the title 
was written. Udal lands can be turned into feus 
if the proprietors so desire. As the old udalle 
have disappeared before Scottish immigrants, the 




land has gradually changed from udal to feudal 
" The ancient days," says old Magnus Troil, in the 
' Pirate,' 

" the ancient days and genuine manners of these islands 
are no more, for our ancient possessors our Patersons, 
our Feas, our Schlagbrenners, our Thorbiorns, have 
given place to Giffordc, Scotts, Mouats, men whose 
names bespeak them or their ancestors strangers to the 

In another place he remarked " how probable it 
was that in another century scare a merle, scarce 
even an ure of land, would be in the possession of 
the Norse inhabitants, the true udallers of Zetland." 

This is the same as allodial, and therefore quite 
distinct from feudal, tenure. This system of land- 
holding, like its name (Dan. odal), is Scandina- 
vian, having been brought by the Northmen into 
Orkney and Shetland, where it still exists to a 
considerable extent under the name of udal right, 
the only example of allodial tenure to be met with 
in Great Britain. The udal lands of the two 
groups of islands named above are held by natural 
possession, provable by witnesses, without any 
title in writing. Further information may be 
found in any good Scotch law dictionary. 


PORTRAITS OF EDWARD I. (8 th S. v. 48). An 

impression taken from the Great Seal of Edward I 

shows a round-faced, fat-cheeked, clean-shaven 

plebeian, which does not agree with the description 

I of the king's personal appearance, as given by 

| Hemingford, quoted by Miss Strickland in her 

I life of ' Eleanora of Castile ' (' Queens of England, 

vol. ii. pp. 151-2). In the same volume, unde: 

' Margaret of France,' the following occurs : 

"The original MS. of the queen's chronicler, John o 
1 London, is a great curiosity. It is written in Latin 01 
1 vellum, very finely and legibly penned, and oramente< 
with initial letters, illuminated with gold and colours 
I the centres of the most of these are unfinished, and the 
manuscript itself is a fragment. The description o 
Edward's person is accompanied by an odd representa 
tion of his face in the midst of an initial letter. Th 
features bear the same cast as the portraits of the king 
there is the small haughty mouth, the severe penetratin 
eyes, and the long straight nose ; the king is meant to b 
shown in glory, but the bead is surrounded with thre 
i tiers of most suspicious-looking flames. However, such 
I as it is, it doubtless satisfied the royal widow, to whom 
! the work was dedicated." Pp. 199, 200. 

Miss Strickland does not mention where thi 
i MS. is deposited. Over the chief entrance t 
I Carnarvon Castle, which was begun by Edward I 
i is a statue of the founder, with his hand upon 
I half-drawn sword, whilst his shield lies at his feet 
to indicate the termination of the war with Wales 
The statue is mutilated, but I think the head has 
j suffered less from ill-usage than other parts of th 
figure. A photograph would show this, and coul 
| be obtained from the place direct. 


A Standard Dictionary of the English Language. By 
Isaac K. Funk, D.D., and others. Vol. I. (New York, 
Funk & Wagnalls Co.) 

IMONG its many claims upon attention, the present may 
>e regarded as a dictionary-making age. The under- 
akings at present being conducted by means of concerted 
ff >rt would strike with amazement the great dictionary 
makers of past times, immortal as these are the Oolets, 
)ucanges, and other philological giants. During the 
>ast twelve months we have seen the appearance of the 
econd volume of the great Oxford dictionary, which 
s to be, when finished, the supreme philological accom- 
>lishment of the age, and have witnessed the completion 
>f the ' Century Dictionary,' the great philological 
bequest of the New World to the Old. The new 
Standard Dictionary,' of which Vol. I., A-L, now ap- 
>ears, deserves a conspicuous place even in days so 
:nergetic and enterprising as the present. It " supplies," 
;o fall into a phrase now out of date and in evil odour, 
a want," that, namely, of a dictionary comprehensive 
and thorough in all respects, fulfilling the requirements 
of the scientific man and the scholar, in a shape that 
will not overburden the modest shelf accommodation of 
the average reader who is not also a collector, *nd at a 
price that is not prohibitive to the general public. To 
bear full tribute to the value of a dictionary of any sort 
it is necessary to have it by one for a time and turn to 
it on every emergency. This we hope to be able to do, 
so that at the appearance of the second volume, which 
is promised for the coming summer, we may be able to 
pronounce an opinion upon its merits. At present we 
deal only with the scheme of the book, its appearance, 
and its special features. In size the book is a little 
smaller than a volume of the * New English Dictionary.' 
Apart from preliminary matter, it contains 1,060 pages 
of three columns each page. In its handsome morocco 
binding, and with its artistic decorations, it constitutes 
an eminently beautiful as well as a fairly portable pos- 
session. Its compilation has occupied four years of the 
time of two hundred and forty-seven editors, five hundred 
readers, and many hundreds of other workers, the cost of 
production, when the whole is completed, being estimated 
to reach a million dollars. That the work, which claims 
to represent the latest conclusions of scholarship, is 
sound, competent, and trustworthy will be proved to 
our readers by the testimony to its merits borne by Eng- 
lish scholars, philologists, and lexicographers. Among 
those who raise their voices in its favour are Professors 
Sayce and Dowden, of Oxford and Dublin respectively. 
Prof. Skeat and Dr. Murray bear also their indisputable 
testimony to its value. Both praise the phonetic element 
in the spelling, and Dr. Murray speaks in highest terms 
of Prof. Marsh's editorship of this department. Dr. 
Murray approves, in the case of a popular dictionary, 
the system adopted, where a word has nanny meanings, 
of putting the meanings in the order of their currency 
or popularity, and declares, from a study of tbe specimen 
pages supplied him, that they appear to he as well done 
as is practicable " within the necessarily small compass 
of a single-volume dictionary." In explanation of this 
it may be said that the work is to be issued in one 
volume as well as in two. This high praise is echoed 
from most of the American universities, and the state- 
ment that the work will serve all purposes of a general 
dictionary, and puts to shame all previous books on any- 
thing approximate to the came lines, finds utterance 
from numbers of those best entitled to ppe <k. A feature 
of great importance is that of the hyphening of words, 



. V. FEB. 17, '94. 

the decision whether a word should be written tow-path 
or towpath. In the case of pronunciation of words the 
scientific alphabet prepared by the American Philo- 
logical Association has been used with happiest effect. 
Illustrations are given, and add materially to the clearness 
and vivacity of the explanation. In some cases, as in 
those of birds, they are coloured after life. Every latest 
arrangement for facilitating reference is adopted, and 
one who masters a very simple method will find the 
process of seeking a word marvellously quickened. No- 
thing is more interesting than the explanation in the 
introduction of the reasons that lead to the inclusion or 
rejection of a word. In the case of obsolete words the 
rule, not always easy of application, is observed that the 
words likely to be sought in a dictionary are given, and 
not others. Within anything approaching to the limits 
fixed it is impossible to give a tithe of the words for which 
a man may possibly seek. Take, for instance, the word 
flaskysable, which has been lately debated in ' N. & Q.' 
More than thirty years ago that word arrested our atten- 
tion in Lydgate, but no dictionary included it. Even now 
it does not appear, nor will it find a place until the Ox- 
ford dictionary reaches the letter F, with which, indeed, 
it is at present occupied. It would be impossible to insert 
in a work such as that before us this word, which no 
writer other than Lydgate apparently employs, and across 
which the reader might well have never come. In other 
cases, such as scientific phraseology, the principles 
adopted commend themselves to common sense. Un- 
familiar words from trades and occupations, such as 
Victor Hugo loved to acquire, are given, and constitute 
yery much of a novelty. There is, indeed, little to 
challenge dissent or even discussion, and the praise 
liberally bestowed upon the work is well merited. It is 
very greatly in advance of any dictionary of its class in 
either England or America, and is gladly recommended 
to all who need a dictionary. It is a work of great value 
and authority, and does infinite credit to all concerned 
in its production. It is issued by subscription, and pos- 
sesses, among other recommendations, that of compa- 
rative cheapness. 

A Book of the Heavenly Birthdays. ByE.V.B. (Stock.) 
ONLT in England could a book such as this, dealing 
wholly with death, hope for a large circulation. The 
author of * Ros Rosarum,' to whom it is due, took down 
at first her quotations with the view of compiling a 
birthday-book. As it grew the scheme changed, and 
the whole now consists of a well-selected series of poems 
or verses on the subject of loss coupled with the hopes of 
future meeting. How much ground has been covered 
in the researches undertaken becomes evident when it 
is said that the very first quotation is from Thomas 
D'Urfey, whose name is seldom present in anthologies. 
Sidney, Chaucer, Drummond of Hawthornden, and other 
poets, to Tennyson and Rossetti, are laid under contribu- 
tion. It is to be regretted that the name which in the 
address to the reader and in the index appears as Mackail 
is in the body of the book printed W. M. W. Call. 

Greece in the Age of Pericles. By A. J. Grant. (Murray.) 
IN writing this manual for the " University Extension 
Series " Mr. Grant has given some variety to a well-worn 
theme by bringing into prominence the social aspects of 
the period, especially in their bearing on the condition 
of women and slaves. Here Dr. Mahaffy's books have 
stood him in good stead ; but he has gone to the original 
authorities for the history of the time he deals with. 
He gives us one chapter on "The Religion of the Greeks," 
another on "The Essentials of Greek Civilization," 
another on " Society in Greece, and Thought and Art in 
Athens." All these are very well done; and by the 

introduction of modern instances and analogies the 
reader is enabled to realize and share in this stirring 
period of Athenian life as if it were passing around him. 
We can recommend Mr. Grant's compendium as both 
readable and accurate. It is beautifully printed and 
nicely illustrated. 

Proverbi Jnglesi : Studio Comparativo. Per Paolo Bel- 

lezza. (Milano, Cogliati.) 

SIQNOR BELLEZZA has compiled an interesting monograph 
on our national proverbs, which he compares and con- 
trasts with those of his own and other modern languages. 
His acquaintance with English literature seems laudably 
wide for a foreigner, and he makes extensive use of our 
own columns. His critical faculty is sometimes at fault; 
e.g., in reproducing the now discredited theory that the 
Thames, which so few succeed in firing, was originally 
the stuff called tamis or tammy. He is even so indis- 
creet as to parallel this with the French, " II ne mettra 
pas la Seine en feu," explaining seine in the sense of 
fishing-net, and this in the face of the Latin saw (quoted 
by himself), " Tiberim accendere nequaquam potest." 
The foreign printer yields his customary crop of mis- 
prints in the English words. 

Book-Song. Edited by Gleeson White. (Stock.) 
A DELIGHTFUL little volume is this edited for Mr. 
Wheatley's "Book Lover's Library." It consists of 
poems on books by modern authors, and is rich in con- 
tributions by Messrs. Swinburne, Austin Dobson, Steven- 
son, Le Gallienne, &c. Some excellent poems from 
American sources are also supplied. 

A NEW work, entitled ' Mediaeval Music : an Historical 
Sketch, with Musical Illustrations,' by R. C. Hope, F.S.A., 
will be published immediately by Mr. Elliot Stock. 

MR. E. A. VICKEES, 28, Manor Row, Bradford, seeks 
a copy of the song on Abraham Newland. Some one will 
doubtless oblige him, as they previously obliged GENERAL 
RIGAUD. See 6"> S. viii. 329, 374; ix. 156. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the j 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

A. MILLHOUSE ("Charles II. and the Oak"). We ' 
have the authority of Charles II. that he took refuge in ; 
the Boscobel Oak, concerning which see ' N. & Q.,' 6 t6 S. i 
viii. 165, 317, 351. 

JONATHAN Bo OCHIER. George Sand was born July 1, 
1804. She died at Nohant, June 7, 1876. 

A. W. COKNELIDS HALLEN. The initials are W. G. N. I 

ERRATUM. P. 116, coL 2, 1. 24, for " Bacon " read j 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and j 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; arid ! 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8* 3. V. FEB. 24, '94.] 





NOTES :-Ancestry of Southey, 141-FUght of Napoleon, 
142-Charles I. and Bishop Juxon, 143-J. M. Morton- 
Alderman John Barber, 144-Vani8hing London-James 
BoBwell-Thunderstorm-" Binding," 145-W. Trner- 
Borough English Bushbearmg " Program Literary 
Qavelkind Major Andre, 146. 

CUBBIES :-George Charles Cromwell of TattershaU 
Onlv -a Pin '-Procurator-' The House of Yvery'-^The 
Contest of the Inclinations '-Barly Catechisms -Prayer 
Book of Margaret Tudor, 147 Gray's Elegy ' Harley 
SoSarc-' L! TPropos de Labienus '-Heynolds-P cture of 
Gen Sir T. Musgrave The O'Mores Scott Bibliography 
-The Semicolon-" Holy Mr. Gifford "-Francis Bird- 
Cromwell: Glossop-Galvani- Hilda, ' Princess of the 
Goths," 148-Pentecostal Festival Norman and Alleme, 

REPLIES : -Rood Lofts, &c., 149-" Maluit esse," &c. " To 
foil " 150 The Music of Sweden and Norway St. Mogue s 
Island, 151 Prujean Square O'Brien : Strangways 
Article on Fox Carlyle and Tennyson ' The Gipsy 
Laddie ' 152 George Cotes A Norfolk Expression York- 
shire Portraits-" Jut "-Lawson, 158-Capt. Kittoe- 
Copenhagen-Hughes and Parry, 154-" Park and Pad- 
dock "-Mr. Ward Fairs Maslin Pans, 155-Horses 
Parish Coffins Johnson's Irene ' ' ' Harg "St. Oswyth, 
156 Bathing Machines Dorset Family Names-London 
Bridge "Gay deceiver "Buried in Fetters, 157 Stout 
Healthy 'Military Reminiscences ' "To swilch" 
French Lyrics Buss Pigot : Burgoyne Christmas Pro- 
verbThe Rainbow, 158 Authors Wanted, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Gasquet's ' Great Pestilence 'Salis- 
bury's ' Worcestershire Glossary ' Birrell's ' Essays.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Attention having been directed to the ancestry 
of the poet Robert Southey, by the appearance in 
the Ex-Libris for September last of a book-plate 
of the poet professing to have the arms of his 
family on it, and that publication not professing 
to be critical on such matters as the correctness 
of heraldry, it may be of interest to have some 
genuine evidence on the subject. The arms are 
really those ascribed to Dayes, whose heiress 
married Southworth, a member of an ancient Lan 
cashire family connected with Somersetshire in th 
early part of the seventeenth century, where its 
descendants in the female line still hold propert 
(see* Monuments and Heraldry of Wells Cathedral^ 
These Southworths used the same arms with th 
colours reversed, viz.: Arg., a chev. betw. thre 
cross crosslets sa., which being the case, any on 
taking interest in the subject naturally seeks fo 
the authority for such assumption. 

First, then, turning to the 'Life and Corre 
Bpondenoe of Robert Southey/ by his son, Charle 
Cuthbert Southey, we find the poet himself saying 
in a letter to John May (vol. i. letter i.), that h 
cannot trace his family further back than Oct. 25 
1696, on which day Thomas, son of Rober 
Southey and Ann his wife, was baptized, as appears 
by the register of Wellington, Somersetshire. B 

len goes on to say that he had heard that the 
randfather of the said Robert that is, his own 
reat-greatrgrandfather was a clothier at Welling- 
on. Passing from fact to mere assumption, the 
oet asserts that the family 

must have been of gentle blood (though so obscure I 
ave never by any accident met with their name in a 
ook), for they bore anna in an age when arms were not 
asumed by those who had no right to them. The arms 
re, a chevron and three cross crosslets argent in a field 

Unfortunately the poet gives no evidence of their 

sing these arms at an early date; indeed, we have 

is own statement that he knew nothing for certain 

jrior to 1696, more than half a century before 

which time much false assumption of arms had taken 

lace, although not to the same extent as of late 


I will now endeavour to throw light on the 
ocial status of the Southey family in Somerset- 
ihire, and the evidences as to their right to 
irmorial bearings from such uncontrovertible 
evidence as wills in the Probate Registry at Wells; 
jut before diving into the ancient records there 
deposited, let it be clearly understood that we in 
no way detract from the worthiness of a good old 
yeoman line because they have not risen to the 
rank of an armigerous family. 

The earliest will of a Southey exists only in the 
books of copies, and is that of John Sowthey, as 
the name is there spelt, which is dated May 2, 
1533. In it he desires to be buried in the church of 
Bradford, gives to the Cathedral Church of Wells 
twelve pence ; it being at that time a general 
custom to make a small bequest to the cathedral 
church of the diocese, also to the testator's parish 
church and the church of any other parish he was 
connected with ; in this case Lang ford Church is 
down for a customary bequest. This is Langford 
Budville, a parish about two miles and a half north- 
west from Wellington, Bradford itself being three 
miles north-east of Wellington. The testator 
leaves small bequests to Jone Wheler, John Hake, 
Sir John Hussey (in 1548, John Hussey occurs as 
"capellanus cantariae" of Bradford, Thomas 
Rowsewell, M.A., who had been instituted in 
1516, being still vicar there, vide Weaver's 
'Somerset Incumbents ), and the residue of his 
possessions to Joane Sowthey, his wife. The will, 
which was witnessed, among others, by Thomas 
Rowsewell, his " gostly fader," was proved March 7, 
1533 (' Wells/ bk. ii. fol. 38). 

The wife of this worthy man appears to have 
survived him some eight years, for the will of Jone 
Sowthy, of Bradford, widow, dated June 16, 
1542, was proved at Wells on Oct. 7 of that year 
(' Wells/ bk. v. fol. 80). In it she mentions her 
brother, John Bowrynge, and his son William, 
Johan Goodeland, Alice Bartlett, John Bartlett, 
Emmott Bartlett, Richard Watts, alias Cook, and 
his wife Agnes, and her son John Norton ; the 



V. FEB. 24, '94. 

residue of her belongings she gives to Giles Bart- 
lett and Agnes his wife, daughter of testatrix. 
No son being mentioned in either will, we may 
infer that they had none, John Norton being pre- 
sumably son of Joane by a former husband. 

In the same year as the last a Peter Sowthey, 
of Wellington, made his will, being sick in body 
but of perfect memory (a very general preface) ; 
this was made on March 14, 1542, and he desires 
to be buried in the churchyard of Wellington. 
He gives to his son Lawrence twenty sheep. His 
son-in-law William Cape, with his two daughters 
Bde and Katherine Gape, Agnes Mylles, god- 
children Lawrence Glasse and Peter Clyfford, all 
come in for a share from the flock, while the re- 
sidue goes to 'the testator's wife, Joban Sowthey, 
and his son John Sowtbey, who proved the will 
May 23, 1543 (' Wells/ bk. v. foL 127). 

The son of the last testator, John Sowthey, made 
his will, Aug. 8, 1565, and in it he desires to be 
buried in the churchyard of Wellington and gives 
to that church twenty pence. To his daughter 
Margery Glasse he gives 20?., to her daughters 
each a heifer, and to her sons Lawrence and 
Valentine each a sheep, leaving the residue of his 
goods to his wife Johan Sowthey and his son 
William Sowthey (< Wells,' bk. xiv. fol. 121). 

The next will in point of date is of that of 
Richard Sowthey, of Pitminster, and as it is nun- 
cupative we may safely conclude he had unwisely 
put off executing this important duty, and was 
stricken down so suddenly that he was unable 
properly to attest the will, which bears date 
March 16, 1587. He desires to be buried in the 
churchyard of Pitminster, to which church he be- 
queaths twelve pence, making the further pious 
bequest of eightpence to the church of Angersleigh ; 
the residue of what he possessed going to Robert 
Southey, his brother's son, who was to be executor, 
and who accordingly proved the will at Taunton on 
June 14, 1588 ( 4 Wells,' bk. xxvii. fol. 161). Pit- 
minsber is only about three miles, and Angersleigh 
five miles from Wellington. It is a pity the testator 
did not mention the Christian name of his brother 
whose son be made his heir ; possibly it was Thomas, 
whose will is next mentioned. However that may be, 
the close relation of the Southeys at Wellington and 
Pitminster is shown by the widow of Thomas 
Sowtbey of Wellington making John Sowthy of 
Pitminster an overseer of her will. This Thomas 
Sowthey (for so it is often spelt), in his will, dated 
Feb. 5, 1600, calls himself of Wellington, and 
leaves to the church of that parish twenty pence, 
and to the poor of the same twenty shillings. To 
his wife, Joane Sowthey, the farmship of his half 
yard of land called Woodford, and his son Robert 
Sowthey and his heirs to be the next in reversion 
after her, with remainder to testator's son Richard 
Sowthey and his heirs, remainder to testator's son 
Lawrence Sowthey and his heirs. To son William 

Sowthey twenty pounds. To son John Sowthey 
all his lands " above my house under the hill, and 
the house that Richard Parsons dwelleth in, with 
the close, garden, and orchard attached to it, at the 
age of twenty-four years, and if he die before, it 
is to be divided between his brothers Thomas, 
Richard, and Lawrence." To son Thomas Sowthey 
at the age of twenty-two the land called Tilly's 
Bargain, "which I hold with William Cape by 
indenture." To testator's two youngest sons, 
Richard and Lawrence Sowthey, " all the land on 
the north side of my house," containing about nine 
acres, with a close in Wellington town of two acres 
and a half. To each of testator's three daughters 
twenty pounds. To brother John Sowthey, 
weaver, wearing apparel and half a hundred of 
faggots. To servant Elizabeth a heifer. To ser- 
vant John Tolman a sheep. To all the children 
of testator's brothers and sisters ten groats each. 
Wife Joane Sowthey to be residuary legatee and 
executrix. Father-in-law William Budd, brother 
Robert Sowthey, William Cape, and John Perrie, 
overseers. Proved April 28, 1601 (' Wells,' bk. xxx. 
fol. 12). The widow of the above Thomas sur- 
vived him about twenty-six years, according to the 
date when probate of her will was granted. Un- 
fortunately the copy of the will, which alone re- 
mains, is much mutilated. It leaves two or three 
points doubtful, and, strange to say, begins thus : 
"John Sowthey, of Wellington, widow"; in 
the marginal guide the name is also written John, 
and it is so indexed, but the internal evidence of 
the will itself leaves no doubt it is that of the 
" wife, Joane Sowthey," mentioned in the will of 
Thomas above. ARTHUR J. JEWERS. 

Wells, Somerset. 

(To le continued.) 


As interest in the details of the Waterloo cam- 
paign seems to be reviving if, indeed, it was ever 
dead may I be allowed to make a few remarks 
upon a comparatively trifling incident the manner 
of Napoleon's escape from the bloody field. 

The earlier accounts make out that when the 
Prussians came bursting over from the direction of 
Planchenoit to Genappe, some five miles to the 
south, they bayoneted the leading horses of the 
travelling carriage, killed a postilion, and left the 
faithful coachman for dead, but that the Emperor 
got out of the door on the other side, mounted his 
horse (conveniently led up for him), and fled away 
in the bright moonlight the moon, which had risen 
at four in the afternoon, was only three days from 
the full. The old drawing hanging on the panel 
of the carriage at Madame Tussaud's represents 
this, and there is another something like it, with 
one foot on the heavy steps which have been let 
down. It seems impossible that the Prussians, 
who were raging after him, should have allowed 

8* 8. V. FEB. 24, '94.] 



this. To a certain extent Blucher himself is re- 
sponsible for the idea, as he wrote from Gosselies 
on the 20th that 4< Napoleon was in the carriage 
when he was surprised by our troops, and, leaping 
out, got on his horse without his sword, which fell 
off, and so probably escaped under favour of the 
night." There is also a statement quoted as having 
been made by Mjor Baron von Ke liner, in com- 
mand of the 15th Prussian Infantry, circum- 
stantially mentioning the same fact. Bliicher must 
have had it reported to him, with or without a pre- 
sent of some of the diamonds found ; but it was 
A trifling detail, under the circumstances, how his 
fell enemy got away. The later regular historians 
content themselves with stating that the carriage, 
with his hat and sword in it, were taken at Ge- 
nappe, and that be escaped. A hat was certainly 
found in the carriage, as an English officer wrote 
home that he had tried it on and that it had fitted 
him. Napoleon, once bent upon flight, wished to 
avoid observation, and it is very improbable that 
he should have dismounted between the field and 
Genappe, found his carriage in the terrible crush, 
and have got into it. The coachman made an affi- 
davit that year before the Lord Mayor, when the 
carriage was on show in London, with all the 
necesaary " saids " of such a legal document, that 
he drove the carriage "from Paris to Waterloo " 
(this must have been the lawyer's inaccuracy, as 
the coachman was never within four miles of the 
village of Waterloo), and that he was attacked by 
Prussian lancers as he was thirty paces from the 
road endeavouring to pass round Genappe ; but he 
does not mention that the Emperor bad been in- 
side, and goes on to identify the valuables allowed 
to remain in it by its plunderers. M. de Chaboulon, 
the Emperor's civil secretary, was at the farm of 
Caillon, half a mile south of Rosomme, and went 
in search of his master, whom he could not find 
anywhere, although he came across the faithful 
page Gudin (afterwards Gen. Gudin), and escaped 
himself in a carriage. The farmer or peasant 
Coster is reported to have made the statement : 
41 Bonaparte accompagne de son etat major se rait 
a galoper jusqu'a Genappe en longeant la chauss^e 
aun certain distance dans les terres"; and that he 
dismounted at Gosselies. Coster (or La Coste) 
records that he only got a napoleon for his day's 
work, which discontented him. The enthusiastic 
Scott accepted the narrative of " honest John La- 
coste," though discredit has since been thrown upon 
it ; yet certainly there seems nothing improbable 
in Napoleon having taken care to have a Flemish 
prisoner at hand for details of the country, without 
anticipating he might be useful to guide his flight 
that night ! Napoleon seems to have got off 
soonish from the field, and to have taken a cross 
road to Genappe or round it; the justly angry 
Soult said he disappeared soon. The subject must 
have been too humiliating for Napoleon to dwell 

on it afterwards, as there is no mention of it in 
the several reports we have of his conversations 
at St. Helena, and no separate account by any of 
his generals, although there are of how he got on 
from Gosselies southwards, through CharleroL I 
can hear of no independent contemporary Prussian 
account of that pursuit ; a good deal of it might 
not bear telling. 

In August of last year I saw the field, but not 
Waterloo, very conveniently by going to Braine 
1'Alleud, and thence by omnibus to the inn and 
round to the interesting village of Planchenoit. 
Previous study of the subject, a view with the glass 
all round from the Iron Mount, and somebody to 
name the villages in sight, and then a two hours' 
drive all round with an intelligent driver from the 
inn, gave me as good an idea of the ground as one 
could obtain in a short time. No guides troubled 
me at all ; I saw only a retired English noncom- 
missioned officer. Three or four days fully occupied 
in walking and driving in Grouchy's route to 
Wavre, and thence with the Prussians along the 
hollow roads to the British left, and to the French 
flank at Planchenoit would have made a very nice 
tour. R. B. S. 


The meaning of the last act and word of Charles I. 
seems never to have been explained. Might I 
venture to offer a suggested explanation, which 
seems to cover the ground 1 Juxon was the only 
friend allowed to attend the king at his execution 
before Whitehall, 1649. The last act of the dying 
monarch was solemnly to hand his George to the 
bishop and impressively utter the one word, " Re- 
member." The various accounts I have perused, 
with hardly an exception, make no attempt even 
to explain this testamentary injunction, and seem 
to imply that it is a hopeless enigma. Howitt 
(' Illustrated History of England,' ii. 90) remarks 
that as the George contained a portrait of Hen- 
rietta, it is supposed the message referred to her. 
But this seems quite inadequate. There is no 
necessary connexion between the George and the 
word " Remember." Charles had been in constant 
communication with Henrietta, and so had no 
need for such a message. Juxon seems never to 
have had any correspondence of any sort with the 
queen, nor ever to have tried to do so. There 
was no similarity of views or purposes between 
Henrietta and Juxon which would make him a 
suitable intermediary on so important an occasion. 
That unrivalled work ' The Dictionary of National 
Biography ' makes no allusion to the incident 
under 4< Charles." But it relates it under "Juxon/ 1 
without explanation, and adds the important item 
concerning Juxon that " he was strictly examined 
as to the meaning of the king's last word " (vol. xzx. 
p. 236). 

I would hazard the suggestion that Charles 



y. FEB. 24, '94. 

referred to the solemn deed of gift he had made 
of the alienated Church property which was in the 
Crown's possession. When Charles was at Oxford 
(1646) he at last became aware that his cause was 
well nigh desperate, and as a last resource deter- 
mined to go over to the Scotch army. The only 
key to Charles's character is the strong religious 
feelings he possessed and acted on. These were 
much more biassed towards the Koman than the 
Anglian communion. This led him to reflect upon 
what could be the real cause of his royal misfor- 
tunes. After long and deep consideration he 
came to the conclusion that a principal cause was 
the holding by the Crown of large possessions for- 
merly belonging to the Church. This he per- 
suaded himself was a most unrighteous sacrilege, 
and quite enough to bring down Heaven's vengeance 
on the guilty possessor. Charles then drew up 
a most solemn religious engagement and declara- 
tion, binding himself by a sacred oath that if 
restored to the throne his first act should be to 
restore all these lands to the Church, and en- 
deavour to obtain other restorations also. This 
was all fully set forth and carefully engrossed on 
a parchment deed, signed and sealed by the king. 

Charles gave it into Sheldon's most careful keep- 
ing, with his royal commands to preserve it at all 
hazards. If Charles was restored, Sheldon was 
to take the first opportunity of presenting it to 
him, and demanding in Heaven's name its fulfil- 
ment. If Charles died unrestored, Sheldon was 
commanded on the first opportunity after his son's 
restoration to present it to him, with his father's 
last command that his son should carry out this 

After Charles left Oxford his affairs became 
more hopeless daily. Sheldon, fearful of being 
found with such a document, enwrapped it in 
various damp-proof coverings, and enclosed the 
whole in a hermetically sealed iron box. 

This casket he buried secretly, with every pre- 
caution. When about to die he reminded Juxon 
of what they knew, and desired him to " remem- 
ber" this undertaking, for which he alone was 
responsible, and to "remember" to enforce it 
when possible upon his son. 

After Charles II. was restored, 1660, Sheldon 
took an early opportunity of recovering the docu- 
ment and presenting it to the king. But tempora 
mutantur, Charles had been admitted into the 
Romish Church. Charles, moreover, was in per- 
petual want of money ; and he was specially care- 
ful to do nothing that had any tendency to send 
him on his miserable continental wanderinys 
again. The whole plan fell through. I would 
suggest that this explanation of this hitherto, I 
believe, unexplained historic incident suits all the 
circumstances of the case of the two persons, of the 
time, and its evident importance. Perhaps some 
learned reader of *N. & Q.' would kindly throw 

some further light on this interesting historic 
doubt. A. B. G. 

P.S. Since writing my note upon this subject I 
have visited the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
In a glass case I saw a photographic copy of " King 
Charles' Yow." The custodian told me that the 
original was in the library. The photograph is on 
letter-sized paper. On the top margin is written 
"Vow of King Charles I." in an old hand, but 
different from that in which the " Vow" is written, 
and may, therefore, be that of Archbishop Sheldon. 
The "Vow" consists of sixteen lines, written in 
a rather clerkly hand, covering the space of a page 
of note-paper. It commences " I, A. B.," and below 
the last line is the royal sign manual "Charles 
R." It is dated "Oxford, 13 Ap., 1646," being 
the year that Charles escaped from Oxford. It 
appears that the "Vow" had become mislaid till 
lately, when, being accidentally . recovered, it has 
been carefully located and preserved. See an 
account of it in Archceologia, liii. 160. 

MATIC AUTHOR. (See 8 th S. iv. 432.) He was 
educated in Paris and Germany from 1817 to 1820, 
and subsequently, for a short period, went to 
school at Islington. For eight years (1820-7), the 
future dramatist was resident at the celebrated 
academy at Clapham, co. Surrey, conducted by 
Charles Richardson, LL.D. (1775-1865). Under 
the roof of the author of ' A New Dictionary of 
the English Language,' 2 vols.4to., Lond., 1836-7, 
Supplement, 1856, he found, and quickly took for 
companions, Julian Young, Charles James Ma- 
thews, John Listen, John Mitchell Kemble, Henry 
Kemble, Richard Tattersall, and young Terry, son 
of Daniel Terry, the actor, whos* widow subse- 
quently married the aforenamed Dr. Richardson. 

In the grave (No. 21,321) in Kensal Green 
Cemetery wherein repose the remains of the author 
of ' Box and Cox ' were interred Edward Morton, 
E<q., died Jan. 17, 1869, aged sixty -two, Cathe- 
rine Morton (" An Angel on Earth, An Angel in 
Heaven"), ob. Feb. 14, 1869, cet. sixty-five, and 
Thomas Morton, who died at Netting Hill on 
Jan. 24, 1879, aged seventy-six. 


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

the Guildhall Library (1889) has the following 
entry of "a memoir of this civic dignitary, who 
served the office of Lord Mayor in 1733 : 

" An impartial history of the life, character, amours, 
travels, and transactions of Mr. John Barber, City printer, 
common-councilman, alderman, and lord mayor of 
London. 8vo. London, 1741." 

He seems to have been a liberal man, as the fine 
portrait of Dean Swift, by Charles Jervas, in the 
Bodleian Gallery at Oxford, was presented by him 

8 th S. V. FEB. 24, J S4.] 



to the University ; and Castle Baynard Ward School 
house is stated to have been erected by him (ante, 
p. 6). John Barber, probably some relative, was 
admitted into St. Peter's College, Westminster, in 
1712, elected to Oxford in 1717, and graduated 
as M.A. in 1724. When the celebrated Dr. South 
died, on July 8, 1716, aged eighty-two, Mr. 
Barber, Captain of the King's Scholars, pronounced 
a funeral oration over his remains in the college 
hall (see 'Alumni Westmonasterienses,' 1852, 
p. 269). JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

VANISHING LONDON. I noticed about Jan. 23 
a paragraph in the daily papers to the effect that 
the all- devouring builder is about to lay his hands 
upon the house in Gough Square once occupied by 
Dr. Johnson. The present appears to be the proper 
time for a reference in ' N. & Q % ' This was the 
house, then numbered seventeen, in which the 
'Dictionary' was finished in 1755, and the 
Rambler begun in 1750. Johnson went into 
the house in 1748, and moved thence in 1758. 
In this house his wife died in 1752. I believe 
the house is marked by a tablet. Carlyle refers 
to the house, and Leigh Hunt also. 

W. H. Q. 

JAMES BOSWELL. So far back as May, 1857 
(see 2 nd S. iii. 381), I gave in N. & Q.' some 
account of Boswell and La Belle Irlandaise. The 
old Dublin newpapers might be consulted for some 
notices of his movements. Thus, the Freeman's 
Journal mentions that on July 7, 1769, he dined 
with the Viceroy at his country seat, near Leixlip. 

W. J. F. 

In the historical romance by Wilkie Collins, 
entitled * Antonina ; or, the Fall of Rome,' the city 
is blockaded by Alaric the Goth in the year 408 A.D. 
A young chief of the invading army, while at his 
post one evening, heard the "long, low, tremulous, 
absorbing roll of thunder afar off": 

I' S Beemed to Proceed from a distance almost incal- 
; to be sounding from its cradle in the frozen 
north ; to be journeying about its ice-girdled chambers 
the lonely poles. It deepened rather than interrupted 
B dreary mysterious stillness of the atmosphere. The 
nmg too, had a summer softness in its noiseless and 
requent gleam. It was not the fierce of 
ter but a warm, fitful brightness, almost fascinating 
i light rapid recurrence, tinged with the glow of 
eaven, and not with the glare of hell." Ch. xv. 
Many erroneous descriptions of the thunder- 
orm have been quoted in these pages, but pro- 
bably none is so bad as the above. This is the 
more surprising in an author who, by the ingenious 
tructure of his plots, and the skilful mode of 
working out the details, is deservedly popular 
J a writer of domestic fiction. The historical 
mance, however, seems to have been beyond his 
powers, and the above extract is nob the only 

example of extravagant writing in this work. 
Eeaders of fiction are now so numerous, that in 
such a book error may be propagated to an un- 
limited extent if the writer is careless about 
accurate description. 

The following is from ' Ma Biographie,' by 
B6ranger (Paris, 1857} : 

" Au mois de Mai, 1792. j'etais debout sur le seuil de 
la porte, a la fin d'un orage ; le tonnerre tombe, eckte, 
passe sur moi, et me jette a terre, completement as- 
phyxie. Une epaisse fume remplit la maison, dont la 
foudre a devaste 1'interieur, et lezarde les pignons. Ma 
tante, ne s'occuparitque de moi, qu'elle voit etemiu mort, 
me saisit, me porte dans sea bras, et m'expose a 1'air et 
a la pluie. Au milieu de la foule accourue, elle me tuto 
le pouls, le coeur, y cherche en vain quelque signe d'ex- 
istence, et s'ecrie : 'II est mort!' Je pus 1'entendre, 
longtemps avant que je pusse faire un mouvement et 
dire un mot pour la rassurer. Enfin, rappele insensible- 
ment a moi, apres avoir repondu a sea caresses de joie, 
je laissai echapper une reflexion d'enfant raisonneur, 
qu'elle m'a bien souvent reprochee, en ejoutant chaque 
fois : ' Je vis bien que tu ne serais jamais de"vot.' J'ai 
dit qu'elle etuit sincerement religieuse. Lorsqu'un 
orage a'annonc.ait, elle aspergeait la maison d'eau benite. 
' C'est pour nous preserver du tonnerre,' m'avait-elle dit. 
llevenu a la vie, encore etendu sur le lit d'un voisin, et 
me faisant raconter ce qui venait d'arriver : * Eh bien,' 
m'6criai-je, ' a quoi sert ton eau benite ? ' 

"Je fus longtemps a me remettre de la terrible 
secousse que j'avais regue, et ma vue, jueque-la fort bonne, 
parut en avoir beaucoup souffert, au point qu'on ne put 
me mettre en apprentissage dans 1'horlogerie." P. 22. 

In the above graphic and amusing description 
the author has the usual mistake of confusing le 
tonnerre with la foudre. Arago, in his celebrated 
treatise in the Annuaire for 1838, strongly insists 
on the necessity of limiting tonnerre to thunder, 
and foudre to lightning ; and remarks that the 
best writers do not commit the fault in question. 
We do not reckon Tabitha Bramble as an authority, 
but she is nevertheless worth quoting, as an ex- 
ample of the general practice of confounding one 
thing with another. She writes : 

" You tell me the thunder has soured two barrels of 
beer in the seller. But how the thunder should get 
there, when the seller was double-locked, I can't com- 
prehend. Howgomever, I won't have the beer thrown 
out till I see it with my own eyes. Perhaps it will re- 
cover; at least it will serve for vinegar to the ear- 


Highgate, N. 

u BINDING. "About the middle of last Decem- 
ber I tried to obtain from a well-known firm in "the 
Row " a copy of a well-known work published in 
Ireland. They sent out for it, and after I had 
waited an hour the answer came that it would be 
sent in the course of the next day to where I was 
staying. I heard nothing more of it till, some days 
after, I was informed that it was " binding," but 
would be sent as soon as possible. A month later I 
wrote, expressing surprise that it had taken so long 
to bind ; and again asking if they could give any 



[8> 8. V. FEB. 24, '94. 

idea when it would be ready, I received the fol- 
lowing reply, dated Feb. 2 : 

" Dear Sir, In reply to yours of the 1st inst, I beg to 
state that O'Curry's Lectures are still ' binding,' and that 
is the publishers' answer ; the foregoing term often means 
that the book may be unobtainable for some months, and 
in this case tbe publishers can give no time as to when it 
will be ready." 

This use of the term seems to me so curiou?, 
and so likely to be of interest to any of your 
readers in like circumstances with myself, that I 
send it to ' N. & Q.' J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield'a Hall, Durham. 

WILLIAM TURNER. Under the heading 'Nuder' 
(8 th 8. v. 74) I mentioned the difficulty I felt in 
understanding how Turner, who in 1568 was 
Dean of Welle, and in March of that same year 
dedicated his book to Queen Elizabeth, could 
already have had his work printed at Cologne. 

I had assumed that as dean he would have been 
resident at Wells. My friend Canon Bernard has 
kindly sent me notices which explain my diffi- 
culty. He says : " Turner died in 1568, and had 
not been at Wells for two or three years previously." 
Now this would give ample time for his being in 
Germany while seeing his book through the press. 
The title-pages might have been dated 1568 by 
anticipation, or might have been printed in that 
year before March. When the book had been 
worked off, Turner seems to have returned to 
England, and his dedication is dated from his 
house " in the Crossed Fryers." He died there in 
July, and was buried at St. Olave's, Hart Street, 
where there is a tablet to his memory. 


BOROUGH ENGLISH. Mr. Peacock, in his 
paper on this subject in vol. xlix. of the Archceo- 
logical Journal, recommends a catalogue being 
put on record of manors held under this form of 
tenure. In the second volume of tbe * Suffolk 
Institute of Archaeology ' there is a paper upon 
Borough English, with a " list of manors and places 
in Suffolk in which the customary descent is to the 
youngest son." H. A. W. 


" It is said that the rushbearing proper, in its more 
interesting and ornate form, continued in tbe village of 
Holcombe to a later date tban in any other parish in the 
country. At the time of which we now particularly 
write about fifty years ago three gentlemen, well 
known in the district, had the chief management of its 
aflairs. [Their names and dates of death are given ; the 
last died in 1867, aged sixty-eight.] As the last week of 
August came round, a number of young men cut the 
requisite number of rushes on Holcombe Bill. These 
were conveyed to the appointed place in the village and 
carefully piled up in the cart provided for tbe purpose 
the ruehcart. The rectangular mass, firmly built to a 
considerable height, was skilfully sloped on the top, 
something like the roof of a house. In its centre, duly 
prepared for the purpose, was planted an apple tree, with 

the tempting fruit freely pendent from its spreading 
branches, and under these, in ' skin tights/ sat a boy and 
a girl the representatives for the occasion of Adam and 
Eve. The work was executed with great precision 
and neatness. On its sides were securely hung teapots, 
brass kettles, pewter JU^P, and other things bright and 
showy freely lent for the purpose ; and sometimes a 
sheet was tightly stretched across the front to act as a 
foil for the better display of the glittering gear, decked 
with gay ribbons, offered for competition at the attendant 
sports. When, from far and near, eager and expectant 
hundreds had assembled, at the hour appointed the rush- 
cart with its equipment, grand and picturesque, was 
drawn forth from its place of concealment; and then, 
up over Holcombe Hill, the welkin rang with boisterous 
acclamations. After being duly inspected and admired, 
preparation was made for its annual tour round the 
neighbourhood. It was drawn not by horses, but by young 
men somewhat fantastically dressed ' like pace-eggera,' 
firmly yoked with ropes prepared specially for tbe task. 
They visited not only immediately adjacent places, like 
Bamsbottora and Holcombe Brook, but sometimes also 
Bury, Shuttleworth, and Euenfield, performing from 
time to time by the way a rude kind of dunce, while a 
collector solicited subscriptions from the inhabitants, by 
whom the rush-bearers were usually received with 
cordiality and good-humoured interest. And, as our 
informant expressed it, ' It was downright hard work for 
those fellows who drew the cart.' Of this, we apprehend, 
there can be no doubt. The tour having been completed, 
the gay adornment was carefully removed, and ultimately 
the rushes; but, at the time to which we have been 
referring, they were not strewed in the church, as had 
been the practice at an earlier period." ' The Country 
and Church of the Cheeryble Brothers,' by the Rev. W. 
Hume Elliot, Bamsbottom (Selkirk, 1893, pp. 57-59). 
12, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow. 


generally assumed to be an American innovation 
it may be well to note that in a statute enacted on 
September 27,1690, by a commission of the Scottish 
Parliament for the visitation of the universities, 
this word occurs twice over as "prog mm"; and 
that this spelling was nob repudiated by the 
universities is shown by an entry recorded on 
July 5, 1711, on the minutes of that of Aberdeen, 
as to tbe election of " Mr. William Smith, Regent 
in Marischal College, in place of Mr. William 
Black, without a program" (vide 'Officers and 
Graduates of University of Aberdeen/ recently 
issued by the New Spalding Club, pp. 60 and 61). 

H. B. 

LITERARY GAVELKIND. No fewer than twenty 
members of the family of Coleridge have figured 
in authorship. It would be hard to find another 
family in whom a literary taste has descended 
in gavelkind to such a degree. 

Eden Bridge. 

MAJOR ANDRE. The obituary notice of George \ 
Washington Childs given in the Daily Telegraph 
of February 5, states that among the choicest : 
treasures in his library at Philadelphia is a MS. 

8" & T. FEB. 24, '94.] 



epic, written by the unfortunate Major Andre, 
who expended his satire upon the American Genera 
Wayne (originally a cattle drover), after his failure 
to capture a blockhouse upon the Hudson River 
It was the last literary effort of the ill-fated Eng 
lish officer, and the lines, written in fun, with 
which it ends, sadly presaged his own fate : 
And now I 've closed my Epic strain, 

And tremble as I show it, 
Lent this tame warrior-drover, Wayne, 
Should ever catch the poet. 

J. F. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

GEORGE CHARLES. George Charles was High 
Master of St. Paul's School from 1737 to 1748. 
On Feb. 4, 1747, he was given six months' notice 
by the Mercers' Company, and when he left wai 
appointed secretary to the Earl of Rochford, Am 
batsador to the Court of Turin. Careful inquiry 
has failed to discover any further facts about him. 
I wish particularly to learn his parentage and 
uni versify. In a manuscript I have before me he 
is called Mr. Charles on March 19, 1741, and Dr. 
Charles on March 24, 1742, BO that he probably 
took his doctor's degree (whether D.D., M.D., 
D.C.L., or LL.D.) between those two dates. I 
know of nothing to show whether he was, or was 
not in orders. R. J. WALKER. 

senior coheir of this barony ? In Lincolnshire 
Notes and Queries, July, 1893, is an engraving of 
the fine brass of the fourth lord, who married Mar- 
garet d'Eyncourt, and ob. s.p. 1455, his sister Maude, 
wife of Sir Richard Stanhope, being his heiress. 
Burke says, however (' Dormant Peerages '), that 
her issue became extinct, and that the descendants 
of her aunts, sisters of the third lord, became 
coheirs to the barony. The eldest of these sisters, 
Hawise, married Thomas, Lord Bardolph, the 
honours of whope family were afterward* attainted. 
The younger ones were Maude and Elizabeth, of 
whom the former married Sir William Fitzwilliam 
of Sprotborough, and the latter married (1) Sir John 

hfton, and (2) Sir Ed. Bensted. Between the de- 
scendants of these, according to Burke, the barony 
is in abeyance. 

Sir William Fitrwilliam (cf. Burke's ' Peerage ') 
left one son, Sir John, who in his turn left six, 
from the youngest of whom the present Earl Fitz- 
wilham derives. What descendants did the others 
leave ; and what family had Elizabeth Cromwell 
by her two husbands ? 

In 1462 died Thomas Grimston, of Grimston 
Garth, co. York, whose wife Mary waa daughter 

of Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Aldwarke. From 
Thomas and Mary are descended most of the 
Yorkshire Grimstons, and they have long quartered 
on their well-filled shield the arms of Fitzwilliam, 
together with Warren, Lizures, Lacy, Bertram, 
and Cromwell, brought in by Fitzwilliam, and 
Somerie, Bernach, Tatterahall, Daubignie, and 
Hugh Lupus, brought in by Cromwell. In my 
grandfather's (Col. Chas. Grimston's) time it used 
to be said that " he might claim the barony, if he 
would." Was there any truth in the saying? 
Certainly he claimed and used the arms, which 
may still be seen in the dining-room at Grimston 
Garth. 0. MOOR. 

Barton on H umber. 

* ONLY A PIN.' I shall be glad of information 
as to the authorship and date of publication of a 
short poem with the above title. 


DUTY OF A PROCURATOR. At p. 106, voL i., 
of 'Barabbas: a Dream of the World's Tragedy/ 
it is said : " It was part of the procurator's formal 
duty to personally chastise a condemned criminal" 
And Pilate if, with much detail, afterwards made to 
grasp and apply with his own hand the scourge to 
Christ. Is there any authority for this ? 


YVERY/ &c., London, 1742, 8vo. In the preface 
to vol. ii. it is stated that " a third volume will be 
shortly published, containing all the records at 
length which are quoted in this work, with many 
more." Did this third volume ever make its 
appearance? G. F. R. B. 

should be grateful if yon could tell me who is the 
author of a strange book, published in 1826 at 
Edinburgh by Oliver & Boyd, and in London by 
Longmans, called ' The Contest of the Inclina- 


EARLY CATECHISMS. What is the earliest edition 

mown of the Catechism ? There are copies in the 

British Museum issued about the middle of the 

ast century, all of which are "Printed for the 

Company of Stationers." Were they always 

rinted at home, or sometimes on the Continent 

and imported into this conntry ? 



F JAMES IV. OF SCOTLAND. At p. 55 of vol. i. 

f Walpole's * Anecdotes of Painting in England ' 

London, 1876) it is stated that 

Mr. West bad a curious missal (the painter unknown), 

which belonged to Margaret, Queen of Scotland, and was 

present from her father. Henry VII. His name, of 

is own writing, is in the first page. The queen's por- 

rait, praying to St. Margaret, appears twice in the 



[8 th S. V. FEB. 24, '94. 

illuminations, and beneath several of them are the arma 
and matches of the house of Somerset, besides repre- 
sentations of the twelve months well painted." 

The Rev. James Dallaway adds a note: "It was 
sold for 32/. 10*. at Mr. West's sale in 1773." Can 
any of your readers inform me in whose possession 
this MS. now is ? J. 

GRAY'S * ELEGY.' Most editions now contain 
the reading 

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, 
And all that beauty, all that wealth, e'er gave, 
Awaits alike the inevitable hour, 

instead of aivait, the reading adopted in most 
editions for a century past. Can any of your 
readers tell me when the reading was first 
used, and whether there is any evidence that it 
had the sanction of the author; or was it a mere 
misprint? JOHN MURRAY. 

HARLEY SQUARE. In the * Penny Cyclopaedia ' 
it is stated that the celebrated Anthony Collins, 
the friend and correspondent of Locke, died in 
December, 1729, "at his house in Harley Square." 
Is this one of the names first given to Cavendish 
Square; or is it a slip of the pen for Harley Street? 
Mr. Collins was buried, it is added, in " Oxford 
Chapel," the same now known as St. Peter's, Vere 
Street. E. WALFORD, M.A. 


*LES PROPOS DB LABIENUS ' was the title of a 
pamphlet or book which appeared during the later 
days of the Second Empire, and made some sensa- 
tion. Who was the author ? W. 

EEYNOLDS. Humphrey Reynolds, who flourished 
at Lough Seur, 1641, married Russel Ware, third 
daughter of Sir James Ware, Knt., and sister to 
Sir James Ware, Knt. , the historian ; also Bridget 
Nugent, daughter of Sir Robert Nugent, second 
Baronet, of Moyrath (or Clonlost), co. Westmeath, 
married Connor Reynolds, of Rhinn Castle, co. 
Westmeath; also James (Thomas ?) Reynolds, 
woolstapler, Dublin, married (about 1680-96) a 
Margaret (?) Lacy, or Lascy, sister to Councillor 
Lacy, or Lascay, of Dublin. Can any reader oblige 
me with the ancestors of Connor and James 
(Thomas ?) Reynolds for two generations, and the 
issue of all three marriages, to the second or third 
generation of each respectively; or give me the 
authorities whereby I can find such particulars ? 


any of your readers inform me of the whereabouts 
of a picture representing Gen. Sir Thomas Mus- 
grave, painted by J. Abbott in 1786 ? An en- 
graving of it appeared in the ' Military Panorama,' 
1813. S. M. MILNE. 

THE O'MoRES. Where can I find a pedigree of 
the O'Mores, Princes or Lords of Leix? Rory 

O'More married, in the sixteenth century, Margaret 
Butler, grand-daughter of Pierce, eighth Earl of 

SCOTT BIBLIOGRAPHY. In a recently published 
catalogue I find the following : " Ancient and 

Modern British Drama edited by Sir Walter 

Scott, 8 vols., roy. 8vo., 1810." I fancy this will 
be quite a novelty to students of Scott, for I can 
find no mention of it in Lockhart, or in any book 
on Scott I have met with. Can any one furnish 
information as to the work ? 


semicolon occur in any earlier book than the edition 
of Seneca's ' De Remediis Fortuitorum ' which is 
generally believed to have been printed at Cologne 
about 1466 or 1470 ? 


"HoLY MR. GIFFORD." Can any one give 
information respecting the family of Mr. Gifford, 
the Puritan preacher at Bedford, under whom 
Bunyan sat and first was impressed with religion ? 
In Dr. Alexander Whyte's interesting little book, 
'Bunyan Characters' (1893) we learn that Mr. 
Gifford first studied medicine and afterwards be- 
came a major in the Royalist army. During this 
time he appears to have led a very wild life until 
his escape from Maidstone (1648) in his sister's 
clothes, when he became an altered man. Dr. 
Why te also states that Mr. Gifford was the original 
of Banyan's "Evangelist." It would be interesting 
to know more of such a man. H. F. G. 

FRANCIS BIRD, SCULPTOR. Is anything known 
of the ancestry and descendants of Francis Bird, 
the sculptor of the statue of Queen Anne, which 
formerly stood in front of St. Paul's Cathedral? 

Bedford Park, Chiswick. 

CROMWELL : GLOSSOP. Who were " Thos. 
Cromwell, of Laxton, poor relation of Thomas, 
Earl of Essex"; also Nicholas Glossop, of Derby- 
shire, cousin to Essex ? C. HERREY. 

GALVANI. Do any of your readers know the 
exact date and place of death of Aloysius Luigi 
Galvani, discoverer of galvanism 1 According to 
some it was December 4, 1798, and to others 
February 5, 1799, at Bologna. W. LOVELL. 


According to Harrison, in his ' Yorkshire,' she 
was the wife of Frode VII., King of Denmark (06. 
548), and the daughter of Hilderic, King of the 
Vandals in Africa, A.D. 525. From this I infer 
that perhaps Hilda was one of those children of 
Hilderic whom the Emperor Justinian, after the 
conquest of Carthage, removed to Constantinople 

8* S. V. FEB. 24, '94.] 



and provided for in accordance with their roya 
rank. I suppose mention of Hilda's marriage to 
King Frode VII., together with confirmation o 
the statement that Halfdan, King of Denmark. wa.< 
their BOD, is contained in Byzantine or Norse 
chronicles ; but where ? Information on this 
point will greatly oblige me. X. 

PENTECOSTAL FESTIVAL. In the cathedral o 
Ulm, Germany, on Pentecost Day, I am told that 
small birds are let loose in the church with tiny 
cakes attached to their feet. My informant could 
tell me no more than this. Perhaps some of your 
contributors will gratify me with the reason and 
origin of this ecclesiastical ceremony. 


John Norman, of Bridgwater, and Joseph Alleine, 
of Taunton, were two well-known Presbyterian 
ministers between 1647 and 1668, in which latter 
year both died. Alleine has obtained an enthu- 
siastic biographer, who had large materials, in Dr. 
Charles Stanford. Of Norman there exists little 
but the scanty record in Calamy. 

A descendant, maternally, of Norman, I am en- 
deavouring to discover his family history and to 
ascertain whether, in letter No. 36 of the Alleine 
correspondence, the Orestes who signs it is not 
Alleine, and the Py lades to whom it is addressed 
is not Norman. For, if so, it would appear that 
in October, 1668, Norman had a wife living, whom 
he must have married after the death of his fir*t 
wife Elizabeth in 1664. Of both wives the family 
names are unknown to me. Dr. Stanford records a 
report that the second wife was a niece of Admiral 
Blake, and that the first wife was a sister of Mis. 

The anonymous writer of the ' Life and History 
f Admiral Blake/ " written by a gentleman bn-d 
in his family," and published about 1741 (Old- 
mixon, in my belief, being the author), states that 
John, son of John Norman, the minister, married 
a daughter of Humphrey Blake, the admiral's 
brother, and that descendants of that marriage 

isted in 1741. At the present day many such are 
to be found. 
t I have already obtained some fresh facts concern - 

g John Norman's birthplace and family, to be 

id at the disposal of the 'Dictionary of National 

iiography'; but we have yet to learn whether he 

s really twice married, the family names of his 

wives, and whether Henry Norman, Master of 

iangport Grammar School from 1706 to 1730, 

was his grandson. The registers of Devizes, But- 

combe, and Ditcheat furnish nothing. Bridgwa:er 

9 supplied some facts here used. Taunton may 
erhaps disclose some particulars in connexion 
with Joseph Alleine. May I appeal to Somerset 
archaDoloKists ? KANTIDS. 

Qumtadoa TanquinhoB, Madeira. 

(8 th S. v. 88.) 

In answer to the query under this head, there 
are not many rood lofts left, but a great number of 
screens, in England. 

In Norfolk the following are fine : Worstead (one 
of the finest extant, with much colouring and paint- 
ings of saints in the lower panels), Trimingham, 
Trunch, Aylsham, Upper Sheringham (rood loft 
also), Hazeboro', Ranworth (with side altars). 

In Suffolk, Somerleyton, Blythburgb, South- 
wold (fine panelled saints), Butley, Eye. 

In Essex, Castle Hedingham has a good four- 
teenth century screen. 

Devonshire probably possesses more numerous 
beautiful examples than any other county, and 
photographs of many can be obtained from Mr. 
T. B. Worth, of Exeter : Coomb Martin (with rood 
loft), Totness (stone), Bradninch, Plymtree, Dart- 
mouth, Honiton, Bideford, Kenton, Stoke in Teign- 
head, Kentisbeare, Oollumpton, Bovy Tracey, and 
Chudleigh, are some of the finest. 

Somerset may boast many examples : Kingsbury, 
Long Sutton, Norton Fitzwarren, Dunster, Bishops 
Lydiard, Minehead, Withycombe, and Dulverton 
are samples. 

In Notts is one of the most perfect screens, con- 
tinued around the north and south sides of the 
choir, at Newark. 

In this county (Lincolnshire) we have nearly 
seventy of all varieties. A very early English 
remnant exists in Kirkstead Chapel, Sleaford is 
particularly fine, Coates (singularly perfect, with 
rood loft), Alford, Barrow, Barton-on-H umber, 
Bratoft, Burgh, Croft, CrowlanH, Ewerby (one of 
the best, much like Sleaford), Fishtoft, Frampton, 
Friskney, Grainsby, East Kirkby, Leverton, Marsh 
Chapel, Moulton, Middle Rasen, Salt fleetly, 
Saxilby, Spalding, Stamford (B^de houses), Stix- 
would, Swineshead, Tattershall (stone, with altars 
on each side central door, as at Norwich Cathedral, 
Lierre, Aerschot, and anciently at Louvain St. 
Pierre and Exeter). Theddlethorpe, Wigtoft, and 
Winthorpe are all worth seeing. 


MR. F. FEASEY'S queries under the above head- 

D suggest a very tall order indeed. Many 

numbers of ' N. & Q.' would be required as 

special editions if anything like a comprehensive 

reply were given, especially if full information 

upon both stone and wood screens, &c., is wished 

or. Let us take this county (Devonshire) only 

this time, and confine ourselves to oak screens. 

Just to the north as you enter Exeter Cathedral 

y the north-west door is St. Edmund's Chapel, 

now more commonly known as the Consistory 

Court. It is divided from the north aisle by a 



[8* h S. V. FEB. 24, '94. 

Decorated screen (A.D. 1340), the oldest in the 
cathedral. Tbe screens that form lines of demarca- 
tion between the aisles of the nave and those of 
the choir date from a little later period. Tbere 
are no fourteenth century oak screens, so far as I 
am aware, in churches in the diocese. 

It seems that nearly all the county's efforts in 
the fourteenth century were directed to transform- 
ing our Norman Transition Cathedral into a 
Decorated one. One hundred years later, how- 
ever, people having had time to breathe, the wave 
of restoration went through Devonshire from east 
to west and north to south. There are some very 
beautiful fifteenth century oak screens in the 
cathedral choir. 

The city of Exeter only boasts of one other fif- 
teenth century oak screen, it is now in St. Mary's 
Steps Church, but was formerly in the now 
destroyed St. Mary Major's. 

There are fifteenth century screens at Pinhoe, 
Stoke-in-Teignhead, Poltimore, Littleham (near 
Exmouth), Broadwood Widger, St. Saviour's 
Dartmouth, Staverton, Bradninch, Cullumpton, 
Feniton , Payhembury, Plymtree, Colebrook (a very 
curious parclose), Down St. Mary, Lapford (rather 
late), Stockleigh Pomeroy, Atheriogton (late, and 
the only instance of an original rood loft gallery in 
the country), Swim bridge, Sheldon, Halberton, 
Alphington, Chudleigb, Comb - in - Teignhead, 
Dunchideock, Haccombe, Kenn, Kenton, Tala- 
ton, Shirwell, Berry Pomeroy, Churston Ferrers, 
Broad Hempston, Ipplepen, Tor Brian, Wool- 
borough, Bovey Tracey, Using ton, Man a ton, 
St. Michael's Honiton, North Leigh, Asbpring- 
ton, Blackawton, Harbnrton, Rattery, Hartland, 
Kingsbridge, Aveton Gifford, North Bovey, Bow, 
Cruwys Morchard, Bampton, Bridford, Little 
Hempston, East Down, Denbury, Chulmleigb, 
Chivelstone, Corn wood, Calverleigh, Burrington, 
Burlescombe, Ugborough, Stokenham, Slapton, 
Sherford, Hoi ne, North Huish, Kentisbeare, Sand- 
ford Peverell, Portlemouth, Battery, Plymstock, 
North Petherwin, Petertavy, North Molton, Mus- 
bury, Littleham (near Bideford), King's Nympton, 
South Milton, Dodbrooke, Marwood, and Buck- 
land -in- 1 be- Moor. 

These names occur to me, but there are doubt- 
less other churches in the county in which fifteenth 
century oak screens, or portions of such screens 
till exist. 

Of all those now mentioned by far the most 
beautiful and ornate is that at St. Paul's Staverton, 
upon the banks of the river Dart. It consists of a 
continuous run of seventeen bays, in all 50 ft. long 
from north to south. It is groined on both sides, 
and there is a rood loft the entire length, 6 ft. 9 in. 
wide. The gallery front facing westwards is richly 
canopied ; the height of the screen is 15 ft. 

The only old rood screen in this county I re- 
collect for the moment having the three figures 

upon it is at St. Andrew's, Kenn. I placed them 
there some seven or eight years ago. 

It may be mentioned as a sort of foot-note that 
the first rood raised in the diocese of Oxford (in 
any Anglican church) since the Reformation was at 
Shilton. I erected it the latter end of 1884, and 
it was unveiled on December 4 in that year. 

Messrs. Worth & Son, of Cathedral Yard, 
Exeter, artists' colourmen, &c. , keep a very inter- 
esting series of photographs, comprising some of 
the best of Devon's fifteenth century screens. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

The Devonshire churches of Bovey Tracey and 
Wolborougb, near Newton Abbot, contain notori- 
ously handsome screens, which have, I believe, 
been restored. 


Eden Bridge. 

Vide N. & Q.,' Rood Lofts/ 6 th S. vi. 8, 253, 
541; vii. 276; also Parker's * Glossary of Architec- 

v. 49). I do not know in what Latin writer the 
words are to be found ; but for the original senti- 
ment we must go back to Socrates, as reported by 
Xenophon : 'AAAot a-vvrofJUDrdrrj re KCU acr<a- 
Aeo-Tarrj KCU KaAAwm? 6Sos, a> Kpiro/SovAc, o, 
rt OLV J3ov\y SoKiv dyaflos etvat, TOVTO Kal 
yfvfoOat dyaflos 7ra/>ao-0cu. ' Memorabilia, 1 II. 
vi. 39. 

In our own time Tennyson has echoed the 
thought, giving it as a characteristic of one who 
" bore without abuse the grand old name of gentle- 
that he "best seem'd the thing he was" 


(* In Memoriam,' cxi.). 

If the words for which MR. VANE is in quest 
are to be found, one or other of your learned 
correspondents is sure to be able to identify them. 
If they are not forthcoming I shall suspect that 
his memory has played him a prank, retaining in 
part the sound but not the sense of a passage which 
he may have read long ago. The passage to which 
I allude is in chap. vii. of the * Agricola' of Tacitus. 
Troops who had been wavering in their allegiance 
were won for Vespasian by Agricola ; and Tacitus 
says of his disinterested conduct in the matter; 
"Rarissima moderatione, maluit videri invenissa 
bonos quam fecisse." R. M. SPENCE, M.A. 

Manae of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

"Ease quam videri bonus malebat" (vide 
chap, liv., ' Catiline Conspiracy ' of Sallust). 

H. C. MANLEY, A.B., T.C.D. 
18, University Square, Belfast. 

"TO FOIL " = TO FOUL, DEFILE (8 th S. V. 106). 

This v. t. is duly entered in the * Encyclopaedic 

6< 3. V. FEB. 24, '84.] 



Dictionary ' as "a variant of file or foul" and the 
suggestion is offered that it is possibly the same as 
foil or foyle, " to trample under foot." An illus- 
trative quotation is given from the ( Gesta Roman- 
orum,' p. 143. See also Halliwell's * Archaic Diet., 

Helenaburgb, N.B. 

This is a frequent term in language of the chase, 
e.g., when cattle or sheep cross the line of a fox 
they are said to foil the scent, i.e., to defile it. In 
Lowland Scots we simply say " file," as in the pro- 
verb " It 's an ill bird that files its ain nest." It is 
also an old term in Scots law, meaning (1) to 
accuse (Fountain hall's ' Decisions,' i. 14), and (2) 
to convict (' Regiam Majestatem, 1 IV., c. i. par. 5). 
It is natural to expect a similar word in Yorkshire, 
of which district the dialect is identical in origin 
with Lowland Scots, i.e., Old Northern English. 

T. 68). PASTOR may be interested in reading 
' Among the Fjords with Edvard Grieg ' by Rev. 
W. A. Gray. It is an article in the Woman at 
Home for January (Hodder & Stoughton). 



iv. 329, 431). References are made to Inis Madoc, 
St. Mogue's Island, or the Island of Inch, in my 
notes on Royal Cemetery of Clonmacnoise ' in 

N. & Q.,' 7 th S. xi. 422 ; and ' Irish Bells,' 

N. & Q.,' 7 th S. xii. 21. There is a tradition that 
the last Rig Tuatb, or tribe king of Tullyhaw, viz., 
Felim McGauran or McGovern, was buried there 
about the year 1625, and that it is one of the 
valhallas of the sept. Often in this desolate spot, 
with the wavelets ever chanting their solemn 
requiem, has the funeral march of the clan 
McGauran or McGovern been played, causing the 
deepest emotion in the breasts of the ever faithful 
tribesmen when their beloved chieftains were con- 
signed to the tombs. The island is held in great 
veneration by the members of the tribe ; and it would 
be hard to foretell the fate of the luckless visitor 
who dared to violate its sacred precincts. There 
A scarcely any trace left of the abbey founded 

lere by St. Mogue in the sixth century. The old 
structure, ages ago, doubtless, witnessed many im- 
posing ecclesiastical scenes, such, for instance, as 
happy bridal of the chief and his fair lady 
before the shrine of this saint, amidst the sweet 
trains of the clairseach accompanied by the tribal 
bard chanting appropriate songs, when the standard 
bearer would proudly raise aloft the sept's banner 
above the spears and battle-axes of the kerne and 
gallowglasse. On the return of the festive party to 

ie principal castle, close to the town of Ballymc- 
auran, on the eastern frontier of the present cir- 
cumscribed barony, after refreshments had been 

supplied in the banqueting hall, poems would be 
recited (committed to memory from the " Gaelic 
book* of Thomas MacSamhradhain," Anglicized 
McGauran or McGovern, chief of Tullyhaw, whose 
death is recorded by the * Four Masters' under 
the year 1 343 ; its contents were transcribed for 
him by Adam O'Cianan) on the genealogies, 
achievements, and liberality of their chiefs and 
relatives (among the former were Brian, Fearghal, 
Maghnus, Niall, and Thomas) ; and to stimulate the 
bride to pursue a life of chastity and fidelity poems 
were recited from the said volume commemorating 
the wives and daughters of the chiefs famed for 
such virtues, viz., Gormlaith, daughter of Brian 
MacSamhradhain, wife of O'Reilly; Nuala, daughter 
of Maguire, wife of Thomas MacSamhradhain, 
Sadhbh, daughter of Cathal Og O'Conor, wife of 
Niall MacSamhradhain. In a further note on, 
* Irish Bells,' in 'N. & Q.,' 8 th S. ii. 341, I give 
the history of the Olog Mogue together with its 
legend. The late lamented Irish scholar Dr. 
O'Donovan, in his translation of the * Four 
Masters,' second edition, 1856, in a foot-note, 
A.D. 1496, gives the following highly interesting 
information concerning St. Mogue : 

" Teampall-an-phuirt, i.e., the church of the bank, 
now Templeport, a townland and parish in the barony of 
Tullyhaw, in the north-west of the c<>unty of Cavan. Not 
far from this church is Inia-BreachmliHigh.t on which 

* The ancient MS. is still extant and preserved by a 
distinguished Irish gentleman. I hope ere long to con- 
tribute an article on this precious relic of our clan, which 
" is regarded aa a valuable accession to the collection of 
the native literature of the fourteenth century "; until 
the last twenty-two years ' there does not seem to have 
been any account hitherto published of this MS., and 
some of the poems are the only productions at present 
known of their authors." It is only a few months since 
that I discovered its existence. This treasure, like the 
Clog Mogue, has passed out of the custody of the race of 
McGauran or McGovern. 

f Kilmadock, in his interesting note, gives the name 
of the irl*nd on which this saint was born as " Info 
Creaghmuigh." This I suppose is a printer's error ; it i 
spelt " Innis Breaghmuigh " in the ' Lives of the Saints,' 
1872, vol. i. p. 467. by tho Eev. 8. Baring-Gould, M.JL, 
and in the 'Acta Sanctorum' it is rendered Inis Bresgai. 
This island does not seem to be identical with that of Inis 
Madoc, although both, no doubt, are situate in the Temple- 
port lake; see the old map of Tullyhaw refened to in my 
previous note on ' Irish Bells.' There are a number of 
lakes in the south-eastern district which tend to diversify 
and add new charms to its picturesque scenery; such aa 
ihe one referred to ; Ballymcgauran (at one time contain- 
ng the inland home or crannog of the chiefs ; under the 
year 1512 the 'Pour Masters' record that a Maguire 
md his forces took this fortified island, but afterwards 
hey were defeated by the McGaurans, and many of the 
chief men of the Maguirea were killed), Deirycaaaan, 
Bunerky, Bellaboy, Lakefield, Brackley, Glebe, and 
Killyran, at one time all crannog fortressed. According 
to the Pour Masters,' A.D. 1495, Felim McGauran or 
McGovern, Chief of Tullyhaw, was drowned in Bally- 
wiliin Lough, in the townland of Killywillin, where 
there was a mill working, and I am informed is eo 
at the present time. See the Ordnance Survey of Ire- 



S. V. FEB. 24, '94. 

was born the celebrated St. Maidoc, patron of the diocese 
of Femes, and of the churches of Roasinver, in the county 
of Lei trim, and Drumlane, in the county of Cavan. See 
the ' Irish Calendar of the O'Clerjs,' at 31 January, where 
it is stated that the flagstone on which St. Maidoc was 
carried to be baptized was used as a ferry-boat to carry 
people from and to the island on which he waa born ; and 
that an old seasoned hazel stick, which his mother held 
in her hand when bringing him forth, afterwards haying 
been stuck by chance in the ground, struck root, and 
grew up into a large tree, which was to be seen on the 
island of Breaghwy in a flourishing state, and producing 
nuts in the time of the writer. The tradition in the 
country also asserts that the flagstone above referred to 
was used as a ferry-boat till a few centuries since, when, 
in consequence of the misconduct of a young man and 
woman on board, it suddenly sank, and left the passengers 
to shift for themselves on the surface of the lake. The 
natives of the parish of Templeport also preserve a tra- 
ditional recollection of the hazel tree referred to in the 
'Irish Calendar,' but no trace of it now remains, nor does 
tradition account for its withering." 

Dr. O'Donovan took great pains in collecting 
local traditions and legends when engaged on the 
topography of the country in connexion with the 
Ordnance Survey and the revision of its nomencla- 
ture. His letters thereon, which are still preserved, 
are highly valuable, and their publication would 
greatly assist students. The learned Standish 
O'Grady's work, 'Silva Gadelica' (1892, p. 505) 
should be consulted regarding the pedigree of 


PRUJEAN SQUARE (8 th S. v. 28, 71). Mr. 
Sage, of Stoke Newington, has compiled from 
various sources (including Sir Francis Prujean's 
will) a pedigree of the Prujean family. This docu- 
ment, with copy of the will affixed, he has kindly 
placed at my disposal ; and premising that the 
will (P.O. Cant., Mico., 122) is dated April 23, 
1665, and that it was proved in the course of the 
next year, I am able to give the following par- 
ticulars. The first wife of Francis Prujean, M.D., 
was Margaret, daughter of Thomas Legatt, of 
Hornchurch, in the county of Essex. His second 
wife, mentioned by Pepys, was the widow of Sir 
Thomas Fleming. She survived Prujean, and was 

land, one-inch scale, sheets Nos. 56, 67, and 68, for the 
position of these lakes. Mr. Seaton F. Milligan, in a 
valuable paper on 'Crannogs in co. Cavan,' vide the 
Journal of the Eoyal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland, 1885-6, vol. xvii. p. 148, states 
" that the co. Cavan might be appropriately called the 
crannog country, from the great number of those ancient 
structures that dot the surface of its numerous lakes. 
So far as my observations extend these ancient lake 
dwellings are more numerous in Cavan than in any other 
county in Ireland. This may have resulted from its 
being border land lying along Leinster, with the English 
pale on one side and Connaught on the other, and being 
more exposed to cattle raids and forays ; hence the 
necessity for the security provided by those harbours of 
refuge. See ' Notes on Crannogs in Leitrim ' (p. 407), 
by W. de V. Kane ; also Col. W. G. W. Martin's standard 
work on the 'Lake Dwellings of Ireland,' 18S6. 

married in the second place to Sir John Maynard, 
the celebrated lawyer. The country house of Sir 
Francis Prujean was Sutton Gate, Hornchurch ;* 
he did not own the house, which, however, came 
to his grandson through the Legatts. He died in 
London at his house in the Old Bailey, June 23, 
1666, and was buried at Hornchurch, where there 
is a monument to his memory, with a long Latin 
inscription, printed in Dr. Munk's 'Roll of the 
Royal College of Physicians.' The Prujeans con- 
tinued to possess Sutton Gate for more than a 
hundred years after the death of Sir Francis. 
There is a portrait of Sir Francis in the College of 
Physicians. There is also a portrait of Thomas 
Prujean, M.D., only son of Sir Francis, at 
St. Thomas's Hospital. I have omitted to say 
that Sir Francis had connexions at Lincoln and 
Nottingham, surgeons or medical men, practising 
in those towns. S. ARNOTT. 


O'BRIEN: STRANGWAYS (8 th S. iv. 448, 495 ; v. 
72). Further information upon this subject will 
be found in Forster's * Life of Goldsmith.' I had 
omitted to consult this work, or my reply would 
have been fuller. 

Eden Bridge. 

67). The article on ' Characters of the late Charles 
James Fox/ in vol. ii. (not i.) of the Quarterly t was 
by Robert Grant, and was the first article in the 
Review which made a considerable stir. In the 
same number was an article on 'Rose's Observations 
on C. J. Fox's Historical Works.' This was by 
Lord Meadowbank. JOHN MURRAY. 

CARLYLE AND TENNYSON (8 th S. v. 81). I have 
more than once had occasion to comment on the 
pains some people will take to make an elaborate 
investigation concerning a point which can be 
verified in a moment in the proper quarter. The 
article on Tennyson in Quarterly Review, Septem- 
ber, 1842, was not by Carlyle. 


<THE GIPSY LADDIE' (8 th S. v. 49). Child's 
' English and Scottish Popular Ballads ' (part vii. 
pp. 61 foil.) contains eleven versions of this ballad, 
the first being reproduced from Allan Ramsay's 
'Tea-table Miscellany.' This first version, with two 
added stanzas and a few verbal variations, may be 
read in the second volume of Finlay's 'Scottish 
Historical and Romantic Ballads,' as well as in the 
cheap collection of ' Ballads Scottish and English,' 
published by William P. Nimrno, Edinburgh, 
in which last it is entitled 'Johnie Faa.' MR. 
HOOFER will find some additional information on 
this ballad in the ' Diet, of National Biography,' 

* It stood near the present railway station. 

. V. FEB. 24, '94.] 



vol. xxx., art. "Kennedy, John, sixth Earl o 
Casfiilis." F. ADAMS. 

105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.B. 

The old ballad about which MR. HOOPER in 
quires is entitled 'The Rare Ballad of Johnnie 
Faa and the Countess o' Cassilis/ in " The Min 
strelsy of the English Border, &c., with Illustrativi 
Notes by Frederick Sheldon. London : Longman 
Brown, Green & Longmans, 1847." "Frederick 
Sheldon " is the pen name under which William 
Thompson, a strolling player, compiled the book 
above named, a ' History of Berwick/ and a volume 
of verse entitled ' Mieldenvold, the Student,' Ber 
wick, 1843. In his introduction to the ballac 
Sheldon states, "I have heard this ballad suiij, 
repeatedly by Willie Faa, and have endeavoured 
to preserve as much of his version as recollection 
would allow me." RICHARD WELFORD. 

The ballad of ' Johnnie Faa/ prefaced by an in 
teresting discussion as to the authenticity of the 
legend, will be found in Maidment's 'Scottish 
Ballads and Songs' (Edinburgh, 1868), vol. ii. 
p. 185. The story on which the ballad is founded 
is given, with much detail and circumstance, in 
the ' New Statistical Account of Scotland,' vol. v. 


Port Augustus, N.B. 

BISHOP OF CHESTER (8 th S. v. 48). He was no 
doubt a Yorkshireman. I have no note of the 
date or place of his birth, but his elder brother 
was of Hedingley Hall, near Leeds. They were 
great-grandsons of Thomas Cotes, a younger son, 
who settled in Yorkshire, of John Cotes, of Cotes, 
co. Staff, and Woodcote, co. Salop, Sheriff of 
Staffordshire, 35 Hen. VI. (see 'Visitation of 
Shropshire,' Harl. Soc. Pub.). Cotes was con- 
secrated Bishop of West Chester at St. Mary 
series, South wark, April 1, 1554, and preached 
at St. Paul's Cross, Dec. 16 in the same year (see 
Macbyn's ' Diary,' Cam. Soc. Pub.). He held his 
bishopric less than two years, dying in December, 


As Cotes, or Cootes, was a probational fellow of 
Balliol in 1522, there may be a search in the 
earlier registers of that college. 


A NORFOLK EXPRESSION (8 th S. iv. 326). 
There is a somewhat similar expression in South- 
East Worcestershire: " Atternone- folks, people 
who are in the habit of beginning work late in the 
day (J. Salisbury's 'Glossary of Words and 
Phrases used in South-East Worcestershire/ 1893). 

The term "afternoon farmer" is by no means 
specially belonging to Norfolk. It is the usual 
name in the West Country for one of that large 

class who never do to-day what can be put off till 
to-morrow. See ' West Somerset Word Book,' 
p. 13. F. T. ELWORTHY. 

In West Middlesex the expression " an afternoon 
farmer " is frequently used in talking of a farmer 
who is behind hand in his work ; and has been 
current at least for forty years. When a field is 
easy to cultivate, and the farmer knows well all its 
peculiarities, it is often said that he could "lie 
a-bed and farm it." W. P. M. 


YORKSHIRE PORTRAITS (8 ih S. v. 87). John 
Russell Smith's bookshop in Soho Square, with 
the back room full of portrait prints, where I have 
had many a good time, is, alas ! no more. John 
Russell Smith, whose sight was failing him, retired 
from business some time ago. I heard last year 
that he was still alive. The EDITOR (your corre- 
spondent) would do well to apply for what he wants 
to Rimell, Oxford Street. W. F. WALLER. 

" JUT " (8 S. v. 47). Jut is the same word as 
jutty, a projecting part of a building (cf. 'Mac- 
beth/ I. vi. 6). The only place where I have pre- 
viously seen the word is in Chambaud's ' Diction- 
ary/ EngL-Fr. section: "Jut (prominence), 
Saillie, avance." F. ADAMS. 

LAWSON (8 th S. iv. 528). The Sir Wilfred 
Lawson who is mentioned in the Fulham registers 
as having been buried in 1739 was not " an an- 
cestor of his well-known namesake " of the present 
day, although the present Sir Wilfrid possesses 
the estates which 170 years ago were owned by 
the Sir Wilfrid about whom MR. FERET makes 
inquiry. In 1685, James II. created one Wilfrid 
Lawson a baronet. His descendant, Sir Wilfrid 
Lawson, the third baronet, was M.P. for Cocker- 
mouth for a number of years prior to his death in 
1737. He was one of the Grooms of the Bed- 
chamber to George I., and Chancellor Ferguson, 
in his invaluable ' Cumberland and Westmoreland 
M.P.s/ says he was "an important man" in the 
House of Commons. This Sir Wilfrid married 
Elizabeth Lucy, daughter of the Hon. Henry 
Mordaunt, a brother of the second Earl of Peter- 
borough. His eldest son, Wilfrid, the fourth 
Daronet, died in infancy, and probably he is the 
one referred to in the Fulham burial registers. 
Jpon his death the title and estates passed to his 
Brother, Sir Mordaunt Lawson, who also died in 
his minority. He is, no doubt, the Sir Mordaunt 
mentioned in the Fulham registers of 1742. The 
itle then passed to a cousin, and at last expired 
n 1806, when Sir Wilfrid, the tenth baronet, 
died without issue. By his will he left his estates 
o Thomas Wybergh, of Clifton Hall, Westmore- 
and, who was a nephew of his wife, one of the 
Hartleys of Whitehaven. Thomas Wybergh as- 
umed the name of Lawson, and died in 1812. 



He was then succeeded by his brother, Wilfrid 
Wybergh, who also assumed the name of Lawson, 
and was created a baronet in 1831. He married a 
sister of the famous statesman Sir James Graham, 
and it is his son who is now the well-known M.P. 
and advocate of teetotalism. If MR. F&RET wants 
further information on the subject, I shall be glad 
to send it him if he will forward me an address. 

14, Currock Terrace, Carlisle. 

Sir Wilfrid Lawson, third baronet, Groom of 
the Bedchamber to George I. and M.P. for 
Cockermouth, ob. July 13, 1737, leaving issue by 
his wife, Elizabeth Lucy, daughter of Hon. Henry 
Mordaunt, brother of the Earl of Peterborough, 
two sons and two daughters, all in minority. Wil- 
frid, the elder of the former, succeeded, and died 
at Kensington, May 2, 1739, " of a mortification 
of the bowels," aged about seven years. His brother 
and successor, Sir Mordannt Lawson, likewise 
died under age, Aug. 8, 1743, when the title passed 
to a cousin. Although the present Sir Wilfrid 
owns the ancient estates of the Lawsons, Isell and 
Erayton, co. Cumberland, he is not descended 
from that family. His uncle, Thomas Wybergh, 
of a Westmoreland house, inherited these lands 
under the will of the last baronet of the old crea- 
tionto whose wife he was nephew and in 1806 
assumed the name and arms of Lawson ; his 
brother, Wilfrid Wybergb, succeeded in 1813, 
with like assumptions, and in 1831 received a 
new patent of baronetcy. He was father of the 
present baronet, the second of the second creation. 
I conclude that the burial of the boy baronets at 
Fulham may be attributed to their maternal 
relatives, and suppose that it was in the Peter- 
borough vault that they found a last resting-place. 
MR. F&RET should look out for their mother anc 
Bisters. I think the father was " carried away." 


Eden Bridge. 

Sir Wilfrid Lawson, fourth baronet, of Isell 
Cumberland, died at Kensington, in Middlesex, 
May, 1737, aged about seven years, and was sue 
ceeded in the title and estates by his brother 
Sir Mordannt Lawson, fifth baronet, who alsc 
died a minor, August, 1743. Sir Wilfrid Law 
son, tenth baronet, having no issue, the baronetcy 
expired at bis decease in 1806. By his will th 
Lawson estates passed to Thomas Wybergb, 
nephew of his wife. The name and arms of Law 
son were assumed, and his brother Wilfrid wa 
created baronet, Sept. 15, 1831. Sir Wilfric 
Lawson is the representitive of the family. 


CAPT. KITTOB, R.N. (8 th S. v. 49). Ed war 
Kittoe, born at Deal, co. Kent, entered the nar 
in December, 1780, as a midshipman on boar 
the Bellona, 74, Capt (afterwards Sir Bichard 

nslow, and served in the Royal George, 110, 
nder Sir Alexander Hood, until his promotion to 
16 rank of lieutenant and appointment to the 
aturn, 74, which took place Feb. 26, 1794. 
He was advanced to post rank by a commission 
earing date Jan. 4, 1810. Capt. Kittoe's last 
ppointment was, Dec. 20, 1814, to the Astrsea, 
2, which frigate he commanded on the coast of 
^rance, until the final termination of hostilities in 

A record of his services appears in Lieut. John 
Marshall's ' Royal Naval Biography,' Supplement, 
)t. ii. (1828), p. 63. 

He died Feb. 16, 1823, in his fiftv-fifth year, 
,nd was buried at Shoulden (Sholden), co. Kent. 
His widow, Elizabeth Kittoe, died at the rectory, 
Chadwell St. Mary, Essex, on March 9, I860, 
aged sixty-two, and lies interred in the churchyard 
f that parish. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. 

COPENHAGEN, THE HORSE (8 th S. iv. 447, 489 ; 
v. 53). Its skin was stuffed and kept for some 
ime in the Tower. It was there certainly in 1851. 
'erhaps some one could state where it is now. 
H. T. SCOTT, M.D. 

HUGHES AND PARRY (8 th S. iv. 526). Hughes 
was hardly, if at all, developed until about 1550, 
when the ap (shortened form of ma& = son) had 
became almost disused. Indeed, the Christian 
name Hugh is hardly met with, even in quarters 
where one might expect an early assumption of the 
name. Hugh de Montgomery might, one would 
suppose, have given his name to some of the Tudor 
Trevor tribe in the eleventh century, for the Red 
Earl must have loomed large in Welsh eyes before 
Earl Magnus killed him ; yet Hugh hardly, if 
ever, appears before the middle of the sixteenth 
century. Then at least six Hughes families arise 
about the same time, one of the tribe of Caradoc 
Fraichfras, another of the tribe of Elystan, another 
of Cowryd ap Cadfan, another of Owain Brogyn- 
tain, a couple of the tribe of Tudor Trefor, and 
still a seventh of Elystan. Hugh ap William, the 
one who gave the name of Hughes to the Gwerclas 
family, died 1600. Rhys Hughes, the first of 
Maesypandy, was sheriff 1582. 

The Parrys for the most part arose about the 
same time, as the Parrys of Tywyssog, about 1620; 
the Parrys of Porth Halawg. John ap Harri, 
father of Bishop Richard Parry, who died 1623, 
was the first. Parrys arose at the same time from 
the tribes of Gwyddno, Ednowain Bendew, and 
Rhirid Flaidd. 

One family seems to have fixed the name much 
earlier, but they lived in Herefordshire, and were 
earlier affected by English custom. John ap 
Harri, the one who gave the name to the Parrys of 
Poston, was sheriff in 1399. 

The very name of Harri, or Henry, as an isolated 




name, occurs very rarely before Henry IV.'s 
time. It is more frequent in Henry VI. 'a time ; 
as, for instance, the great Sir Rhys ap Thomas, 
who did BO much to put Henry VI. on the throne, 
had a brother Harri, and his father had a first 
cousin Harri ; so his own wife was the daughter of 
a Henry, and this Henry bad an uncle Henry and 
a great-uncle Harri ; so the name was evidently 
coming into fashion. I can hardly recall more 
than three earlier Henrys. One, a son of Cadwgan 
ap Bleddyn by a Norman mother, is mentioned 
in 1107; and another Henry, or Henwn ap 
Idnesth, had a brother, who died 1141. An Ennri 
is mentioned as witnessing a Valle Crucis charter. 
Indeed, two or three of that name are in charters 
of about 1250, but it may be a latinized form of 
Ynyr, or more probably of Oynwrig. 

As general conclusion, Parrys rose all at the 
same time in a dozen different places, all starting 
from some Harri. One family started with a 
definite surname from a Henry, and called itself 
the Penrys. Second conclusion, that Henry, 
except in isolated cases, probably came in from the 
popularity of Henry VI., and after of Henry Tudor. 

In some cases, perhaps, intercourse with the 
English in sharing their wars in France made 
Henry a family name, as the first Henry of the 
Dwn family was in Owain Glyndwr's burning of 
Caermarthen as early aa 1403. T. W. 

Aston Clinton. 

How mixed people do get about names to be sure ! 
Pngh is ap Hugh. The remainder of the query 
seems scarcely to merit an answer. 

Eden Bridge. 

U PARK" AND "PADDOCK" (8 th S. iv. 525). 
" Park " is a common term in parts of Wales to 
denote grazing land in a waste or mountain. 

H. O. 

In Somerset, " paddock " (pronounced parrok) is 
a term one frequently hears applied to a field. 

MR. WARD (8 S. v. 67). The Mr. Ward who 
attacked Montagu's ' New Gag for an Old Goose/ 
waa Samuel Ward, a Puritan lecturer of Ipswich. 
There is an account of him in Brooks's ' Lives of 
the Puritans, 1 ii. 452, and in David's ' Annals of 
Evangelical Nonconformity in Essex,' p. 137, 
where is a reference to Ward's * Sermons,' ed. 
Nichols, 1862. A pretty full account of him can 
be gathered from S. R. Gardiner's ' History of 
England.' In the matter of Montagu's book, which 
is treated of in vol. v. p. 353, Mr. Gardiner merely 
writes : " Two clergymen, Yates and Ward," and 
by mischance the reference to this passage is not 
inserted in the index under " Ward, Samuel, of 
Ipswich." But two other references are given to 
the same person ; the earlier, iy. 118, to the im- 

prisonment of " Dr. Ward of Ispwich," for a picture 
which the Spanish Ambassador Gondomar found 
to be insulting to his master, in the year 1621 ; 
the later reference, viii. 118-9, gives a full ac- 
count of Laud's " treatment of Samuel Ward, of 
Ispwich," in the year 1634, when he was sent to 
prison. 0. W. TANCOCK. 

Little Waltham. 

This was Samuel Ward, B.D., who was born at 
Haverhill, co. Suffolk, and educated at Sidney 
College, Cambridge, afterwards Fellow. He was per- 
secuted for Puritanism (1634) ; retired to Holland, 
and died there in 1640. 

References to him will be found in Heylin'a 

\Ji VT 1 1 1 ici_Ukjj L/VC J.j t/t/y CUUVL |/v s*i| 

see Allibone, and ' N. & Q.,' 4* S. i. 1. 

The Samuel Ward, B.D., must not be con- 
founded with Samuel Ward, D.D., who was Vice- 
Chancellor of Cambridge in 1620, and had been 
chaplain to Bishop Mountague. 


Alderley Edge. 

FAIRS IN TOWN OR COUNTRY (8 th S. iv. 469\ 
The marginal note upon the Act, in Cbitty'a 
' Select Statutes ' (ed. 1880), says : 

" Many fairs more than one hundred in the years 
1871 and 1872 alone have been abolished under the 
provisions of this Act. See, for instance, order for 
abolition of fair at Burnham, Bucks, in the Qazettt for 
June 26, 1876; and see generally the index to the 
Gazettes, tits. ' Fairs/ and ' Fairs Acts/ 1871 and 1875." 


MASLIN PANS (6 tb S. vi. 158; x. 289; xii.471; 
7 th S. iii. 385, 485; iy. 57, 310, 451; xi. 83; 8 to 
S. iv. 144, 296, 355, 532). I was hoping that 
W. G. N. would have communicated with me 
direct. The pedigree of the Hallen family is 
scarcely a matter of general interest. I am 
anxious to pick up any crumbs of information that 
lie about to add to my stock, most of which is 
printed in ' An Account of the Family of Hallen ' 
(Edinburgh, 1885). W. G. N. evidently has not 
seen this book ; and the particulars he has col- 
lected, as printed by him, afford a rather scrappy 
account. Cornelius Hallen who died at Old 
Swinford in 1682 (will at Worcester) was my direct 
ancestor, and was son of Cornelius van Halen, of 
Malines, who came to England in 1610. Though 
he settled at Old Swinford before 1654, he 
was, as early as 1647, of Madeley pariah. The 
name was by parish clerks as often written 
Holland as Hallen, for it was pronounced Hollan. 
There was an English family of Holland who 
had property at Madeley Wood. Only a care- 
ful examination of the wills of the two families, 
preserved at Hereford, shows the true pedigree of 



. V. FEB. 24, '94. 

the Hallens, who always signed themselves Hallen. 
William Hallen, eldest son of Cornelius, was of 
Old Swinford, and the George Hallen of the Ton- 
tine Hotel was his great-great-grandson. William's 
second son Cornelias (born 1673), was my great- 
great-grandfather. He was of Madeley. His grand- 
daughter, Elizabeth Hallen, married George Cot- 
tarn, who was partner with Samuel Hallen, 
Elizabeth's brother. Samuel's widow, with whom 
I was in correspondence, and from whom I obtained 
much information, died in 1887, aged eighty-six, 
without issue. The parish register shows that the 
Hallens occupied the "Lower "and the "Higher 
furnace" as early as 1709. W. G. N. is quite 
correct in stating that they were ironworkers ; but 
the state of metal-working in the seventeeth cen- 
tury makes it probable that workers in iron were 
also workers in brass. Our family traditions are 
clear on the point that they made brass maslin 
pans. Certain it is that Cornelius Hallen, first of 
Coalbrookdale, came out of the forge at Wands- 
worth, which Aubrey distinctly states was for 
brass utensils, and was carried on by Dutchmen. 
W. G. N. will oblige me very much if he can tell 
me the maiden name of Constance, the first wife of 
Cornelius Hallen. She died at Old Swinford in 
1654. His second wife, Jane Rushmore (?), died 
at Old Swinford 1704. 


HORSES (8 th S. v. 89). I would refer MR. 
GORDON to * The Horse/ by William Youatt, and 
' Horses and Stables/ by Col. (now Sir Frederick) 
Fitzwygram ; also, perhaps', * Remarks on the Con- 
dition of Hunters,' by Nimrod, all well indexed ; 
and though no doubt nothing new, still are 
standard works. HAROLD MALET, Colonel. 

There is a work by Geo. Stubbs, the animal 
painter (1724-1806), which may meet your corre- 
spondent's requirements, " On the Anatomy of the 
Horse, in eighteen tables." I believe Stubbs's 
knowledge of animal anatomy has never been 
questioned ; indeed, it has been said he knew more 
of the inside of a horse than the outside ; but this 
may be more smart than true. There were two 
pictures by him in a recent exhibition, very 
pleasing examples. Fuseli speaks of his skill in 
comparative anatomy. G. T. SHERBORN. 


MR. GORDON should find 'The Points of the 
Horse,' by Capt. Horace Hayes, of service to him. 
The book was published last year by Messrs. 
Thacker & Co. JOHN RANDALL. 

PARISH COFFINS (8 th S. v. 107). An interest- 
ing note on this subject may be found in Pea- 
cock's ' English Church Furniture at the Period o^ 
the Reformation ' (pp. 176, 177), where it is 
stated, on the authority of the Athenaeum, that 

there are three very ancient coffins at Simancas 
said to be almost as old as the church, and to 
have borne to their last resting-place upwards of 
ten generations. A curious illustration of one of 
these coffins can be seen in Knight's ' Old England' 
(vol. i. fig. 510), taken from the Harleian MSS., 
Brit. Mus. W. H. BURNS. 

Dacre Vicarage. 

446). Martyn, in his ' Georgicks of Virgil ' (note 
to iv. 232), says that Addison has also " confounded 
the Pleiads with the Great Bear or Waggon": 

" In his letter from Italy [Addison] represents them 
as a northern constellation : 

We envy not the warmer clime, that lies 
In ten degrees of more indulgent skies, 
Nor at the coarseness of our heaven repine, 
Tho' o'er our heads the frozen Pleiads shine. 
But the Pleiades do not shine over our heads, but over 
those of the Egyptians and Indians. I believe the 
Pleiades being called the seven stars, occasioned this 
ingenious author to mistake them for the seven stars 
called Charles's wain, which do indeed shine over our 
heads, and may be called frozen, being so near the 

W. F. 

"HARG" (8 th S. v. 109). Is it not hcer followed 
by the contraction sign for es, which is sufficiently 
like g to be mistaken for it ? Hares is used of 
both sexes. F. ADAMS. 

Obviously this is a misrendering of hceres, 
heiress, as will be evident to MR, A. COLLINS if 
he writes hceres with a long-tailed 8. 


ST. OSWTTH (8 th S. v. 49, 78). It would have 
been more satisfactory if MR. G. A. BROWNE had 
mentioned the book which stated that Sir William 
Sawtri was Rector of St. Oswyth. Fox, in his 
'Acts and Monuments' (1632 edition), p. 671, 
speaks of him as " Sir William Chatris, otherwise 
called Sautre, parish priest of the church Saint 
Scithe the Virgin in London." Also at p. 673, 
says " he was parish priest of the church of St. 
Margaret in the towne of Linne in 1399." Holins- 
hed (1587), vol. ii. p. 519, calls him, "one 
William Hawtree, or Sawtree, a priest." Stow, 
in his * Survey of London' (1618), p. 47, gives 
the following : 

"Cheape Ward, short lane called in Records, Pene 
ritch Streete, it reacheth but to Saint Sythes lane, and 
S. Sythes Church, &c. This small parish church of St. 
Sith hath also an addition of Bennetshorne (or Shrog, or 
Shorehog) for by all these names have I read it, but the 
ancienteet is Shorne. Wherefore it seemeth to take that 
name of one Benedict Shorne sometime a Citizen and 
Stock efishmonger of London." 


In my reply to MR. G. A. BROWNE I said that 
the church of St. Osyth was mentioned by Fabyan 
under the name of St. Bennet Shorehog. What I 
ought to have said is that he names " Seynt Benet 

8* 8. V. FEB. 24, '94.] 



Shorhogge w among the churches of Cheap Ward ; 
for, as I have since discovered, he locates " Seynt 
Syth in Boclerysbury " in Walbrook Ward. Here 
Fabyan and Stow disagree, the latter assigning St. 
Sith to Cheap Ward and affirming its identity 
with St. Benet Shorehog. Stow's authority is, of 
course, not to be disputed. F. ADAMS. 

105, Albany Koad, Camberwell, S.E. 

This is a misprint for St. Osytb, for whom see 
Smith's * Christian Antiquities' and the * History 
of Essex. 1 MR. BROWNE has not read Stow with 
care. He will find "Saint Sythes lane and S. 
Sythes Church," near Bucklesbury, in the account 
of " Cheape Warde." 


BATHING MACHINES (8 th S. iv. 346, 415 ; v. 
93). It may be of interest to note that on the 
Baltic, where the tide only varies a few inches, 
they have dressing-rooms of wood standing on a 
platform support *d by posts at a convenient dis- 
tance from the shore, and reached by a long bridge, 
also on posts, the whole arrangement reminding 
one of the crannoges or lake-dwellings. Some- 
times, as at Eckernforde, near Schleswig, the 
platform encloses a large quadrangular space, open 
to the sea between the supporting posts and under 
the platform. The rooms open on to a planked 
way all round, from which bathers can either 
plunge into five or six feet of crystal-clear water, 
or descend by steps. When I was there, on a fine 
sunshiny day, the bottom was clearly visible, and 
one mi^ht see the jelly-fish floating about, and 
little fishes nibbing at the green weeds which grew 
on the posts. There are bathing-places of the 
same kind near Copenhagen, e.g. at Klampenborg, 
also at Roskilde, and no doubt in many places 
where the depth of the water and the tidal con- 
ditions are such as to suit an arrangement of this 
kind. J T F 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

DORSET FAMILY NAMES (8 tb S. v. 108). DR. 
SMTTHE PALMER has drawn attention to an ab- 
surdity in the novel he names. Whether the 
surname " Durbeyfield " exists in Dorset now or 
not, the surname " D'Urberville " was never heard 
of there or anywhere else, and is the novelist's 

nvention. " Turbervile " (never with a De) was 
e real old name, so far back as the thirteenth cen- 
tury. The antiquarian parson of the novel, who 
is made to salute the heroine's father as "Sir John" 
Durbeyfield, is easily recognized by Dorset men. 

low he would have smiled at the ancient (and 
impossible) inscription in a Dorset church, cited 
m the novel, Ostium sepulchri antique familise 
1) Urbemlle," an unheard-of specimen of mediaeval 
Latmity. j. B 

LONDON BRIDGE (8* S. v. 68).- Mr. Jonathan 
Lrocker was chairman and Mr. Richard Lambert 

Jones sub-chairman of the New London Bridge 
Committee when the first stone was laid by the 
Right Hon. John Garratt, Lord Mayor, on June 15, 
1825, and chairman when it was opened by King 
William IV. on Aug. 1, 1831. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"GAT DECEIVER" (8 th S. v. 88). Curiously 
this expression does not occur in Roget's 'The- 
saurus of English Words and Phrases.' Under the 
heading of " Libertine," we read : 

" Voluptuary, rake, debauchee, loose fish, rip, rake- 
hell, fast man, intrigant, gallant, seducer, fornicator, 
lecher, satyr, goat, whoremonger, paillard, adulterer, gay 
Lothario, Don Juan, Bluebeard, chartered libertine." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

These two words occur together in ' Unfortunate 
Miss Bailey.' But the connexion of " gay," in its 
sense of addicted to vicious courses, with "de- 
ceiver," in its sense of seducer, is so natural as to 
have had many independent origins. 


A Captain bold in Halifax, who dwelt in country 

Deceived a maid, who hanged herself one morning in her 

garters : 
Hia wicked conscience smited him, he lost hia stomach 

Then took to drinking ratafia, and thought upon Miss 

One night he went to bed betimes, for he had caught a 

fever ; 
Says he, 1 am a handsome man, but I 'm a gay deceiver. 

I think this origin will be definite enough. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

In the old song " A Captain bold in Halifax," it 
is recorded of him that : 

One night betimes he went to bed, 

For he had got a fever ; 
Said he, I am a handsome man, 
But I 'm a gay deceiver. 

The song must be more than a century old, for the 
refrain, " Oh ! Miss Bayley, unfortunate Miss 
Bay ley," was applied by an unkind critic to Joanna 

BURIED IN FETTERS (8 th S. iv. 505; v. 56). 
The enclosed cutting from the Times of Jan. 30 
may be of interest to some of your readers : 

" The workmen employed in excavation operations at 
Tower Hill, Upnor, near Chatham, in connexion with 
the construction of a new military railway, have been 
recently turning up a number of skeletons. An exten- 
sive discovery of human remains waa made yesterday 
morning. The coffins in which the corpses were ori- 
ginally enclosed were evidently of a very rude descrip- 
tion, and in some instances two or more persons were 
buried in the same shell. The manacles and shackles 
attached to some of the bonea show that the remains are 
those of prisoners of war or convicts. Both classes were 



V. FEB. 24, '94. 

confined on board old hulks of ships, lying in the Mod- 
way, which ia close by, a long time ag >. The shackles 
were intended to be permanently fixed to the prisoners' 
legs, for they were apparently riveted on, and when the 
men died the officials did not take the trouble in many 
cases to remove the irons before they were buried. In one 
instance, indeed, the manacle had been removed, but it 
was accomplished by sawing the man's leg in two instead 
of filing through the iron. The theory most generally 
accepted is that the remains are those of convicts who 
died in an epidemic of cholera. Upnor ia described and 
reference made to the convicts, who inhabited the 
' prison ships,' in the opening chapters of Dickens's 
' Great Expectations.' " 

F. W. G. 

STOUT = HEALTHY (8 th S. v. 66). The use of 
stout as an equivalent for " robust " is common in 
England as well as in Scotland. I frequently hear 
in this neighbourhood, and have heard in various 
places, the hope expressed that a person who has 
been ill is " getting stout again," meaning " well" 
or " strong." I have always understood that 
"corpulent" is quite a secondary meaning. Is it 
not so ? 0. 0. B. 

Ep worth. 

Three friends to whom I showed the note at this 
reference, who come respectively from Northum- 
berland, Northamptonshire, and Hampshire, as- 
sure me that they have heard the word stout used 
in the sense of healthy, and applied to persons. 
Of course, applied to trees and things it is not an 
unusual expression to denote strength. 


* MILITARY REMINISCENCES ' (8 th S. iv. 527). 
I am afraid it will not help COL. MA LET to know 
that my second volume of Welsh's narrative has 
also disappeared. The India Office Library might 
have it. R. B. S7 

" To SWILCH " (8 th S. v. 48). Our East Anglian 
term, used in the sense mentioned by MR. CLARKE, 
would be swidge, applied also to shallow water, 
and is derived from A.-S. swilgan, to swallow ; 
Norse swiga, to drink in ; Gael, suigh, to drain, 
suck in ; Dutch zuigen, to suck (' East Anglian 
Glossary'). W. B. GERISH. 

I have heard the word used, and I have met 
with it in print, but I have no reference at hand. 
It belongs to the large class of onomatopoeias. 
There is an A.-S. verb swlian, to wash. 


FRENCH LYRICS (8 th S. v. 49). " Po&tes 
Francois Conteraporains. Par Mmes. **. Franc- 
fort s. M., chez Sigismond Schmerber, Editeur. 
1832." A quarto volume of 554 pages. 


' La Lyre Franchise, 1 by Gustave Masson (Mac- 
millan, 1887), is a well-edited collection, coming 
down to 1864. . H. J. D. 

Highgate, N. 

Buss (8" 1 S. v. 126).- There is a full account 
of this word, illustrated by eighteen quotations 
from 1330 to 1867, in the ( New English Dic- 
tionary.' J. T. F. 

Bp. llatficld's Hall, Durham. 

PIQOT : BURGOYNE (8 th S. v. 67). Oonstantia 
Maria, daughter of Sir Roger Burgoyne, Bart., was 
born November 3, 1705, married to Capt. John 
Pigott January 22, 1729/30, and died July 26, 
1739, leaving two daughters (see Wotton's 

Baronetage,' vol. ii. p. 205). 


According to Collins and Wotton, Constantia 
Maria, only daughter of Sir Roger Burgoyne, was 
born Nov. 3, 1705, married Jan. 22, 1729/30, Oapt. 
John Pigott, and died July 26, 1739, leaving 
issue two daughters. 

Eden Bridge. 

CHRISTMAS PROVERB (8 th S. iv. 505). The 
couplet given by your correspondent differs some- 
what from the lines familiar to me : 
If Christmas day on a Monday fall, 
A troublous winter we shall have all. 

There is also in Swainson's * Weather Folk- 
Lore,' 1873, p. 163, a verse given in an early poem 
beginning : 

Yf Crystemas day on Monday be, 

A grete wynter that year have shall ye. 


THE RAINBOW (8 th S. iv. 409, 516). "Et tradunt 
sancti quod per quadraginta annos ante judicium 
non videbitur arcus." This statement of Higden 
has been taken by him, as he himself admits, from 
Petrus [Comestor] (' Polychronicon Ranulphi Hig- 
den,' ed. by Babington, vol. ii. p. 238). It is to 
be found in the ' Historia Scholastica,' chap. xxxv. 
(Migne, 198, 1086). Petrus Comestor died 1179, 
and not 1198, as MR. MARSHALL ('N. & Q.,' 8 th 
S. iv. 516) says. The * Hist. Scbol.' was written 
between the years 1169 and 1175 (Ten Brink, 
1 Early English Literature/ p. 197). 

Searching in that storehouse, so rich in informa- 
tion concerning all questions related to mediaeval 
lore, Grimm's ' Teutonic Mythology,' I find (vol. ii. 
p, 734) the following two quotations : 

" Ouch hort ich sagen, daz man sin [the regenpogen] 
nicht ensehe drizich jar vor deme suontage." Diut, 
iii. 61. 

" 86 man den regenbogen siht, so enzaget diu werlt 
niht dan darnach iiber vierzec jar." Hugo von Trim- 
berg, Kenner,' 19,837. 

As Hugo von Trimberg's authority is very 
likely Petrus Comestor, whom he mentions in his 
' Registrum Multorum Auctorum '(ed. by Huemer, 
Wiener Sitzungsber, 116, 145-190), we need not 
devote any more time to him. 

Far more interesting is the first quotation by 

8" 8. V. FKB. 24, '940 



Grimm. It is taken from, the so-called Wiener 
Genesis. This monument of the Middle High 
German language was written about 1070 (Paul's 
Grundriss,' yoL ii. chap. i. p. 248). It has called 
forth several valuable treatises. Tvro of them, the 
most important ones, viz., Soberer, ' Zu Genesis 
and Exodus,' 1874, and Vogt, * Ueber Genesis und 
Exodus ' (in Paul and Braune, * Beitrage/ vol. ii. 
pp. 208-317), are at my disposal. But though 
both Soberer and Vogt carefully investigated the 
sources of the poem, neither has been able to trace 
back the history of the passage in question. Nor 
have I been more fortunate. Perhaps some reader 
of * N. & Q.' will be more successful if he can 
spend the time to look up all the references given 
by Migne, 219, 101 "Index Generalis Com- 
mentariorum in Scripturas," and 220, 295 " De 
Circumstantiis Judicium Prsecedentibus." 

One might expect to find a parallel passage to 
the statement of Petrus Comestor among the 
" Qnindecim Signa ante Judicium." Nolle (Paul 
and Braune, ( Beitrage,' vol. vL pp. 413-76) has 
pointed out fifty-one versions of the ' Signa,' forty- 
five of which he has been able to distribute into 
five types. Only one of them, the fifth, repre- 
sented by the Anglo-Norman poem, 
Oiez, seignor, communement, 
Dunt nostre eeignor nus reprent ! 

(in Grass, 'Das Adamsspiel,' 1891) mentions the 
rainbow. What we read in this poem about the 
rainbow has no relation at all to the dictum ol 
Petrus Comestor. As the poem, moreover, is cer- 
tainly younger than the ' Hiatoria Scholastica, 1 it is 
not worth while to dwell on it at any length. 


Newberry Library, Chicago. 


Let wickoil handa iniquitously just 
Rake up the ashes of the sinful dust. 
This in from Praed'a fine (prize) poem < Athens ' (1824) 
and refers to Byron. The lines should run, 
Let feeble hands, iniquitously just, 
Kttke up the relict of the sinful dust. 

(8* S. v. 129.) 

But while abroad BO liberal the dolt is 
Poor spouse at home as ragged as a colt is. 

Prologue to ' The Disappointment.' 
For while abroad so prodigal the dolt is 
Poor spouse at home an ragged as a colt is. 

Epilogue to ' The Pilgrim.' 
Dryden has used the couplet twice. B. YAKDLBI. 

Tkt Great Pestilence (A.D. 1348-9), now commonly Tcnow 

at tkt Black Death. By Francis Aidan Gasquet, D.D, 

O.S.B. (Simpkin, Marshall & Co.) 
How very much there is yet to learn regarding our fore 
fathers ! The older books of history, from which nearl; 

11 of us bare derived such knowledge of the past as we 
osseis, though profuse in information of a certain kind, 
re well nigh silent with regard to many of the most 
mportant events which are bearing fruit for good or for 
vil up to the present hour. 

Who was it, we wonder, who first directed attention 
o the extreme importance of the Black Death in the 
listory of European development 1 We cannot answer 
he question, though we have a strong impression that 
he merit of its discovery belongs to Prof. Seebohm. 
The late Mr. Thorold Rogers, Dr. Creighton, and Dr. 
Tessopp have all done good work regarding the great 
pe-tiltnce. We believe that it was the elaborate re- 
earches of the last of these gentlemen which, by bringing 
statistics to bear, first stamped on the popular mind a 
rue conception of the awful tragedy of five hundred 
years ago. How very little our instructors realized 
vhat took place is proved by the fact that all our his- 
torians, without exception, devote but a few words to 
;he subject. It is no exaggeration to say that, while 
most of us who have received a liberal education could 
jive a fair description of the plague at Athens, not one 
in a hundred knows anything, beyond its mere name, of 
the Black Death. 

There is some excuse to be made for the historians of 
the past. They knew how vague the mediaeval chro- 
niclers were as to figures. They had encountered state- 
ments of improbable numbers killed in battle, and there- 
fore, no doubt, concluded that the contemporary writers 
who had witnessed the event they described had drawn, 
on their imagination for numerical results. This we 
imagine that in some cases they did ; but Dr. Gasquet's 
researches prove beyond a doubt that what have seemed 
exaggerations come terribly near the truth. 

A considerable part of the volume is devoted to the 
career of the pestilence on the Continent. It seems to 
have reached Europe from the Black Sea by trading 
vessels coming to Genoa. Where it originated we shall 
probably never know. It has been not unreasonably 
conjectured that it spread westward from Northern 
China. The ignorance of the laws of health and what) 
to use an ugly modern word, is called sanitation, no 
doubt account*, in some degree, for its fatal character ; 
but this goes hut a very little way towards explaining 
what happened. For we find that people who lived in 
solitary places villages and secluded monasteries fell 
victims as easily as the inhabitants of crowded cities. 
We do not think that any attempt has been made to 
estimate what was the proportion of the dead to the 
living in any continental land. Probably nothing is 
possible beyond vague surmise. The late Dr. Neale, in 
his ' Notes on Dalmatia,' says that before the Black 
Death there were at Parenzo, in Istria, three thousand 
people, and that when the scourge had gone there were 
but three hundred. This is most likely an exaggeration ; 
but it proves how very deeply the minds of tue survivors 
were impressed by the catastrophe. 

Dr. Gaequet has examined the episcopal registers of 
many of the English dioceses, numbers of Inqui-itiones 
post mortem, and manor rolls. From vhese sources 
much valuable knowledge has been gained ; but in the 
entire absence of anything answering to our pariah 
registers which were not established until nearly two 
hundred years after 1348 we shall never know what 
was the fate of the poor. The landed men, whose deaths 
may be gleaned from the Inquisitiones and manor rolls, 
were, we assume, better fed and better housed than the 
poor creatures who herded in the hovels of the towns. 
They would, therefore, have a better chance of escape. 
The clergy, on the other band, whose duty it was to give 
spiritual consolation to the sick, would be in greater 
danger than the nobles, squires, and yeomen, who could, 



CS^S.V. FEB. 24/94. 

in a great degree, isolate themselves until the destroying 
angel had passed by. 

In the latter part of the book the author shows how 
the lack of labourers which followed struck a death-blow 
to the old forms of land tenure, and prepared the way for 
the substitution of free labour in the place of the various 
kinds of servitude which had before existed. He also 
shows the injury which must have been inflicted on 
religion by the bishops being compelled to ordain men 
to the ministry who were but ill fitted to discharge 
priestly functions. 

A Glossary of the Words and Phrasee used in S.-E. 

Worcestershire. Together with some of the Sayings, 

Customs, Superstitions, Charms, &c., common in the 

District. By Jesse Salisbury. (Salisbury.) 
THIS work, though not issued by the English Dialect 
Society, is arranged on the now well-known lines made 
familiar by that useful body. Mr. Salisbury has done 
his work well, and some of the examples he gives are 
very amusing. We fear, however, that his spelling, 
though just what it should be, will form a puzzle to 
strangers not accustomed to dialect work. 

There were some places in England of which it seems 
that Perahore was one where, till some thirty years ago, 
persons hanging a bush over their door bad the privilege 
of selling beer and cider at fair times. At Pershore this 
right was limited to two days only, the 26th and 27th of 
June. Mr. Salisbury fails to tell us whether this privilege 
was granted by charter or was merely prescriptive. We 
think a list of the places where similar customs existed 
is buried in the pages of some forgotten Parliamentary 
Blue-book. ' If so, it would be well that the catalogue, 
which cannot be a long one, should be transferred to our 

Mr. Salisbury registers a saying which we, in our 
ignorance, have never before heard of. The words may be 
comparatively modern, but the idea carries us back to a 
remote pre-Christian time. The sentence runs, " Tick 
tack, never change back, touch cold iron. 1 ' It is, we 
are told, the " binding sentence upon the completion of 
an exchange or a swop by boys, at the same time touching 
a piece of cold iron with the finger." In far-off days 
iron was a sacred metal. Here we find it used to con- 
firm a promise a survival, no doubt, of the time when it 
was used to add solemnity to an oath. 

Mr. Salisbury tells us that there was among boys, and, 
he suggests, among their elders also, a " fond belief " 
that horsehairs, if permitted to remain in water, would 
turn into reptiles. We can assure him that the notion 
still flourishes among men and women. Southey, in one 
of his letters (vol. iv. p. 35), tells a wonderful story 
about it, and really seems to have given credit to the 
wonder. The error had no doubt been pointed out 
before. There is a useful refutation of it in the Zoologist 
for 1844 (vol. ii. p. 386). The creature seen, which is 
thought to be a horsehair come into separate life, is the 
Gordius aquaticus, or hair-worm. 

In Worcestershire it is, it seems, unlucky to kill a 
raven. We wish this belie f had continued to live in other 
places. These noble birda are rapidly becoming extinct 
in many of their old haunts. 

Essays about Men and Women and Books. By Augustine 

Birrell. (S.ock.) 

THE modicum of letterpress which lies within the liberal 
margins of this pretty volume is slighter in quantity than 
in its quality. Mr. Birrell's essays are always lively and 
readable, but these particular papers were cramped in 
their cradle and are too brief to be satisfying. We get 
mere snatches of good things, like hungry railway 
travellers, and are then hurried away to something else. 
How, e. g., could a subject like " Books Old and New " be 

dispatched in thirteen pages ? and such starveling pages 1 
However, taking what we can get of Mr. Birrell, we find 
him a charming companion, as such a sworn lover of 
books and all things bookish is bound to be. He gives 
us here a very acute and sensible criticism on that par 
nobile of clerical humourists Swift and Sterne, on Van- 
brugh and Dr. Johnson, Roger North and Gay. Even 
prim Misa Hannah More, with her prolix moralities, is 
not outside the range of his catholic sympathies. How 
sensible, too, is this dictum : " Of all odd crazes the 
craze to be for ever reading new books is one of the 

AT the annual meeting of the Ex-Libris Society, held 
at St. Martin's Hall, the Secretary announced the election 
of thirty-two new members, thus bringing up the total 
number to over 380, including leading officials in the 
heraldic colleges of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
The Treasurer reported that the funds were ample, there 
being a balance in hand of over sixty pounds. The 
officers elected for the year were Mr. Walter Hamilton 
(formerly hon. treasurer), chairman of council; Mr. 
G. J. Ellis as hon. treasurer; and Mr. W. H. K. Wright, 
of Plymouth, as secretary and general editor. The 
exhibition of ex-libris literature, engravings, and heraldic 
curiosities was of a varied and most interesting descrip- 
tion, and was visited by a number of collectors and art 

THE Worcestershire Historical Society is about to 
issue to members, as supplementary volumes during 1894 
and 1895, an elaborate index to Nash's ' History of Wor- 
cestershire.' It will be prepared in two forms one in 
folio, to range with Naeh, and one in imperial 8vo., to 
range with the ordinary publications of the Society ; or 
members can have both forms on an extra payment of 
10s. 6d. It will be supplied to members only, and all 
copies remaining after distribution will be destroyed. 
Applications for membership may be made to Mr. S. 
Southall, Guildhall, Worcester. 

MR. ELLIOT STOCK will publish immediately, uniform 
with "The Book-Lover's Library," 'First Editions of 
American Authors,' a manual for book-lovers, edited by 
H. Stuart Stone. 

Stoitos to C0ms0tttets 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the came and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. j 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

JOHN PICKFOED (" Codger "). See ' N. & Q. ,' 7 th S. ix. 
47, 97, 136, 170, 216 ; and N. E. D. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and , 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, ! 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and j 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 S. V. MAE. 3, '94.] 





NOTES The Army of the Commonwealth, 161 Danteiana, 
162 Sir Edward Massey, 164 The Tricolour The Record 
Thirteen Dinner, 165-' Esquire" " Benethe" Dome- 
Cross-legged Effigies, 166. 

QUERIES Quaker Dates Mary Hewitt's Poems Rer. 
Caleb C.' Cotton Armigil Wolfenbuttel Peacocks' 
Feathers Spicilegium Wat Tyler John Perceval, 167 
Benet Hall Great Burstead, Essex Rev. W. H. Gunner 
Author Wanted W. W. Lloyd " Epigram" Arms 
Wanted Crape-William Man Lord Lawrence Charles 
Dickens "Liberal," 168 Lord St. John Sir Simeon 
Steward Bulverhithe Walmestone, 169. 

REPLIES :" Arbre de Cracovie," 169 Institute, 170 
" Ozenbridges " Heraldic "Supply" Parish of High 
Ercall The Centrifugal Railway Breaking Glass, 171 
Henchman, 172 Anthony Francis Quality Court The 
Barum Missal Comet Queries, 173 Motto of the Duke of 
Marlborough St. Petersburg "Fine words butter no 
parsnips " Old London Street Tablets, 174 Bangor 
Books in Chains, 175 Sir John Moore,n76 St. Thomas of 
Canterbury Folk-tale Guelph Genealogies Fulham 
Bridge, 177 " Flaskysable " Creole-" Biding about of 
victoring," 1 78 Bartholomew Hewlett " Ferrateen " 
Sir William Mure, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Inwards's 'Weather Lore' Pen- 
treath's ' In a Cornish Township with Old Vogue Folk ' 
Robeon's ' Churches and Churchyards of Teviotdale ' 
Gibbons's ' Notes en the Visitation of Lincolnshire." 

Notices to Correspondents. 



(Continued from 8 th S. iv. 402.) 

The regiments of the New Model, whose history 
was traced in the preceding paper, formed the 
nucleus of the standing army of the Commonwealth 
and Protectorate. To these a number of other 
regiments were subsequently added, whose history 
it is attempted to trace in the present paper. Some 
of these regiments had originally been raised by 
local authorities, such as the Northern Association 
or the various county committees. Others had 
been levied by the Government at the time of the 
second civil war, or for the service of Scotland or 
Ireland. The best of these regiments were in- 
corporated in the standing army, which thus rose 
to double its original numbers. 

A list of the several regiments in England and 
Scotland was laid before Parliament a few days 
after the battle of Worcester ('Commons' Journals,' 
Oct. 2, 1661). Taking this list as a basis and 
comparing it with Sprigge's list of the New Mod*- 1 
the changes which had taken place in the com- 
position of the army become apparent. Instead 
of twelve regiments of foot and twelve of horse, 
there are thirty regiments of foot and eighteen of 

Comparing the list of 1646 with the list of 1651, 

it appears that ten out of the thirty foot regiments 
of 1651 represented regiments of the new model. 
Those regiments were the following : (1) Goffe, (2) 
Ashfield, (3) Waller, (5) Pride, (6) Constable, (7) 
Fenwick,(9)Cobbett, (9) Barkstead, (10) Ingoldsby, 
(12) Fitch. The numbers prefixed to the names of 
the colonels are simply employed to facilitate re- 
ference to the previous list, which gives a fuller 
account of the regiments referred to. 

Of the twenty new regiments of foot in the 1651 
list the following is a brief account : 

Lieut. -Gen. Cromwell's. Raised in Lancashire 
in 1650; became in May, 1659, Lieut.-Gen. Fleet- 
wood's ; passed to Thomas Fitch, Jan. 27, 1660, 
and to Thomas Sheffield, April 23, 1660. 

Major-General Lambert's. A Yorkshire regi- 
ment, originally raised by Col. John Bright ; passed 
to Lambert, July, 1650 ; to Charles Fleetwood, 
July, 1657 ; back to Lambert, May, 1659, to 
William Eyre, Jan. 20, 1660; to Thomas Birch, 

MBJor-General Deane's. A Yorkshire regiment, 
raised about 1648 by Col. John Maleverer ; given 
to Deane in Dec., 1650 (?) ; to Edward Salmon, 
1653 ; to Arthur Evelyn, Feb. 25, 1660 ; to the 
Earl of Cleveland, 1660. 

Col. Charles Fairfax. The regiment was raised 
in Yorkshire in 1648, and Fairfax retained com- 
mand of it till the general disbanding of 1660. 

Col. Sir Arthur Hesilrige. This regiment was 
employed in garrisoning the fortresses on the 
northern border ; given by the Protector to Charles 
Howard ; restored to Hesilrige, July, 1659 ; given 
by Monk, first to John Mayer, then to Lord 
Widdrington, Aug., 1660. 

Major-General George Monk. This regiment 
was raised in 1650, by taking five companies from 
Col. Fen wick's and five from Hesilrige's. See 
Mackinnon's ' History of the Coldstream Guards.' 

Col. Robert Overton. Given to William Mitchell 
in 1655, when Overton was cashiered, and restored 
to Overton in July, 1659. 

Col. William Daniel. Raised in 1650 ; given 
to John Peirson, July, 1659, and by Monk in 
Nov., 1659, to Yaxley Robson. 

Col. Thomas Cooper. Raised in 1650 ; passed 
to Roger Sawrey about 1658 ; and given by Monk 
to Major-General Thomas Morgan about Dec.. 

Col. Thomas Reade. Raised in 1650 by Edward 
Sexby ; passed to Reade, July, 1651, when Sexby 
was cashiered, and remained under Reade's com- 
mand till the general disbanding of 1660. 

Col. Matthew Alured. Raised in 1650 by 
George Gill ; given to Alured 1651, when Gill 
was cashiered ; Alured was succeeded by Thomas 
Talbot in 1654 ; and Monk gave the command to 
John Hubblethorn about Dec., 1659. 

Five regiments in the list of 1651 were ordered 
to be disbanded by vote of Oct. 2, 1651, viz., 



[8th g. v. MAR. 3, '94. 

those of Cols. Philip Jones, Syler, West, Gibbon, 
and Bennett. A new regiment of foot was raised 
under the command of Gibbon in 1656. 

Of the remaining foot regiments in the list of 
1651, four were ordered to be partially disbanded, 
viz., those of Col. James Heane (or Haynes), Col. 
Duckenfield, Col. Valentine W alton > and a half 
regiment of only four companies commanded by 
Robert Overton. 

The Horse. 

Out of the eighteen regiments of horse in the 
list of 1651, nine represent regiments of the New 
Model, viz., (1) Cromwell, (3) Harrison, (4) Fleet- 
wood, (5) Twisleton, (6) Desborough, (7) Rich, 
(8) Thomlinson, (9) Whalley, (12) Okey. 

Of the nine new regiments this is a brief account: 

Major-General Lambert's horse. Raised in the 
Northern Association about 1648, and originally 
commanded by Hugh Bethell ; passed to Lambert, 
1649 (?) ; Lambert lost his command in 1657, and 
Cromwell gave the regiment to Lord Fauconberg, 
Jan., 1658 ; restored to Lambert, May, 1659 ; 
given by Monk to Bethell again in Jan., 1660. 

Col. Thomas Saunders. Raised in Nottingham- 
shire and Derbyshire by Col. Francis Thornhaugh 
about 1643 ; given to Thomas Saunders 1648, on 
the death of Thornhaugh ; Saunders was deprived 
of his command in 1656, and the regiment, after 
being for a time commanded by Goffe, was given 
to Richard Cromwell, Jan., 1658 ; restored to 
Saunders in July, 1659 ; and given by Monk to 
Ralph Knight in Jan., 1660. 

Col. Robert Lilburae. Raised in the northern 
counties before 1650 ; remained under Lilburne's 
command till 1660, when Monk gave the command 
of it to its major, George Smithson. 

Col. James Berry. Originally Sir Arthur Hesil- 
rige's regiment ; given to Berry, 1651 ; remained 
under his command till Jan., 1660, when he was 
replaced by Unton Croke. 

Col. Francis Hacker. Raised before 1649 ; re- 
mained under Hacker's command till the spring of 
1660, when Monk appointed Lord Hawley in 
Hacker's place. 

Col. Grosvenor. This regiment appears in the 
list of the troops in Scotland in 1651, but I cannot 
trace its earlier or later history. 

Col. Blundell, Col. Alured, Col. Lydoott. These 
three regiments, raised for the Scotch war, were 
all disbanded in 1651. 

These lists are only given as approximately 
accurate. It is sometimes extremely difficult to 
get the exact date of a change in the command of 
a regiment, to find out precisely when it was raised. 
To complete these lists it would be necessary to 
supplement them by accounts of the regiments 
raised for the reconquest of Ireland, for the Jamaica 
expedition, and for the Flemish campaigns of 1657 
and 1658. The Irish and Jamaica regiments would 
require separate treatment. Of the Flanders regi- 

ments six appear in the Army List of 1659, viz., one 
regiment of horse (061. Lockhart's), and five of 
foot, commanded by Cols. Lockhart, Sir Bryce 
Cochrane, Roger Alsop, Henry Lillingston, and 
Samuel Clarke. 0. H. FIRTH. 


(See 8 th S. i. 4, 113 ; ii. 22.) 
* Inferno, 1 vii. 1 : 

Pape Satan, pape Satan, aleppe, 
Comirieio Pluto con la voce chioccia. 

The first of these two lines is the veritable bete 
noire of students and commentator?, not to men- 
tion less scrutinizing readers. What the poet 
means by pape and aleppe and where he got those 
odd-looking words are matters simply and per- 
plexingly conjectural. But conjecture is the life 
of discussion, as opposition is of trade, for, though 
it may bewilder, it stimulates research and pro- 
vokes interchange of opinion. A specimen or two 
will serve as illustrations and may prove helpful. 
Cary translates the lines : 

Ah me 1 O Satan ! Satan ! loud exclaim'd 
Plutus, in accent hoarse of wild alarm, 

and explains them thus : 

" Pape is said by the commentators to be the same as 
the Latin word papce t ' strange ! ' Of aleppe they do 
not give a more satisfactory account. See the ' Life of 
Benvenuto Cellini,' translated by Dr. Nugent, where he 
mentions 'having heard the words " Paix, paix, Satan ! 
allez, paix ! " in the courts of justice at Paris. I recol- 
lected what Dante said when he with his master Virgil 
entered the gates of hell : for Dante, and Giotto the 
painter, were together in France, and visited Paris with 
particular attention, where the court of justice may be 
considered as hell. Hence it is that Dante, who was 
likewise perfect master of the French, made use of that 
expression ; and I have often been surprised that it was 
never understood in that sense. 1 " 

Cary's English rendering of the * Divina Corn- 
media ' is unquestionably the best attempt hitherto 
nay, I would even endorse Macaulay's strong 
eulogium and say that " there is no other version 
in the world, so far as I know, so faithful there is 
no other version which so fully proves that the 
translator is himself a man of poetical genius"; but 
I maintain that he gives us an unsatisfactory trans- 
lation of the moot passage and as bad an explana- 
tion of it. Even Ford's presentment is preferable, 
for he hardly alters what he does not understand : 

Pape Satan, Pape Satan, Aleph ! 

'Gan Plutus with a gabbling voice to cry. 

Better leave a thing than mar it, sensible Preben- 
dary. Cellini's cocksureness, as witnessed above, 
is in grotesque contrast with Ford's self-insuffi- 
ciency. Let us arraign two compatriots of his and 
hear their verdict on his ex cathedra utterance. 
Lombardi refers to him and tries to cut the knot 
thus : 

" Papce con ce dittongo (perche io pure ho secondo il 
moderno uso accennato 1' e in pape) & interjezione am- 

8* S. V. MAR. 3, '94.] 



mirativa Greca o Latina equivalente al nostro capperi. 
Satan e voce Ebraica eignificante awersario, nemico, 
e perci6 applicabile qual nome appellative non solo a 
Lucifero, ma a Pluto, ed a tutti i deraoni. perocche tutti 
d' Iddio e dell' uman genere inimiei. Aleppe, 1' aleph 
prima lettera dell' Ebraico alfabeto (aggiustata alia 
Italiana, come aggiuatasi Joseph in Joseppe, e Giweppe) 
ha tra gli altri aignificati quello di capo, principe, &c. ; e 
pero easa voce pure bene appoggiasi a Plato, t-l per esser 
egli, come dio delle ricbezze, i] capo avveraario dell' 
umana felicita, el per la presidenza di queato infernal 
luogo, e si finalmente per la uniformila che ha Satan 
aleph, preaa aleph in questo senso, con gran nemico, che 
1' iatesao Dante appella Pluto nel precedents verso, 
ultimo del paseato canto. 

Quivi trovammo Pluto il gran nemico. 
Intendo io adunque che con queste per la foga interrotte 
e ripigliate voci brontoli Pluto irosamente seco atesao, ad 
ugual senso che ae detto avesae : ' Capperi Satanasso, 
capperi gran Satanasso ! ' E come in aria di proseguire : 
'cosi poco sei tu riipettato !' 

"11 Buti (citato nel Vocab. della Cr. alia voce 
aleppe), il Landino, il Vellutello, il Danielle, ed il Volpi 
riconoscendo essi pure in aleppe 1' Ebraico aleph, diconlo 
adoprato qui per interjezione di dolors in equivalenza 
al nostro ah. Io pero non trovo alcun maestro di lingua 
Ebraica che attribuiaca ad aleph cotal aignificazione. 

" Nel tomo 4. di tutte 1* opere di Dante stampate in 
Venezia del 1760 nella pag. 64. si riferiace quttl parti- 
colare e decisiva la apiegazione di queato verso fatta da 
Benvenuto Cellini ; in cui pretende che il pape formeto 
sia dal Francese paixpaix, ed aleppe altresi dul Franceae 
alez [tic]. 

" Ma (sia detto per amor della verita, e non pertogliere 
la dovuta stima a chi si adopera in favor delle lettere) 
oltre che a questo riguardp desidererebbesi che asaecon- 
dando Dante in tuttp cio che agevolraente poteva il 
Francese dialetto, scrittp avesse pe pe, e non pape : v* e 
d' avvantaggio,cbe il paix paix (zittozitto, cheto cheto) 
o direbbelo Pluto a se medesimo, esortando ad aver aoffe- 
renza, e mal gli si converrebbe quel rimbrotto di Virgilio 

taci maladetto lupo, 
Conauma dentro te con la tua rabbia ; 
o direbbelo a Dante ; e mal si converrebbe al quieto BUG 

" L' anonimo autore de' pregiabili aneddoti atampati 
in questi anni in Verona, per difficolta appoggiata eulla 
iupposizione, al Venturi e ad altri apositori comune, che 

Dite, il Re dell' Inferno, e Pluto aieno un aoggotto solo 

(conto 1* avvertimento porto in fine del pasaato canto) e 

i Satan nome sia non ad altri che al solo Lucifero 

apphcabile (contro il teate diviaato eignificare nella voce 

>atan) adotta il parer del Cellini fino a volere che per 

a ragione, aenza autoritii de' teati, correggasi il pape in 

pe pe, e che cotal Francese parlare miraeae a frizzare Io 

. quel tempo ancor vivente, ed al poeta inviao, Filippo il 

Lombardi died in 1802, and his "Nuovo Edi- 
tore " (who was he, by the way ?) adds : 

"II nuovo editore delle opere di Benvenuto Cellini 

(M ilano, 1806) Sig. Carpiani si uniace al nostro P. Lorn- 

bardi per riprovare questa opiriione. inoltre da vedersi 

intorno queato verao cio che dice il Sig. Prof. Michel' 

o Lanci nella sua dotta ' Disertazione au i verai di 

Nembrotte e di Pluto,' & c ., nella quale armato di buone 

ni ebraiche soatiene, che Dante abbia qui voluto ^ni- 

Ti moatra, Satanaaao ! Ti moatra nella maeata 

tuoi iplendori, principe Satanasao.' Ne da tacere 

la curioaa mterpretazione del Sig. Cav. Vincenzo Berni 

degli Antorn, recata nel fascicolo xiii. del giornale area- 

dico, la quale porta, che pape Satan son parole franceae 
aecondo il Cellini, e che aleppe viene da d Vepe [jtc] : 
onde del intendersi : ' Pape Satan, Pape Satan, all arm!.' 
A noi pare una coutradizione, che proyenendo il Pape 
da Paix Paix, Pace Pace, si gridi poi alia spada : ma 
queata contradizione atara forae bene in bocca del dia- 
volo ! II pas paix : niente pace di alcun' altro potrebbe 
esser piu ragionevole. Bello ancora e cio che ne dice il 
celebre Cav. Monti nelle sue ' Proposte di correzioni 
alia Cruaca.' " 

I am conscious of a more than average courage 
in leaning so reliantly towards, and quoting BO 
lengthily, my favourite commentator in the face of 
Mr. Gary's severity towards him ; but I am some- 
what emboldened to do so by the frequency with 
which he refers to him, and the concluding words 
of his stricture : 

" In our own times, has succeeded the Padre Lombardi 
(to him Pompeo Venturi). This good Franciscan, no 
doubt, must have given himself much pains to pick out and 
separate those eara of grain which had escaped the flail 
of those who had gone before him in that labour. But 
hia zeal to do aomething new often leada him to do some- 
thing that is not over wise ; and if on certain occasions 
we applaud his sagaciouanesa, on others we do not less 
wonder that his ingenuity should have been so strangely 
perverted. Hia manner of writing is awkward and 
tedious; hia attention, more than is necessary, directed 
to grammatical niceties ; and hia attachment to one of 
the old editiona so excessive as to render him disin- 
genuous or partial in bis representation of the rest, But 
to compensate this, he is a good Ghibelline; and hia 
opposition to Venturi seldom fails to awaken him into a 
perception of those beauties which had only exercised 
the spleen of the Jesuit." 

I regret having to join issue with the author of 
our classical English version of Dante ; but, singu- 
larly enough, the very indictments he brings against 
Lombardi have always endeared that " good Fran- 
ciscan " to me. But I tie myself to no commen- 
tator in particular in my reading of the ' Divina 
Commedia,' and so accept the suggestion of Signor 
Antoni as to aleppe and of the " alcun' altro " as 
to Pape, and thus frame the line : 

Pas paix, Satan ! pas paix, Satan ! a l'epe"e ! 
The sentence is meaningless if not French, and 
either Dante or his earliest transcribers Italianized 
it phonetically as it stands in printed editions ; 
and, rendered thus, it falls fittingly from the 
mouth of the arch-demon of the Fourth Circle, 
where no peace dwelt, but only ceaseless tread- 
mill unrest and relentless "war to the knife." 
The grammar may be questionable, judged by 
modern syntax, but it would probably pass muster 
in the thirteenth century. Why the poet should 
make Plutus speak French instead of Latin (the 
accredited language of saints and devils in the 
Middle Ages), I can only explain by surmising 
that it was done to display either his own (par- 
donable vanity !) or (as Lombardi asserts) the 
fiend's linguistic attainments. 

Lord Vernon paraphrases the line thus, "Qui 
qui Satan, qui qui Satan primeggia "; and adds, 
in a note : 



[8 S. V. MAR. 3, '94. 

"Pape, lat. papa, grec. Trairai, e interjezione di mara- 
viglia. Aleppe, da aleph, prima lettera dell' alfabeto 
ebraico, qui per capo, principe, &c. Si pu6 epicure : 
' oh ! Satanasso, oh ! Satanaseo, principe di queeti luoghi. 
Alcuni altri vogliono che questo primo verso sia tutto di 
parole ebraiche, e significhi : * resplendeat facies Satani, 
resplendeat facies Satani principis.' Vedine altre inter- 
pretation! nei commentatori." 

The note is of no value beyond furnishing a novel 
suggestion (similar to Lanci's), and showing how 
the passage almost baffles all comment. 

Longfellow, like Ford, leaves it untranslated, 
and curiously observes, in a note : 

" His [Plutns's] outcry of alarm is differently inter- 
preted by different commentators, and by none very 
satisfactorily. But nearly all agree, I believe, in con- 
struing the strange words into a cry of alarm or warning 
to Lucifer, that his realm is invaded by some unusual 
apparition. Of all the interpretations given, the most 
amusing is that of Benvenuto Cellini, in bis description 
of the Court of Justice in Paris (ut supra). Dante 
himself hardly seems to have understood the meaning 
of the words, though he suggests that Virgil did, 1 ' 

Longfellow is happier in his interpretation of 
'voce cbioccia" "clucking voice" than in his 
closing remark, which (with all respect to a poet I 
love) is sheer nonsense. Dante would hardly use 
words which only his guide understood ; the fact 
of suggesting that Virgil understood them proves 
that they were not without meaning to him also. 
He is nearer the truth in suggesting they were a 
" cry of alarm," which they possibly were, joined to 
one of defiance. Boyd (Dublin, 1785) looked upon 
them in this latter light, for he translates them so : 
* Prince of the Fiends," a voice exclaim'd, " arise ; 
Behold thy realms expos'd to mortal eyes ! " 

Wright also leaves the line untouched, and 
observes in a note : 

" This exclamation of Plutus, the god of riches, is evi- 
dently intended to frighten Dante, and seems to mean 
Avaunt, for Satan is Prince here.' The line is thus 
stopped, and explained by Signor Rossetti : ' Pap'e 
Satan, Pap'e Satan, Aleppe/ 'The Pope is Satan, the 
Pope is Satan, Prince.' " 

Wright's own explanation we can take for what it 
is worth the work of a painstaking and fairly 
successful translator and annotator but Rossetti's 
is surely as absurd as it is novel. The pheno- 
menal punctuation is not lacking in ingenuity, but 
that Plutus should transfuse Lucifer and the Pope 
into one personality is incredible even medianle 
Dante the Ghibelline. Antichrist and the Scarlet 
Whore were and are epithets often irreverently 
thrown at the Roman Bishop, but never Satan as 
yet. Popes and cardinals (with admirable breadth 
of view) the poet might consign to the infernal 
shades (in which he was imitated by Ariosto, 
1 Orlando Furioso,' c. xxvi. st. 32), as he actually 
does at line 47 in this same canto, 

Papi e Cardinal! 

In cui UBO avarizia il suo soperchio, 

but identify the Papal with the satanic majesty 
he certainly never did. 

With reference to future work on Dante, it is 
worth while to quote here (as a warning to all 
whom it may concern) the salutary advice of Mr. 
Gary towards the end of his life of the poet : 

' He who shall undertake another commentary on 
Dante, yet completer than any of those which have 
hitherto appeared, must make use of these four (those of 
Landino, Vellutello, Venturi, and Lombardi), but depend 
on none. To them he must add several others of minor 
note, whose diligence will nevertheless be found of some 
advantage, and among whom I can particularly distin- 
guish Volpi. Besides this, many commentaries and 
marginal annotations that are yet inedited remain to be 
examined ; many editions and manuscripts* to be more 
carefully collated ; and many separate dissertations and 
works of criticism to be considered. But this is not all. 
That line of reading which the poet himself appears to 
have pursued (and there are many vestiges in his works 
by which we shall be enabled to discover it) must be 
diligently tracked ; and the search, I have little doubt, 
would lead to sources of information equally profitable 
and unexpected." 

As a corollary to the above one might express 
the hope that all future references to Dante should 
be accompanied by canto and line. I am moved 
to make this observation by the following unsatis- 
factory remark in Max M tiller's ' Science of Lan- 
guage' (vol. il p. 44), which I happen to be read- 
ing : 

" Dante ascribed the first attempts at using the vulgar 
tongue in Italy for literary composition to the silent 
influence of ladies who did not understand the Latin 

Where does Dante assert this ? J. B. S. 



In the notice of Sir Edward Massey in ' The 
Dictionary of National Biography' (vol. xxxyii. 
pp. 2-5) there are two or three inaccuracies which 
should not be left uncorrected. On p. 3, at the 
top of col. 2, it is stated that 

" In September Massey destroyed Beachley Camp and 
took Monmouth (24 Sept.). But his success became the 
cause of failure. Massey could not garrison the places 
he bad won, and Beachley was retaken after a desperate 
struggle, in which Massey's head-piece was knocked off 
by the butt-end of a musket ; Monmouth and Chepstow 
were also taken by the Royalists." 

This was not so. Beachley was never retaken 
by the Royalists. It was reoccupied by them 
after Massey had left, and then retaken from 
them by Massey. The circumstances of its 
second capture were as follows : After Massey's 
departure for Monmouth, Sir John Winter, who 
was the only Royalist leader of any capacity that 
Gloucestershire possessed at this time, collected 
what forces he could, occupied the position near 

* <4 The Count Mortara has lately shown me many 
various readings he has remarked in collating the 
numerous MSS. of Dante in the Canonici collection at 
the Bodleian. It is to be hoped he will make them 
public (January, 1843)." Did the Count or any one 
else ever do so ? 

8* S. V. MAE. 3, '94.] 



Beachley from which Prince Rupert had been dis- 
lodged, and set about continuing the earthworks, 
the completion of which had been prevented by 
Massey's appearance. No sooner did Massey hear 
of these operations than he returned from Mon- 
mouth, which he had captured in the interval, and 
attacked Sir John in Beachley Camp, and a 
desperate encounter ensued. This was the occasion 
on which Masaey's head-piece was knocked off, but 
the engagement was to him anything but "a 
failure/' He gained the most complete victory, 
capturing 230 prisoners, while 30 of the enemy 
were slain, and many more drowned. 

This encounter took place on Oct. 14, 1644 ; 
hence Massey gained two victories on the very 
same spot within a month. 

In the sentence succeeding the one which I have 
quoted it is stated that " Massey failed to take 
Lydney, which was, however, soon deserted by the 
Royalists and fired." It was not the town of Lyd- 
ney, but Sir John Winter's house near Lydney, 
which Maesey failed to take, and which was after- 
wards deserted and fired. 

There is another inaccuracy which, although a 
trifling one, may as well be corrected. " Bruck- 
thorpe Hill," on p. 3, col. 1, should be Brookthorpe 

The article, though a fairly good compendium 
of the more important events in Massey's life, 
hardly does justice to his military capacity. 

By far the greatest work which Massey ever per- 
formed, and the one in which his qualities as a 
commander were most conspicuously displayed, was 
his defence of Gloucester (Aug. 10 to Sept. 5, 
1643) and yet this is summarily dismissed in a 
sentence of little over three lines. Massey's 
successful resistance on this occasion was very 
remarkable, as, beyond its political importance, it 
was a noteworthy military feat. In a town the 
walls of which were in a dilapidated condition 
and the inhabitants of which were, at least for a 
time, very half-hearted in their opposition to the 
king, with a garrison of only 1,500 men, he kept 
at bay an army of 30,000 men for the space of 
twenty-aix days. Clarendon, who was no friend of 
asey s, admits that all that could be done on 
ehalf of the city, by prudence, activity, or fore- 
sight had been done by Massey. In fact, the city 
e said to have been saved by the indomitable 

lergy and spirited tactics of this one man. At 
le end of the siege the Royalists had lost 1,500 

en, while the losses of the garrison amounted to 
only 50. 

His march from Tewkesbury to Beverston and 
Malmesbury, both of which he stormed and took 
n a single night, was such a dashing feat as to 
e something more than a bare mention. His 
imerous sallies from Gloucester, after the siege was 
raised and while the city was subjected to a kind 
I a remote blockade, on distant Royalist garrisons, 

were almost always successful. Indeed he deserved 
quite as much as his colleague Sir Wm. Waller 
the sobriquet of " the Night Owl." 

Painswick House, Gloucestershire. 

THE TRICOLOUR. (See 2 ud S. vL 164, 198, 214, 
335 ; viii. 192, 218 ; 7" S. ix. 384, 415 ; x. 157, 
174, 210, 314.) Among the recent acquisitions of 
the National Gallery is a remarkably fine Yernet, 
in the description of which is mentioned "a 
French schooner, flying the tricolor flag at her 
stern." Now Joseph Vernet died late in 1789. 
He painted a good many pictures after the taking 
of the Bastille, but the colours then, I believe, in 
use by the patriots were only red and blue. 
Moreover, this picture is earlier in date. Under 
the monarchy a tricolour flag was used, and is to 
be seen painted, among other places, at Fouquet's 
Chateau of Vaux. Bat it was the flag of the 
household neither the flag of the king nor of the 
country. The household liveries, the badges of 
the ladies-in-waiting, the flag of the household 
troops, were the tricolour. But there are tricoloura 
and tricolours ; and although that depicted in the 
picture is of the French colours, these colours 
are also the Dutch colours. As the so-called 
"schooner" is not a schooner at all, so one may 
perhaps question her being " French.' 1 But, although 
she flies at her masthead the Dutch pennant, the flag 
flying at her stern is the Dutch flag upside down ; 
and it is probably the flag of the French " inaison 
du roi." 

I may note that Yernet painted for the Dutch 
Government, but there is nothing to suggest Hol- 
land or Dutch exploits in this picture except the 
Dutch pennant. He was given to painting fantastic 
landscapes of the Levant, with operatic Turks 
smoking in the foreground ; and in 1780, for 
example, painted one such picture for the Due de 
Luynes, although that was a small one. A search 
among the three hundred engravings from Yernet 
which exist, or even among those in the Print 
Room and in the Estampes, would probably throw 
some light on the picture now in question ; but 
the man-of-war is no doubt as fantastic as were 
most of Vernet's "inventions," and the catalogue 
should omit " French schooner." 

76, Sloane Street, S.W. 

aversion of Victor Hugo's 'Angelo' is just now being 
rehearsed at a London theatre. It was a famous 
piece in 1835, when Mars as Thishe* and the 
Dorval as Catherine fetched all Paris. That, 
however, is " another story." 

My present concern with ' Angelo ' is that it 
was the occasion of the record thirteen dinner. 

In 1850, the play had been revived at the 
Francis, with Rachel and her sister, Rebecca 



. V. MAR. 3, '94. 

Felix, in the two famous parts ; and to celebrate 
this revival a dinner-party was given at the author's 
residence, in the Eue de la Tour d'Auvergne. 

Besides the hostess then the " splendid woman 
with dark flashing eyes " whom Dickens had lately 
seen and the Thisbe" and the Catherine, there 
were present two other ladies, the beautiful 
Mile. ' Brucy, who had lately become Madame 
Arsene Houssaye, and the lively Madame Emile 
de Girardin, the first lady journalist on the first 
penny paper. 

The men were the host and his two sons, Charles 
Hugo (the editor of the Evenement) and Fracois 
(the future translator of Shakespeare), Jacques 
Pradier (the statuettist), D'Orsay (the ex-King of 
London), Labrunie (better known as Gerard de 
Nerval, the lover of Jenny Cadine), Alfred de 
Mnsset (the " Enfant du Siecle"), and a young 
gentleman by the name of Perree, whose claims to 
distinction except that of having made the thir- 
teenth at table have not come down to us. 

The company struck no Ajax attitudes. No 
attempt was made to jog the elbow or to force the 
hand of Fate. But it was a most fateful sym- 
posium, all the same. 

A year later, the four Hugos were in exile. In 
1852 Pradier dropped to apoplexy, and his menin- 
gitis had got D'Orsay. In 1853 demised the 
youthful Perree. Re"becca Fe"lix, the youngest of 
the tribe, and Madame Houssaye, barely eight-and- 
twenty, died in 1854. Madame de Girardin went 
next, at fifty-one, in 1855. 

Gerard de Nerval " est-ce que vous ten? z ab- 
solument a mourir d'une mort horizontale ? " asks 
a personage in one of his novels died, perpen- 
dicularly, behind a door, on the anniversary of his 
Jenny's birthday, in 1856. Ten years the junior 
of the century, Musset followed in 1857. And 
Kachel herself died in 1858. 

" Et riez done," she wrote, a little while before, 
remembering these things, " et moquez-vous du 
Numero Treize." W. F. WALLER. 

"ESQUIRE" AS A TITLE, c. 1700. I take the 
following from a notice of the latest report of the 
Historical MSS. Commission in the Yorkshire Pout 
of Jan. 3 (p. 5). It appears in the Welbeck Abbey 
MSS. that Nathaniel Harley, merchant at Aleppo, 
the youngest brother of the minister, wrote thus : 

" Pray, sir, inform your dark who superscribes your 
letters, that no merchants are wrote Esqs. but fools, cox- 
combs, and cuckolds." 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

4 Dictionary ' has the following item : " Benethe, to 
begin. ' Cov. Myst.' " The passage from which 
this word with its gloss has been transferred to the 
* Dictionary ' was printed by Halliwell himself in 
the * Coventry Mysteries > (p. 145) as follows : 

^ow to plese ryght ffayn wold I, 

$itt women benethe to greve whau thei be with childe. 
Eighteen years previously, however, Hone, in his 
1 Ancient Mysteries/ had correctly printed bsn ethe 
and as correctly glossed " be easy." The fact that 
Halliwell was napping when he transcribed the 
MS. is of no consequence ; but what etymological 
idea was in his brain when he made his bold and 
unlucky guess ? Did he regard benethe as a synco- 
pation of be[gi]nethe ? F. ADAMS. 

DOME. In the first edition of his 'Etymological 
Dictionary,' Prof. Skeat made a curious slip, 
writing " Lat. ace. domum, a house, SO/AOS." Of 
course, he corrected this at once in his errata and 
addenda, p. 788, writing " O.F. dome, representing 
Low Latin doma, a house ; cf. * in angulo 
domatis,' Prov. xxi. 9, Greek <5w/za, a house." 
There is something odd in the history of the word. 
The Greek word occurs in the New Testament 
seven times, and is rendered " housetop " by our 
English versions, almost without exception, under 
Tyndale's influence. The Vulgate never uses 
"doma,"but "super tecta," "in tecto," and the 
like, except in Acts x. 9, where it has " in supe- 
riora," hence Wiclif's "in the highest place of the 
house," and the Rhemish " in to the highest parts." 
Wiclif gives "on housis," "in the house roof," 
" in the roof." The same Greek word in the Old 
Testament gives usually " tectum" in the Vulgate, 
as Psalm cii. 8, " passer in tecto," and Zeph. i. 5 ; 
or "in solario," 1 Sam. ix. 25, 2 Sam. xvi. 22, 
hence Wiclif's "in the solere." But where in 
Pror. xxi. 9 the Greek has a different word, ?rt 
ywvias v-rraCOpov, the Vulgate has "in angulo 
domatis," which the later Wicliffite version renders 
oddly " in the corner of an house with oute roof." 
I do not think that dome is known in the English of 
that date, but Wiclif himself uses the Latin word ; 
for in the ' De Blasphemia/ ch. vii. p. 97, he says 
that " prelates in their visitations ought wisely to 
preach Christ, and to cure the diseases of the soul, 
and not in the first place to mark the defects of the 
ornaments of the service-books, or of a roof, or a 
window," " notare defectusornamentorum codicum 
domatis vel fenestrse." Prof. Driver notes in the 
Expositor, December, 1893. p. 421, " Sw/xa is 
used uniformly in the LXX. not of the house 
generally, but specially of the housetop "; " and it 
has the same sense wherever it occurs in the Greek 
of the N.T." Before dome became English it 
seems to have been narrowed again, and to have 
become not a roof generally, but an arched roof of 
a special shape. 0. W. TANCOCK. 

Little Waltham. 

CROSS-LEGGED EFFIGIES. The intense vitali 
of old-fashioned absurdities is almost proverbial ; 
but one surely has a right to expect that a periodical 
claiming to be, as it once was, one of our leadi 
literary organs, should not make itself an ins 


S. V. MAR. 3, 



ment for the dissemination of old wives' fables 
For the last forty years, to say the least, no one 
claiming to possess even an inkling of antiquarian 
knowledge has believed in the old fancy that a cross 
legged effigy in a church denotes the burial place 
of a Crusader. Yet here we have the new numbe: 
of the Edinburgh Review declaring (p. 178) : 

" Wherever in an English church we find the cross 
legged monument of a thirteenth-century knigbt we 
know that one man of knowledge at least came home 
to tell others what the East was really likely." 

The perpetrator of this sentence writes on the 
Crusades. As I happened to see it before dipping 
into his essay, I do not suspect I have suffered 
much by going no further. J. LATIMER. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Can some one put me right in the interpretation 
of Quaker dates of the early part of the last cen- 
tury ? Before the change of style, when March 25 
began the year, which was the first month, and 
which the second? Would the date 25 ii. 1720 
be February 25 or May (or April) 25 ; and which 
year, 1720 or 1721? Was March considered the 
first month, or was April? If March, what dates 
would 21 i. 1720 and 26 i. 1720 be ? Would both 
those dates be in the same month of the same year ? 
Was such a date as March 14, 1720 (i.e., 1719/20), 
ever written 14 xiii. 1720 ? K 

MART Ho WITT'S POEMS. In preparing a biblio- 
graphy of above, I find that in the volume of 
' Birds, Flowers, and other Country Things,' pub- 
lished in 1838, tho poema * Wild Swans ' and The 
Use of Flowers ' are stated in the preface to have 
already appeared elsewhere. Can any one give me 
the reference ? It would probably be to one of the 
Annuals or Keepsakes so common in the thirties. 

W. S. 

R*v. CALEB C. COTTON. I shall be obliged for 
any particulars concerning the author of 'Lacon,' 
1 Hypocrisy,' &c. his connexion with the Samp- 
ford Ghost, his exquisite judgment of wine, his 
immense gains by gambling in Paris, and of the 
work be was writing at the time of his suicide, 
borne of his autographs were offered for sale two 
or three years ago. Who sold these ? 

H. T. SCOTT, M.D. 

Twettenbam Rectory, Cheshire. 

ARMIQIL. What is the origin of this Christian 
Mr. Froude refers to Armigil Wade, 

was at Lewes, in Sussex, a tavern keeper named 
Armagill Terry. The names were so painted over 
the door as to read like one word, and often puzzled 
me in my boyish day?. JAMES HOOPER. 


WOLFENBDTTEL. Where can I get information 
as to the Academy conducted here about the year 
1700 by M. Walter? 

Shankton Rectory, Leicester. 

Can you tell me the cause of the totally different 
opinions held by Rome and London with regard to 
the luck or ill-luck of peacocks' feathers ? Here 
they are supposed to be most unlucky, and in 
Rome the Pope, on state occasions, has number? 
of them carried before and behind him. 

A. G. M. 
[See 8> s. iv. 426, 631.] 

SPICILEGIUM. la there any collection BO well 
known as to be spoken of by this name alone, 
without any further indication of its sources or 
subjects ? I ask because in Ducange a dialogue of 
about A.D. 500, between a Christian and a philo- 
sopher, is referred to as being in " torn. 10 Spicileg. 

I should feel obliged for guidance to it. 


FIELDS. After the young king's he was only 
fifteen noble and spirited address to the rebels, 
in which he offered to be their leader, the chro- 
niclers Speed and Stow say that he led them into 
u the open Fields," and almost all the histories I 
can lay my hands upon use the same vague word?. 
One history, however, mentions Islington as the 
place to which they were led by the king, while 
Dr. Montgomery (Bishop of Tasmania), in his 
History of Kennington,' says he led them into 

II St. George's Fields." Can any one help me, at 
once, to say whether the latter is correct or not ? 
[ fancy Islington must be only a guess, just 
Because it would have been the nearest open 
country to Smithfield ; but St. George's Fields 
seems more probable, the king's idea being to dis- 
>erse them without bloodshed ; and, of course, at 
St. George's Fields they would be on their way 
nto Kent. We are also told that at Blackheath 
hey were overawed by 40,000 armed men, who 

gathered together immediately to support the king. 

should be grateful to any one who can make this 
matter a certainty for me. 


St. Saviour's, South wark. 

report of his speech in the House of Commons 

Clerk of the Council at the close of Henry VIII. 's ! on Jan. 11, 1744,*is said to have been printed as a 
reign (' History of England,' vi. 125, note). There separate pai 

pamphlet ('Parly. Hist.,' vol. xiii. p. 427, 



[8 S. V. MAR. 3, '94. 

note). Are there any copies of this pamphlet in 
existence ? It does not appear to be in the British 
Museum Catalogue. G. F. E. B. 

BENET HALL. At the end of last century, 
Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge, was often 
known by this name. When did it cease to be 


Eden Bridge. 

GREAT BURSTEAD, ESSEX. -In Morant's ' His- 
tory of Essex/ with reference to this parish, a 
quotation is given from the * Book of Chantries/ 
in which the village is called " a haven town/ 1 with 
a population of " 600 houselling people and more." 
I shall be extremely obliged if any one can give 
me information about the ' Book of Chantries/ or 
can explain how a village so far from the sea came 
by the designation of a " haven town." 


KEV. W. H. GUNNER. Would any Winchester 
correspondent kindly give me short biographical 
details of this local antiquary ? He was a frequent 
contributor to the Arcnceological Journal in its 
earlier days. T. CANN HUGHES. 


Would you kindly advise where the old saying 
or adage comes from of " The pitcher went to the 
well once too often " ? W. 0. IBWIN. 

1028 E, Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. 

obituary notices of Mr. Lloyd which appeared last 
December it was stated that he received his educa- 
tion at the Grammar School of " Newcastle." As 
I cannot find any trace of him in this town, will 
some one who knows kindly state which of the 
Newcastles is meant ; and if Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
what was the date of Mr. Lloyd's entry into the 
school? RICH. WELFORD. 

Gosforth, Newcastle- on-Tyne. 

"EPIGRAM." In what sense does Browning 
employ the word "epigram" in the two following 
passages ? 

Must a game be played for the sake of pelf ? 
Where a button goes 'twere an epigram 
To offer the stamp of the very Quelph. 

' The Statue and the Bust.' 
Since on better thought you break, as you ought, 
Vows words, no angel set down, some elf 
Mistook, for an oath, an epigram ! 

' The Worst of It/ in Dramatis Persons. 

ARMS WANTED. Can any correspondent say to 
what family (probably Dutch or Flemish, I think) 
this coat belongs ? It is dated 1598. Argent, on 
a chevron gules three lozenges of the first, be- 
tween three lions passant sable, langued of the 
second. The arms are on an old panel painting, 

and what I describe as "argent" may be "or"; 
but old varnish, &c , make it difficult to dis- 
criminate. ROBERT GUT. 

CRAPE. Where can I find information as to 
the early use of crape, particularly any explaining 
the origin of its use as a sign of mourning ? 

H. M. 

[See S' d S. ii. 418; S* S. be. 327; 7 th S. ii. 408, 497; 
iii. 52.] 

WILLIAM MAN, M.P. for Westminster, 1621 to 
1625. Was he identical with Sir William Man, 
who was knighted at Dover in February, 1641/2, 
and who, under the Long Parliament, served upon 
the Sequestration Committee for the City of Canter- 
bury, the Committees for Scandalous Ministers 
and for bringing in the Weekly Assessment, and 
various other Parliamentary committees for the 
city of Canterbury and the county of Kent ? 

W. D. PINK. 

LORD LAWRENCE. The 'Calendars of State 
Papers' minute a document (supposed date 1656) 
wherein one Thomas Browne, of Fulham, requests 
Lord Lawrence and the Council to grant him 
licence to erect and maintain a bowling green 
behind his house for the recreation of gentlemen. 
I would ask (1) Why was such permission needful? 
(2) What official position did Lord Lawrence hold? 
and (3) Who was Thomas Browne ] Possibly he 
was an innkeeper. CIIAS. JAS. FERET. 

CHARLES DICKENS. I have often wondered 
whether Mark Tapley was intended to be an 
embodiment of the philosophy of the Emperor 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, enshrined in the 
following sentence : 

" Remember, too, on every occasion which leads thee 
to vexation to apply this principle : not that this is a 
misfortune, but that to bear it nobly is good fortune." 

But, oddly enough, I have only lately noticed the 
similarity of the names. Will some one learned 
in Dickens lore say whether this was accidental ? 

J. J. F. 

" Liberal " first definitely used as a party name ? 
According to Dr. Brewer, in the ' Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable,' it was when Lord Byron and 
his friends set on foot the periodical called The 
Liberal. Lord Beaconsfield appears to have 
assigned a later date, for it was to the Reform 
period of Lord Grey that he was referring in his 
speech at the Crystal Palace on June 24, 1872, 
when he said : 

" Influenced in a great degree by the philosophy and 
the politics of the Continent, they [the Whigs] en- 
deavoured to substitute cosmopolitan for national prin- 
ciples, and they baptized the new scheme of politics with 
the plausible name of ' Liberalism.' " 


8S.V. MAK.3,'94.] 



LORD ST. JOHN. I should be glad if some one 
familiar with the period would explain the force 

of the allusions in the following quotations. The , ARRRF r>F PR APOVTP 

speeches were uttered under the circumstances ^ E CRACOVIE - 

following them : 1. " If X. were slain the matter ( 8 S - v - 88 -) 

were soon forgot just as the lord of Saint Johns The Parisians designated successively by that 
hath been slain and now no man speaketh of him." name the places of meeting frequented especially 
2. " If I might catch X., I would bring him to by the newsmongers in the three big pleasure 
Pountfrette." Y. and others, all in the livery of grounds in Paris the Luxembourg, Tuileries, and 
the Duke of Gloucester, in September, 1474, | Palais-Royal. From 1662 a group of idlers and 

chatterboxes was formed every day in the big 
horse chestnut tree and lime tree walk in the Luxem- 
bourg garden ; subsequently they were to be met 
on the Terrace des Feuillants, in the Jardins des 

entered on the lands of X., "a servant of the 
King's mother," and put him, as he alleged, in 
danger of his life. The above remarks were 
addressed to his wife. It is elsewhere alleged that 
on a previous occasion a certain man came to the 
same lands, " with 60 men of the lord of St. Johns 

Celestins, in the close of the Grands- Augustins, at 
the Arsenal, &c., and at last at the Palais-Royal. 

iuJV ic*uv4(7j TTILU \J\_r LJJCU. \JL LiLIC 1V1L4 \J i *_?U. IFUUilO I ' * wvjuw* ^ \MV 9 uuu. t w J,LOU c* u vuv JL. t* i c* io~ j.fc\J J 41. 

that was slain at Tewkesbury with Queen Mar- These various places of meeting possessed hundred 


w. c. w. 

SIR SIMEON STEWARD. In a very pleasant 
anthology of fairy poetry, edited by Arthur Edward 
Waite, in the "Canterbury Poets" series, there is 
a piece entitled * The Fairy King ' by Sir Simeon 
Steward. Who was Sir Simeon Steward ; and did 
he write any other poems? I do not find 
mention of him in any of my books, 
of pleasing fancy. 

years old trees, under which they speechified 
leisurely, drawing on the sand the plans of battles 
which they unalterably won. We do not know 
when exactly people began to call those trees 
arbres de Cracovie," but it seems not to be pre- 
vious to the year 1 700. The etymology is doubtful ; 
some say it comes from the partisans of the Prince 
de Conti, candidate in 1697 for the throne of Poland, 
This little | in competition with August III., Elector of Saxony; 
others think it comes from the long discussions 

poem is full of pleasing fancy. The idea of. ,., 

Oberon's bugle-horn being " made of the babling begun during the wars of Poland ; but the word 
Eccboe's tongue " is very quaint and pretty. The | seems to have been used previously, 
spelling seems to be more or less of the time of 
Shakespeare. I think Mr. A. H. Bullen could 

answer this question if he will be so kind (see 
N. & QY 7 th S. x. 456). 

[Sir Simeon Henry Lechmere Stuart succeeded, in 

Most likely it was a quiz appellation, familiar to 
our language and derived from bringing words 
together. A folio caricature, entitled * L'Arbre 
de Cracovie/ published in 1742, and described by 
M. Tournenx in the * Grande Encyclopedic,' con- 
firms the supposition. It represents, forming a 

1891, as seventh baronet, hia father, Sir Simeon Henry group under the celebrated tree, people belonging 
Stuart. He holds an important post under the City of 
London Corporation. An ancestor of his is possibly 
responsible for the poem in question.] 

to all classes of society, and whose satirical de- 
signation in the margin is followed by the word 

BULVERHITHE.-^ what manor is Bulverhithe I F f? m 175 fche 'f hio b u gt the place of 
near Hastings, situated ; and who was lord of the S^ 1 "* ""J 1 " a ** M , ch ^ nufc tre m ^ e 
manor in 1748 ? In that var a Dntrh ahin wan Pa l al -Royal which thenceforth was the only 
wrecked'off 7 ^ de Cracovie. ''But n i 1781 1 the Due 

correspondence of the period it is mentioned that C^s (the f tu Philippe-Ega hte) alienated a 

the best anchor and cable were claimed by the pa ' fc of **. ' Palaia R y a1 ' and the famous tree was 
TV.U_ _* XT .. , _ * - 1 cnoDDeQ on. 

Talltoe ow n nerTvarioa, Fo < farther Mcoant - M the I*" P^P"" 
manor. i n Su Mei ; baTlhZ. '" Ato5 en \ Che -" iM '- ' Epjtr. snr la prix dePort MahooV 1756. 
aehalf of the Crown or in his own right as lord of 
the manor does not appear. In the manor of East , r 

Bean, in Sussex, there is a custom entitling the m | A fS5? *7 1 

lord to the best anchor and cable of any ship w ."" en . ln 1781 and published in * Correspondance 
wrecked within the limits thereof C L S Lltt ^ de Grimm 'Paris, 1877-82, t xiii. 

pp. 12 sqq.; also Ed. Fourmer, ' v a A^ a w,.f*_ 

WALMESTOKK.-Would some one suggest Ihe "^' 4 "^ " M1 
origin of the name of this manor ? Is it from 
Woden? The place is about five miles from 

odensburgh, which is near Sandwich. 


Wingehwn, near Dover. 

1865, 8vo.; the ' Henriade 

riques,' t. viii. p. 261. 
47, Kue de Clichy, Paris. 


and Beau- 


" Arbre autrefois cclebre, au jardin du Palais- 
Royal, auprt'3 duquel se rassemblaient les nouvel- 
listes " (Littre', * Diet./ s. " Cracovie "). Larousse 
says it was so called "a cause des mensonges 



[8 th 8. V. MAR. 3, '94. 

de'bite's sons son ombrage par les nouvellistes qui 
s'y dunnaient rendez-vous pendant les troubles de 
la Pologne," and quotes the following from the 
* Henriade Travestie ': 

De ces nouvellistea enfin, 
Deguenilles, mourant de faim, 
Do ces hableurs paesant leur vie 
Dessous 1'arbre de Cracovie. 

The reference to Poland, however, is needless ; for 
"Cracovie" is phonomimetio (to coin a word) of 
craqiuerie, as " Cornouaille " was of cornardise. 
So Chambaud, under "Craqueur": "II eat de 
Cracovie, He is a gasconader." Some will say 
that we too have our arbres de Cracovie, and that 
they grow very plentifully in Hyde Park, the 
difference being that the " crackers " are dcbitcs by 
political spouters instead of nouvellistes. 


" Arbre de Cracovie, arbre autrefois celebre, au 
jardin du Palais-Royal [Paris], aupres duquel se 
rassemblaient les nouvellistes " (Littre", s.v. " Cra- 
covie"). A. BELJAME. 


INSTITUTE (8 th S. iv. 467 ; v. 32). Dr. Birk- 
beck's predecessor in the office of Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in the Glasgow Andersonian 
Institution was Dr. Garnett (appointed 1796). 
Dr. Garnett was a corresponding (or honorary, I 
forget which) member of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society. The " important 
omission" in Mr. Hudson's account of adult 
education is the absence of all reference to this 
well-known society a curious omission, for Mr. 
Hudson was " Secretary of the Manchester 
Athenseum." The Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society originated in a private 
meeting held weekly at the houses of several 
gentlemen at Warrington (where its first * Memoirs' 
were published). Many of its members were con- 
nected with the Presbyterian Academy of that 
town, where it was first organized and regular 
officers appointed in the winter of 1781. A paper 
was read (to be found in the first volume of 
' Memoirs ') on Jan. 9, 1782, by the Rev. Thomas 
Barnes, which is entitled ' A Plan for Promoting 
and Extending Manufactures by encouraging 
those Arts on which Manufactures principally de- 
pend.' From this very interesting paper I take 
the following : 

" I have imagined to myself a Plan, which appeared to 
me not impossible to be carried into execution, and im- 
portant enough to be attempted It is now more 

necessary than ever, that our artists and workmen in the 
different branches, shall be possessed of some degree of 
taste ; and taste ia only to be acquired by that general 
and miscellaneous knowledge, which it has been the 
object of this paper to recommend. Our manufactures 
must now have, not merely that strength of fabric, and 
that durability of texture, in which once consisted their 
highest praise. They must have elegance of design, 
novelty of pattern, and beauty of finishing In the 

present state of the Arts, capital improvements are not 
to be. in general, expected from those, who would, at first 
sight, appear most likely to make them ; I mean the 
workmen in different branches of mechanism. Turn 
your eyes to any of our numerous manufactures. You 
find every division of mechanical labour, executed by a 

separate set of workmen I have ventured to chalk out 

the outlines of a Plan, the sole object and principle of 
which is the improvement of our Manufactures, by the 
improvement of those arts, on which they depend. Those 
arts are Chemistry and Mechanism." 

The objects of this scheme were (he goes on to 
say) to provide a public repository for chemical 
and mechanic knowledge; models of machinery; 
processes of silk, woollen, linen, and cotton manu- 
facture were to be delineated ; assortments of in- 
gredients used in dyeing, printing, &c., were to 
be kept for the purpose of experiment. A super- 
intendent was to be appointed well versed in 
chemical and mechanic knowledge whose province 
also was to give, at certain seasons and under cer- 
tain regulations, lectures, advice, and assistance ; 
and lastly, the expense was to be defrayed by a 
subscription, every subscriber to have the power of 
nominating one or more to receive the advantages 
of this " Institution." 

"Something similar to this has been done by the 
Society of Arts. But the two plans are essentially dif- 
ferent. They give praemiums ; but they have no Lectures, 
or modes of Instruction. Our plan would be desirable in 
every large town, and particularly in the center of every 
important manufacture." 

Such was Dr. Barnes's " plan in rudest outline " 
of "this mechanic school," which was to be a 
"general oracle for those engaged in mechanical 

Accordingly, we find from vol. ii. of the 
' Memoirs ' (1785) that at that date lectures had 
been delivered in different branches of science 
during the two previous winters at the "College 
of Arts and Sciences, Instituted at Manchester, 
June 6, 1783," the fiist report of which, printed 
in 1783, is also reproduced : 

" This Institution is intended to provide a course of 
liberal education, compatible with the engagements of 
commercial life, favourable to all its higher interests, 
and at the same time preparatory to the systematic 

studies of the University Regulations ii. That 

Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday be the days 
appointed for the lectures, in the ensuing session ; and 
that the time of lecturing be from about pix to about 
nine o'clock in the evening, with the intermission of about 
half-an-hour, or an hour." 

From an account of Mr. Henry, F.R.S., in the 
'Memoirs' (Second Series, iii. 1819) I take this 
extract : 

" In 1783 an Institution arose out of this [the M. Lit, 

and Phil.] Society destined to occupy in a ratior 

and instructive manner, the evening leisure of you 
men, whose time during the day was devoted to com 

mercial employments For this purpose regular courses 

of lectures were delivered on the Belles Lettres, Moral 
Philosophy, Anatomy and Physiology, Natural Philo 
eophy. and Chemistry. Mr. Henry, assisted by a sc~ 
whose loss he had afterwards to deplore deliver 








several courses of lectures on Chemistry to numerous an 
attentive audience*;. From causes which it is not easy tc 

trace but [partly] from a superstitious dread o 

the tendency of science to unfit young men for th< 
ordinary details of business this excellent Institution fel 
into decay. Mr. Henry, however, continued his lecture 

long after its decline Besides the Lectures on the 

general principles of Chemistry, Mr. Henry delivered a 
course on the arts of Bleaching, Dyeing, and Calico 
Printing ; and to render this course more extensive^ 
useful, the terms of access to it were made easy to the 
superior class of operative artisans." 

I have no precise details of Dr. Anderson's lee 
tures at Glasgow, to some of which artisans were 
admitted, but I believe that this was subsequen 
to the establishment of the Manchester " Colleg< 
of Arts and Sciences," which, therefore (I speak 
under correction), is the first Mechanics' Institute 
As to this term, in the 'Life' of Major Cartwrigh 
(the "father of reform") there js a letter from 
Cartwright to Birkbeck in 1823 (I am relying on 
my memory), where the London Mechanics' In- 
stitution is called the " Institute," and referred to 
later on as an " institution." J. P. OWEN. 

48, Comeragh Road, West Kensington. 

P. S. During the first quarter of this century 
the proper name " Institute " was usually confined 
to the French Institut, before the foundation of 
which (1795) the term seems not to have been em- 
ployed in this sense in English. 

" OZENBRIDGBS" (8 th S. v. 87). "Osenbridge" 
was formerly a variant with " Osnaburg," correctly 
Osnabriick. I copy the following from Rees's 

" Osnalurght, a kind of coarse linen imported from 
Germany : of which there are two kinds ; the one white, 
and the other brown. The manufacture of the white is 
well understood in our own country ; but the method prac- 
tised in Germany of manufacturiug the brown sort, and of 
giving it its peculiar colour, is not known. Some have 
supposed, that it depends on the manner of bleaching the 
flax, and others on that of bleaching the yarn after it is 

Jamieson in his Scottish dictionary gives a his- 
tory of its manufacture in Angus. The 'Century 
Dictionary' describes it as a coarse cloth made of 
flax and tow ; but there is, at any rate in the 
United States, a kind, of apparently recent fabri- 

ktion, called "cotton osnaburgs." Any good linen- 
draper would be able, I suppose, to show your 

jrrespondent a sample of present-day osnaburgs, 
and probably to inform him for what purposes the 
material is used. F. ADAMS. 

Does it not mean " hosen breeches "? Halliwell, 

Provincial Dictionary,' has " Breeches or 

stockings, or both in one. The hose appears to 

nave had various shapes at different periods," under 

the heading Hose." PAUL BIERLET. 

HERALDIC (8* S. v. 127). The heraldic charge, 

sembhng the capital letter T, about which MR. 

PEACOCK inquires, is a cross couped of one of its 

limbs. He may find it figured in Boutell's great 
work on 'Heraldry,' plate iii. fig. 58, and in his 
smaller ' English Heraldry,' p. 55, fig. 93. 

Biisingfield, Basingetoke. 

"SUPPLY" (8 th S. iv. 527). The verb supply 
in the quotation given by your correspondent 
seems to be used as equivalent to "provide o 
furnish with what is required," a meaning for 
which we have the authority of Shakespeare : 
A nt. Yet, to supply the ripe wants of my friend, 
I '11 break a custom. 

1 Merchant of Venice,' I. iii. 64-5. 
Flav. He 's flung in rage from this ingrateful seat 
Of monstrous friends, nor has he with him to 
Supply his life, or that which can command it. 

1 Timon of Athens,' IV. ii. 45-7. 

ACCOUNTS (8 tb S. v. 49). Halliwell, in his ' Dic- 
tionary of Archaic and Provincial Words/ gives 
the following explanations of lewn and lestal : 

" A tax, or rate, or lay for church or parish dues. A 
benefaction of forty shillings is payable to the parish of 
Wai-all to ease the poor inhabitants of their lewnet. See 
Carlisle on Charities, p. 296." 

" Letlal. saleable, applied to things of good and proper 
weight. Leyttals occur in Ben Jonson, i. 59." 


71, Brecknock Road. 

v. 91). The centrifugal railway was registered 
under the Designs Act, by Hutchinson, Higgins, 
and others, on April 14, 1842 (No. 1196). It is 
mentioned in the Liverpool Courier, April 20, as 
having been shown some time previously at an 
exhibition organized by the Mechanics' Institution 
in that town. A drawing of the railway, copied 
from that deposited at the Registration of Designs 
Office, is given in the Mechanics' Magazine, May 7, 
1842, p. 360. About fifty years ago I cannot give 
the exact date there was a centrifugal railway on 
rather a large scale on a piece of ground close to 
the London and Greenwich Railway; but a fatal 
accident having happened, it was taken down at 
the instance of the police, as I have been informed. 
The subject was discussed in the " Local Notes 
nd Queries " column of the Birmingham Weekly 
Post in September and October, 1884 (Nos. 1551, 
1573, 1578, 1585, 1586, 1604), from which it 
appeared that the centrifugal railway formed one 
f the attractions of Ryan's circus about the year 
839. A model was shown at the meeting of the 
British Association in Birmingham in the year 
ibove named. Another correspondent says that 
he saw it at the St. Helena Gardens, Rotherhithe, 
n 1849. R. B. P. 

BRBAKING GLASS (8 th S. iv. 243, 315 ; v. 96). 
There used to be a superstition in the North 



[8 th S. V. MAR. 3, 'S4. 

of England that breaking a looking-glass or having 
one broken in the bouse brought ill-luck to the 
occupants. But this is quite different from being a 
" glass-breaker," which was often applied to houses 
where the inhabitants were notoriously intempe- 
rate. In the * Antiquary ' Miss Griselda Oldbuck 
says, " We never were glass-breakers in this house, 
Mr. Lovel " (chap. ix.). In the ' Bride of Lammer- 
moor ' we read that at Wolf's Crag " glasses, those 
more perishable implements of conviviality, many 
of which had been voluntarily sacrificed by the 
guests in their enthusiastic pledges to favourite 
toasts, strewed the stone floor with their frag- 
ments n (chap. vi.). Coming to modern times, 
in ' Dombey and Son ' we read of the faded beauty 
the Hon. Mrs. Skewton, who asked "for rose- 
coloured curtains for the doctors," and up to the 
last wore decolletee dresses, that in early days she 
had been a great toast, and that bucks had thrown 
glasses over their heads in her honour. This would 
be in the first decade of the present century. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

HENCHMAN (7 th S. ii. 246, 298, 336, 469 ; iii. 
31, 150, 211, 310, 482 ; 8 th S. iii. 194,389, 478 ; 
iv. 16). I fail to see any cause for PBOF. SKEAT'S 
extreme jubilation. HERMENTRUDE does, indeed, 
give the form henxtman as in use in 1400; but, if 
PROF. SKEAT will take the trouble to re-read her 
note attentively, he will find that, so far from 
giving this as the oldest form (as PROF. SKEAT has 
understood her), she quotes the form henxsman as 
occurring twenty-one or twenty-two years earlier, 
viz., in 1378-9. The real state of the case is, 
therefore, that one solitary henxtman is sandwiched 
in between one earlier henxsman and many later 
henxmans. Under these circumstances, I think 
that, until further examples of henxtman have been 
discovered, I am justified in holding that the t is a 
mere added letter, due to the immediately pre- 
ceding letters nx. At any rate, there is a decided 
tendency in English to add a final t after ns and 
even after *. Comp. the old onste (Hall.) still in 
use with the pronunciation wunst, with the Germ. 
einst (in O.H.G. and M.H.G. eines Kluge) ; and 
also against , amidst, whilst, &c. I do not, indeed, 
find the t added to nx, with which letters so few 
English words end ; but the ngst in amongst and 
alongst (Hall.) comes very near it; and comp. also 
betwixt. The s too in henxsman is evidently a 
superfluous letter. 

PROF. SKEAT now says: "I have always con 
tended that it [henchman] represents the Dutch 
hengst compounded with man." But, if he wil 
refer to his 'Dictionary' and to his notes in ' N. & Q., 
he will find that this is the first time he has limitec 
himself to Dutch. In his ' Diet.' he derives the 
word from "M.E. hengest (cognate with Du. anc 
G. hengst, Swed. and Dan. hingst), a horse, anc 
E. man" In his first note (7 th S. ii. 246) in 

N. & Q.' he does not seem to mention the Dutch 
kengst at all, but after quoting from Schiller's 
M.L.G. Diet.,' he goes on to say: "I suspect 
hat the word was borrowed from the Continent 
ihortly after 1400." It is evident, therefore, that 
when PROF. SKBAT wrote the words which I have 
quoted at the head of this paragraph he was con- 
sulting his memory only. Still, I quite understand 
his present limitation to Dutch, for, in the first 
>lace, Dutch has supplied more words to Mid. 
Sng. than German has ; an